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THE HEART OF MIDLOTHIAN. When the mists of doubt are scattered in the

sudden sun of truth,
W. E, GLADSTONE.
MARCH, 1880.

And the wearied face of Honor puts on an CLEARER than the note of trumpet, pealing to immortal youth; the islands forth,

Where the laurel waits the patient, where the Borne upon the ringing echoes of the strong prize is for the sure, and steadfast north,

Where the conscious rest eternal waits the To the folly of the foolish, to the blindness of

vexed ones who endure, the blind,

Thou at least - or faiths are fables, and the Crushing down with voice of manhood half the

truth of truths a lie childhood of mankind,

Hast thy welcome waiting for thee where the Thou hast spoken well and bravely, tho' the welcomes shall not die. threescore years and ten,

H. M. Which of old the royal Psalmist shadowed to

the strength of men, Have in true, God-fearing courage o'er thy

life of purpose sped, And have left their mark, as ever, on the loved and honored head.

AGE. If thy strength be toil and sorrow, prince to all the strong spells of passion slowly breakus, we turn to thee :

ing, Feed our strength from out thy weakness, –

Its chains undone, joy for us such sorrow be !

A troubled sleep that dreams to peaceful Chief of all we hold the dearest - looking ever

waking, as of yore

A haven won. To the pole-star set to guide us in the heaven forevermore

A fire burnt out to the last dead ember, Fearless of the cry of faction, though the

Left black and cold ; people's puzzled will

A fiery August unto still September For a time be swayed against thee, steady for

Yielding her gold. the people still, Careless of a court's disfavor, smiling such a dawn serene, the windy midnight over, disfavor down,

The darkness past, Jealous more than fawning courtiers for the Now, with no clouds or mists the day to cover, honor of the crown,

The day at last. Speed thee in the course thou steerest, speed

thee He thou serv'st so well : Men may think the servant stumbles; such a Thou hast thy prayed-for peace, O soul, and servant never fell.

quiet Whence, but from a source eternal, whence,

From noise and strife, but from a power divine,

Now yearn forever for the noise and riot Ever yet has time worn statesman gathered

That made thy life.

H. E. CLARKE, such a strength as thine ? Rivals yet in word may spurn thee, – ay, and

to their latest hour Fate may still in seeming grace them with the

mockery of power ;
And, if so the will has willed it, standing as

SONNET.
He willed to stand,
With the universal framework in the hollow of The rain falls softly on the window eaves,
his hand,

And whispers lowly to the rustling grass, Thou the first to feel and own it, thou the first And loads the winds' dusk pinions as they pass to bend and bow,

To shake the glittering moisture on the leaves. Thou hast done thy best and manliest, not a The rain sweeps where the great sea swells rood hast yielded thou.

and heaves,

And dimples all the locked lakes' living glass ; Therefore, when old Time surrenders his im. The rain sobs round the home whose light she perial diadem,

was, And upon the grave of story writes its final As with the hearts left desolate it grieves. requiem ;

And listening to its murmur all alone, When the glistening sands of statecraft perish I set its cadence to my yearning sorrow, in the whelming tide,

And love's mute longing for the darling gone, Temples reared to wrong and falsehood fall From nature's wail seems strength renewed to to ruin side by side;

borrow, When the idol Self is tumbled from that ped. Till I can hear the dull plash on the clay, estal of hers,

Of that dear new-made grave, broad leagues Laughing-stock of men and angels, with her away. startled worshippers ;

All the Year Round.

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From The Nineteenth Century. ing altogether traversed a distance of THE DEEP SEA AND ITS CONTENTS.

nearly seventy thousand nautical miles When, in June 1871, I placed before (or nearly four times the earth's equatoMr. Goschen, then first lord of the ad- rial circumference), and having, at intermiralty, the scheme I had formed for a vals as nearly uniform as possible, estabscientific circumnavigation expedition, 1 lished three hundred and sixty-two stated as its general object “ the exten- observing stations along the course travsion to the three great oceanic areas ersed. This course was, for various the Atlantic, the Indian and Southern, reasons, anything but a direct one. In and the Pacific - of the physical and the first year the Atlantic was crossed biological exploration of the deep sea, and recrossed three times each way; and which has been tentatively prosecuted by a diversion was made from Bermuda to my colleagues and myself, during a few Halifax, and back again, for the special months of each of the last three years, on purpose of examining the phenomena of the eastern margin of the North Atlantic, the Gulf Stream. This first part of the and in the neighboring portion of the voyage terminated at the Cape of Good Mediterranean." Those researches had Hope; from which a fresh start was made been regarded by the scientific public - for Kerguelen's Land, on which Captain not of this country only, but of the whole Nares was directed to report in regard to civilized world - -as of extraordinary in the sites most suitable for the observation terest; not only for the new facts they of the approaching transit of Venus. had brought into view, and the old falla- Thence the “Challenger” proceeded due cies which they had exploded, but for the south towards the Antarctic ice-barrier; new ideas they had introduced into va- and, after making the desired observarious departments of scientific thought. tions along its margin, she proceeded to And I felt myself justified in expressing Melbourne, Sydney, and New Zealand, the confident belief “that the wider ex- | The next portion of her voyage was detension and systematic prosecution of voted to an examination of the western them will be fruitful in such a rich har- part of the great Pacific area, with a divervest of discovery as has been rarely sion into the adjacent part of the Malay reaped in any scientific inquiry.”

Archipelago; and it was when proceeding The Challenger” expedition, thus almost due north from New Guinea to originated, was fitted out in the most Japan, that her deepest sounding (the complete manner, everything being done deepest trustworthy sounding yet made) which skill and experience could suggest of 4,475 fathoms — 26,850 feet, or more to make it a complete success. A ship than five miles was obtained. From was selected whose size and construction Japan her course was shaped almost due rendered her peculiarly suitable for the east, keeping near the parallel of 380 N. work; she was placed under the com-as far as the meridian of the Sandwich mand of Captain (now Sir George) Nares, Islands, so as to traverse about two-thirds than whom no more highly qualified head of the North Pacific; and then, taking a could have been chosen. In the work of southern direction, she proceeded first to the ship he had the zealous co-operation that group, and thence across the equator of a selected staff of naval officers; whilst to Tahiti, thus making a north and south for the direction of its scientific work the course through tie tropical Pacific. From expedition had the advantage of the ser- Tahiti she' proceeded S.E. towards Cape vices of Professor (now Sir) Wyville Horn, with a detour to Valparaiso; and Thomson, with five assistants, ea of after passing through the Straits of Mawhom had already shown special profi- gellan, touching at the Falkland Islands, ciency in the particular department com- and putting in at Montevideo, she promitted to his charge.

ceeded eastwards halfway across the The expedition left Sheerness on the South Atlantic, to complete the E. and 7th of December, 1872, and returned to W. section partly taken in the first year Spithead on the 24th of May, 1876; hav- of the voyage on the parallel of the cape.

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Changing her course to the north she ran | rious inquirers into the different branches a N. and S. line as far as the equator, in of this subject, who are at present anxthe meridian of Madeira; and then, turn- iously waiting for it. And, in like maning N.W., and keeping at some distance ner, the enormous collection of marine from the African coast, got into the mid- animals that has been most carefully made dle line of the North Atlantic, which she along the whole of the “Challenger's" followed past the Azores; after which she course, and at various depths from the bore up for home.

surface down to more than four miles At each of the observing stations a the locality and depth from which every sounding was taken for the determination specimen was obtained having been acof the exact depth; the bottom tempera- curately recorded attests the entire ture was accurately ascertained; a sam- success of the biological portion of the ple of bottom water was obtained for “ Challenger’s” work. But here, again, chemical and physical examination; and a however great the amount of work done, sample of the bottom itself was brought much more remains to do, in the "workup, averaging from one ounce to one ing up” of this most valuable material. pound in weight. At most of the stations, It has been distributed among naturalists serial temperatures also were taken; i.e. of the highest competence in their respecthe temperature of the water at several tive departments, each of whom will different depths between the surface and report separately upon his own subject. the bottom was determined, so as to en- And only when all these separate reports able “sections” to be constructed, giving shall have been published, which cannot what may be called the thermal stratifica- be for some years, will it be possible to tion of the entire mass of ocean water give any general résumé of the zoological along the different lines traversed during results of the expedition. But in the the voyage; and samples of sea-water study of the bottom deposits more progress were also obtained from different depths. has been made; and Mr. Murray-one At most of the stations a fair sample of of the “Challenger ” scientific staff, who the bottom fauna was procured by means was specially charged with this departof the dredge or trawl: while the swim- ment during the voyage - has already ming animals of the surface and of inter- arrived at some results of such remarkamediate depths were captured by the use ble interest, as fully to justify the belief I of a “tow-net,” adjusted to sweep through had expressed to Mr. Goschen, “ that the the waters in any desired plane. And key to the interpretation of much of the while the direction and rate of any sur- past history of our globe is at present face current were everywhere determined lying at the bottom of the sea, waiting by methods which the skilful navigator only to be brought up." can now use with great precision, at- I have been so often asked, “What has tempts were made to determine the direc- the “Challenger' expedition done for tion and rate of movement of the water at science ?” that, notwithstanding what I different depths, wherever there was any have shown to be the impossibility of at special reason for doing so. In addition present giving more than a very inadeto all this, which constituted the proper quate idea of the results of its work, I work of the expedition, meteorological shall now endeavor briefly to show what and magnetic observations were regularly light these results have thrown on a few taken and recorded.

general questions of great interest; some The mass of accurate information, and of which were first opened up in our preof materials from which accurate informa- vious deep-sea explorations, while on tion

may be obtained, which has thus been others not apparently related to it, the collected in regard to the physics of the “Challenger” researches have been found ocean, affords a vast body of data, for to cast an unexpected light. scientific discussion of which, when it The question which naturally takes the shall have been fully published, advantage first place in order is that of the depth and will doubtless be eagerly taken by the va- configuration of the ocean basins, as to

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which little had been previously learned | islands which rise from the bottom of the with certainty, except in the case of the sea, as mountain peaks and ridges rise North Atlantic, which had been carefully from the general surface of the land, the sounded along certain lines with a view to proper oceanic area is a portion of the the laying of telegraph cables. The first crust of the earth which is depressed with systematic survey of this kind brought out tolerable uniformity some thousands of a set of facts which were then supposed feet below the land area, whilst the bands to be exceptional, but which the sound of shallow bottom which usually border ings of the “Challenger," taken in con- the existing coast-lines are to be regarded nection with those of the United States as submerged portions of the adjacent ship “Tuscarora" and the German “Ga- land platforms. The form of the dezelle," have shown to be general; viz. pressed area which lodges the water of (1) that the bottom sinks very gradually the deep ocean, is rather, indeed, to be from the coast of Ireland, westward, for a likened to that of a flat waiter or tea-tray, hundred miles or more ; (2) that then, not surrounded by an elevated and steeply far beyond the hundred-fathom line, it sloping rim, than to that of the “basin” falls so rapidly that depths of from twelve with which it is commonly compared. hundred to fifteen hundred fathoms are And it further becomes obvious that the met with at only a short distance further real border of any oceanic area inay be west; (3) that after a further descent to a very different from the ostensible border depth of more than two thousand fathoms, formed by the existing coast-line. the bottom becomes a slightly undulating Of this difference between the shallow plain, whose gradients are so low as to water covering submerged land, and the show scarcely any perceptible alteration deep sea that fills the real ocean basins, of depth in a section in which the same we have nowhere a more remarkable ex-. scales are used for vertical heights and ample than that which is presented to horizontal distances ; * and (4) that on us in the seas which girdle the British the American side as on the British this Islands. These are all so shallow, that plain is bordered by a very steep slope, their bed is undoubtedly to be regarded leading up quickly to a bottom not much as a continuation of the European contiexceeding one hundred fathoms in depth, nental platform; an elevation of the northwhich shallows gradually to the coast-western corner of which, to the amount line of America. Nothing seems to have of only one hundred fathoms, would restruck the " Challenger” surveyors more unite Great Britain to Denmark, Holland, than the extraordinary flatness (except in Belgium, and France, and would bring it the neighborhood of land) of that de into continuity with Ireland, the Hebpressed portion of the earth's crust which rides, and the Shetland and Orkney forms the floor of the great oceanic area : Islands. Not only would the whole of the result of one day's sounding enabling the British Channel be laid dry by such a tolerably safe guess to be formed as to an elevation, but the whole of the North the depth to be encountered on the follow- Sea also, with the exception of a narrow ing day; and thus, if the bottom of the mid- deeper channel that lies outside the ocean were laid dry, an observer standing fiords of Norway. Again, the coast-line on almost any spot of it would find him- of Ireland would be extended seawards self surrounded by a plain only compara- to about one hundred miles west of Galble to that of the North American prai- way, and that of the western Hebrides ries or the South American pampas. to beyond St. Kilda; but a little further

Thus our notions of the so-called west, the sea-bed shows the abrupt de“ocean basins” are found to require con- pression already spoken of as marking siderable modification; and it becomes the commencement of the real Atlantic obvious that, putting aside the oceanic area. A like rapid descent has been

traced outside the hundred-fathom line in Sections drawn (as is usual) with a vertical scale enormously in excess of the horizontal, altogether mis- the Bay of Biscay (a considerable part of represent the real character of the oceanic sea-bed.

which would be converted into dry land

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by an elevation of that amount), and along parts of the great area it divides were the western coast of Spain and Portugal, sufficient to raise most of each into dry where, however, it takes place much land. And thus we may view the whole nearer the existing land border. The area extending from south-eastern Asia soundings of the U.S.S. “Tuscarora” in to South Australia as a vast land platform the North Pacific have shown that a like (partly submerged), of which the great condition exists along the western coast fissure that divides it into two distinct of North America; a submerged portion zoological provinces may be considered of its continental platform, covered by as corresponding with the great break comparatively shallow water, forming a made by the Mediterranean in the continbelt of variable breadth outside the exist- uity between Europe and Africa, and that ing coast-line, and the sea-bed then de- made by the Gulf of Mexico and the Cascending so rapidly as distinctly to mark ribbean Sea in the continuity between the real border of the vast Pacific depres- North and South America. There is sion. And as similar features present generally a very marked contrastin elethemselves elsewhere, it may be stated as vation between the slightly submerged a general fact that the great continental portions of this land platform, and the platforms usually rise very abruptly from deep sea-floors in its neighborhood; the the margins of the rcal oceanic depressed descent from the former to the latter

being very abrupt. On the other hand, a depression of the Now these facts remarkably confirm existing land of northern Europe to the the doctrine long since propounded by same or even half that amount, would the distinguished American geologist, cause very extensive areas of what is now Professor Dana, when reasoning out the dry land to be overflowed by sea; the probable succession of events during the higher tracts and mountainous regions original consolidation of the earth's crust, alone remaining as representatives of the and its subsequent shrinkage upon the continental platform to which the sub-gradually contracting mass within, — that merged portions equally belong. This, these elevated areas now forming the as every geologist knows, has been, not continental platforms, and the depressed once only, but many times, the former areas that constitute the existing ocean condition of Europe ; and finds a singular floors, were formed as such in the first parallelism in the present condition of instance, and have remained unchanged that great continental platform, of which in their general relations from that time the peninsula and islands of Malaya are to the present, notwithstanding the vast the most elevated portions. For the Yel- disturbances that have been since pro

low Sea, which forms the existing boun- duced in each by the progressive contracen dary of south-eastern Asia, is everywhere tion of the earth's crust. For this general

so shallow, that an elevation of a hundred contraction, coupled with the unequal fathoms would convert it into land; while bearing of the different parts of the crust half that elevation would lay dry many of upon one another, has been the chief the channels between the Malay Islands, agency in determining the evolution of so as to bring them into continuity not the earth's surface features, producing only with each other but with the conti-local upheavals and subsidences alike in nent of Asia. And Mr. Wallace's ad- the elevated and depressed areas; so that mirable researches on the zoology of this lofty mountains and deep troughs have region have shown that such continuity been formed, with plications and contorundoubtedly existed at no remote period, tions of their component strata; metaits mammalian fauna being essentially morphism of various kinds. has been Asiatic. On the other hand, a like eleva- produced in their rocks; and volcanic tion would bring Papua into land-continu-action, with earthquake phenomena inity with Australia ; with which, in like volving extensive dislocations of the manner, the intimacy of its zoological re- crust, have been repeated through suclations shows it to have been in former cessive geological periods, mostly along connection. The Indo - Malay province particular lines or in special areas; withis separated from the Papuo-Australian out making any considerable alteration in province by a strait, which, though nar- the position of the great continents, or row, is so much deeper than the channels in the real borders of the oceanic areas, which intervene between the separate though the amount of the continental members of either group, that it would areas that might be above water, and the still remain as a fissure of considerable position of their coast-lines, might vary. depth, even if the elevation of the two greatly from time to time.

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