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at all times, and are still, what may be with the object of obtaining money. caled duplicate titles. There were two When it was first instituted, most of the Lord Berkeleys, whose names constantly grand territorial families of the country occur in Pepys's diary, to the great con- were represented on its roll. The first fusion of the reader. Such titles still baronets stipulated to maintain thirty foot exist. Thus there are two Barons How- soldiers in Ireland at eightpence per ard and two Barons Napier, although they diem, for three years, as Sir Oliver Lamhave distinguishing affixes. There are bert had just reduced the province of two Barons Monteagle; and, although Ulster. The Scottish order originated one of them is known by his Irish title of shortly afterwards in the project for the Marquis of Sligo, he sits in the House of colonization of Nova Scotia. There has Lords by right of his English barony. been one — and only one — baronetess

Time and changed circumstances have created, viz. Dame Mary Bolles, of Osberrobbed the nobleman of much of his ton, Notts, who was in 1635 elevated to a grandeur in relation to others of less ex- baronetcy of Scotland, with remainder to alted rank, but he still retains many priv- her heirs whatsoever. ileges. What they are may be read in Mr. Foster has made the baronetage a the Peerages.” These are plentiful special feature of his book. Each baroenough, for first there are the historical net has his lineage set forth, and his works of Dugdale, Collins, Nicolas, and sisters and his cousins and his aunts "are Comthope, and then the more popular all mentioned. But — for there is a butbooks of Lodge, Burke, and Dod, so little what will be the criticism on his work by room seemed to be left for a new-comer. those unfortunate sixty gentlemen whose Yet Mr. Joseph Foster * has presented to claims to the dignity are not considered the public a volume of over seven hun satisfactory by Mr. Foster, wbo relegates dred pages, which proves the want it them to a chapter to themselves entitled comes to fill. He has paid great atten-" Chaos”? There is a great want of a tion to pedigrees, and struck out a large court of awards for baronets, as now any number of fanciful genealogies that have one may take the title without fear of bitherto been allowed to stand as a laugh- serious consequences. Therefore Mr. ing-stock for modern criticism, and which, Foster is careful — he does not give an “far from adding lustre to an honorable opinion, but he expresses a doubt. race, rather throw discredit upon the later An amusing pamphlet has been printed and well-authenticated portions of the for private circulation entitled “Bellasis descent.” The amount of work expended upon Tucker," which might bear as a secin the collection of the details contained ond title that of The Reviewer Rein this book is something appalling to the viewed.” Mr. Tucker appears to have ordinary mind, fed on the literature of criticised with considerable severity Mr. the circulating library. These facts re- Foster's “Peerage,” and in return is quire study before they can be estimated trotted out in an amusing fashion by Mr. or criticised, but there is one feature of Bellasis. It rather alarms us to see the book which will be apparent to the Rouge Croix treated with banter by Bluemost casual turner-over of the leaves. mantle Pursuivant of Arms. It must have

We all know the trim arms usual in occasioned a futter at the college to see peerages, where all the coats are at first these dignified persons close in battle. sight as mucb alike as two peas. But The honors of war appear to be carried off here all is different. The supporters look by Mr. Bellasis. as if they were supporting something, and many of the shields would evidently fall into space without their assistance. All is life and action, so that these woodcuts, which are all drawn from authentic sources, give a liveliness to the volume CHINESE PROGRESS AND RUSSIAN DIPLOwhich it would not otherwise possess.

We have bitherto only spoken of the The correspondent of the Times at peerage, but there is an hereditary title of Shanghai has recently presented a view of bonor that requires some mention at our China as a great Asiatic power which hands that is, the Order of Knights contrasts strongly with the general opinBaronets, which was founded by James I. ion of its decadence among Western na

tions. No doubt the repeated insurrec• The Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage of the British Empire for 1880. By Joseph Foster. West- tions, desolating whole provinces, and minger: Nichols and Sons,

continuing for years without check' from

66

From The Pall Mall Gazette.

MACY IN CENTRAL ASIA.

a

the Imperial armies; and the widespread tage of a distant base the distance for famines in which millions were left help- the Chinese, taking Sin-gan-fu as the lessly to perish, have done much to justify nearest point to Kuldja, being some a disparaging estimate of the capacity of twenty-six hundred and seventy-eight the Chinese for government and their miles; while Orenberg, as the Russian chances of improvement as a nation. By base, is little less. But there is this those, however, who have taken sufficient difference between the two — that with interest in the course of events during the China the supply of men can be drawn last ten years to watch the changes that from a population of certainly not less have taken place among the Asiatic na- than four hundred millions, and at little tionalities a different conclusion has been cost; while Russia has to draw her forces drawn. The part which these nationali- from a population of seventy millions, ties are likely to play in the development scattered over a wider area, and her army of commerce and civilization on the one is a far more costly machine to maintain in hand, or the struggle for empire on the working order. A defeat to Russia in other, iş a question of practical interest. central Asia is a very serious event both It must long have been evident that in a political and financial point of view China cannot be an unimportant factor in whereas many defeats to the Chinese such a problem. The complete victory forces merely entail a further delay to get over the Taepings after nearly ten years up fresh men and material, at far less of seemingly successful rebellion, fol- cost. They do not endanger the prepon lowed after an interval by the destruction derating influence which the emperors of of all engaged in the scarcely less for China, under all reverses, have preserved midable Panthay insurrection of the wherever their rule has once extended Mussulman element in Yunnan, and, In Burmah, Pegu, and Cochin China on lastly, the reconquest of Eastern Turkes- the south, as in Nepaul and Thibet on our tan at the furthest limits of Tartar and northern and eastern boundaries, no less Mongol dominion in central Asia, were than over the vast territories of Ili and so many revelations of an unsuspected eastern Turkestan, no European powe reserve of energy in the government and has ever rivalled their influence or mate nation. Their last success in the recov- rially damaged the Chinese prestige ery by negotiation of Kuldja is, all things These considerations may well have considered, a more significant evidence of weighed with Russia in the negotiations power and of capacity for dealing with for the restoration of Kuldja and its ad political problems than any triumph over joining territory, which had lapsed, as i

their own insurgent populations. It has were by default, into Russian keeping · reversed an unbroken course of Russian during the short-lived reign of Yakool encroachments, by which China invariably Beg. For these and other reasons the lost territory, and Russia, without firing a restoration of Kuldja marks a new era in shot, annexed the whole valley of the the relations of the two empires. It is Amoor and half of Manchuria, together reported that Chung How has been dis with a less important enlargement in graced ; and if the inference be correc many directions of her borders extending that this has arisen from dissatisfaction a over three thousand miles of contermi- the terms of the cession which he nego nous frontier. To seize and to hold has tiated, it only more signally marks hov seemed to be the natural course of great a stride the Pekin government ha events; and what the Muscovite has once made in its dealings with a power which clutched, he has never before been known has hitherto dictated its own terms when to let go in his dealings with China. But ever Chinese territory has been in ques the Russian government has been taught tion. within the last year or two that the pres. Time was when the great Mongol Gen ence of a Chinese army in central Asia ghis Khan and his immediate descend and on the Russian border with hostile ants for three generations held all Asi intent might prove very embarrassing. under their sway, from the Gulf of Scan If not formidable, even with its lately ac- deroon and the Volga to the Yellow Sea quired arms of precision and its smatter at the extreme eastern coast of China ing of European drill, against a well-found when Moscow was a fief of the Mongo and disciplined Russian army, it repre- and no other power could contest th sented a power of recruitment and rein- sway of this dominant race. Mongo forcement after defeat which could not Tartar, and Chinese elements have sinc fail to make itself felt as a serious men- then been commingled, but the prestig

Each country is under the disadvan- of empire has remained and centred i

ace.

rus.

the emperor of China. At this moment, | with provincial authorities, however highof all the great inheritance left by Gen- ly placed, has had some influence; and it ghis and strengthened by his grandson may be so. But other causes must have Kublai Khan, whose power Marco Polo been at work, and we are inclined to becelebrated in the thirteenth century, there lieve that foreign commerce and its assoare but three heirs now remaining – ciated ideas and intercourse must have China, in the old seat of empire, still had yet more to do with this awakening stretching her arms to the heart of Asia of national consciousness and power. in eastern Turkestan: Russia on the The strong conservative tendencies of Dorth, spanning the whole breadth of the the Chinese people, from the Confucian vast continent, while ever forging down- literati to the peasant farmer and propriwards, like a great glacier, to the fertile etor, represent a vast accumulation of valleys of the south and the sunny slopes steadying force; while the thrift, temperof Asia Minor, Armenia, Persia, and ance, and love of order which distinguish India; while Great Britain, in her Indian the Chinese of all ranks lead to the accuempire, holds the keys of all the south mulation of wealth and the possibility of from the Bay of Bengal to the Bospho- rapidly repairing loss, from civil war and

Turkey and Persia have too little of famines, which would cripple any other independence or power left to count race for a whole generation. among the successors of Genghis. Their With one language, literature, and resubjects occupy fair portions of the terri- ligion, enjoying the fruits of a civilization tory; but it seems more than probable dating beyond Greek or Roman history, that they will soon have to fight against with every variety of climate and natural foreign domination and absorption. . In produce, and a government but little opthe mean time, it is strange how China pressive to the million whatever it may be seems to be awakening to a new sense of to individuals, the typical Chinese las vigor, notwithstanding the mystery that little left to desire. We saw with astonenvelops the governing power at Peking ishment not long ago an article proceed- the sceptre borne by an infant in the ing from the pen of one of our consuls, hands of two women, who govern osten- who seemed to advocate the absorption sibly as empress-regents, but who in real- of China by Russia as an event which the ity must themselves be ruled by others Chinese would have little cause to regret! under an impenetrable veil of administra- The truth is, that no greater misfortune tive boards and grand secretaries. No could befall the Chinese race. The worst foreigner has ever penetrated behind this government they have ever had is preferveil, or can do more than guess where able to any that has ever been enjoyed by the true depositary of power exists or Russians. An exchange from the mild where the influences which govern the and peace-loving tenets of Confucius and State are to be found. Yet such is the the venal mandarin, for the Greek Church marvellous cohesiveness of the several and the Russian tchinn, would be a very parts of the State machinery, central and sad one for the Chinaman, whatever his provincial, that, despite a large amount of calling or rank, and a very deplorable one misrule, corruption, and other disintegrat- for the world at large. ing forces, the whole is kept in fair working order. Not many years ago it seemed the opinion of those most conversant with China that the weakness of the central power at Peking must ere long lead to a

A TIDAL PROBLEM. more or less partial dissolution of the bond that united the provinces to the cap- The so-called seiches, or alternate flux ital, or else to a change of dynasty. But and reflux of water in the Lake of Geneva the whole aspect of affairs now shows and other bodies of fresh water, have, as that the movement is all the other way, our readers know, formed the subject of tending to consolidation, and not to dis- an interesting study during the past deintegration. Provincial governors and cade by Dr. F. A. Forel, of Morges, near viceroys have become more amenable to Geneva. Small local tides are constantly central authority, and even men like Li- noticeable there, the difference between Hung-Chang have ceased to give rise to ebb and flow varying from a few centifears of usurpation. How is this? It metres to two metres. · Their cause is to has been suggested that the refusal of be traced to the wind, variations in atforeign envoys at Peking to treat any mospheric pressure at the extremities of questions of treaty right or commerce the lake, etc. Dr. Forel, as the result of

From Nature.

his investigations has established a for-| Ægean is at its minimum, viz., at the mula by means of which the duration of a quadratures, and must be owing to some local ebb and flow can be determined - other force more powerful than the mininot only for the Lake of Geneva, but for mum but less powerful than the maximum any lake — when its average depth and force of the Ægean tide. This force is its length are known. This formula gives found in the local tides or seiches of the for the Lake of Geneva, which has a Gulf of Talanti to the north of the straits, length of seventy-three kilometres, a dura- which is so shut in by land that it can tion of tide of thirteen minutes; a figure practically be regarded as subject to the coinciding with the fact.

same laws as the lakes of Switzerland The law thus established by M. Forel and other countries. This basin is one has recently received an interesting ap- hundred and fifteen kilometres long, and plication in solving a problem which has is from one to two hundred metres in puzzled travellers and philosophers for depth. Applying, these figures to M. over two thousand years, viz., the expla- Forel's formula, the ebb and flow in the nation of the currents in the narrow Gulf of Talanti would be for one hundred straits of Euripus, where the famous five- metres, one hundred and twenty-two minarched bridge of Egripo joins the island utes; for one hundred and fifty metres, of Eubea to the mainland of Greece. one hundred minutes ; for two hundred The currents sweeping below the bridge metres, eighty-six minutes. The eleven are so violent that mills are kept in opera- to fourteen currents observable daily at tion by them, but they are noted for the Euripus during the quadratures last from changes in direction which occur from one hundred and three to one hundred four to fourteen times daily. Tradition and thirty-one minutes. This shows so relates that Aristotle, in despair at bis in- striking a conformity with the theory adability to explain this phenomenon, threw vanced by the Swiss savant, that we can himself from the bridge into the water. but consider this problem, which so vexed

A comparison of the large number of the ancients, as fairly solved. observations made upon this strange tidal Dr. Forel asks intelligent visitors to movement shows that there are two dis- the locality to verify his interpretation tinct periods: that in which there are but by attending especially to the following four changes of direction or two tides in points: 1. Ascertain the exact duration a lunar day of twenty-four hours and fifty of the flux and reflux of the Euripus, and minutes, and that in which these tides determine its normal rhythm. 2. Ascernumber from eleven to fourteen daily. tain if, as in the seiches of the Lake of This latter phenomenon is observable in Geneva, the amplitude of the flux and variably at the quadratures of the moon. reflux of the irregular current is stronger M. Forel, in his explanation, shows that in bad weather than when there are no the regular ebb and flow twice a day in atmospherical perturbations. 3. Ascer. the former period is due to the tidal tain if the connections between the direcmovement of the Ægean Sea, which is tion of the current and the flow of the then at its maximum. The increase in rising sea are, as he supposes, inverse, the number of tides daily becomes mani, according as the current is regular or fest, however, when the tidal force of the irregular.

CAN WE SEE SOUND? - It has been demon-bles, and a voice or instrument be sounded strated on various occasions that sound-waves close to the mouthpiece, a curious effect can of different quality produce forms of various be perceived in the soap film at the other end shapes, but this important fact is shown in a of the instrument. The vibration of the molenovel and interesting manner by a new instru- cules of air in the tube is transferred to the ment which has been invented, called the film, and bands of rainbow-tinted color become phoneidoscope. The phoneidoscope consists apparent, varying in form as the voice or inof a cylindrical L-shaped brass tube, to the strument changes, and assuming an endless horizontal portion of which is attached an variety of patterns. Change of pitch produces india-rubber tube and a wooden mouthpiece. a noticeable alteration in the forms, and the At the termination of the vertical part of the same notes on different instruments are marked instrument is a blackened brass disc, in which by variations in the patterns on the soap soluis an aperture. If the disc be now covered tion, the colors in which, as the tenuity of the with a thin coating of soap and water similar film increases, become marvellously beautiful. to the preparation used in blowing soap bub.

Cassell's Famiiy Magazine,

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Fifth Series, Volume XXX

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CONTENTS.
I. THE DEEP SEA AND ITS CONTENTS. By
Dr. Wm. B. Carpenter,

Nineteenth Century,
II. THE “CROOKIT MEG :A STORY OF THE
YEAR ONE. Part III.,

Fraser's Magazine,
III. BACKSHEESH,

Macmillan's Magazine,
IV. HE THAT WILL NOT WHEN HE MAY. By
Mrs. Oliphant. Part XIV.,.

Advance Sheets,
V. AGNOSTICISM AND WOMEN, .

Nineteenth Century,
VI. THE REGICIDES OF THIS CENTURY,

Cornhill Magazine,
VII. THE CIVIL CODE OF THE JEWS. Part IV., Pall Mall Gazette,
VIII. THE JESUITS AND THE Civil POWER,. Saturday Review, .
IX. TEMPERATURE OF THE SOIL DURING Win.
TER,

Nature,

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