ity of such easy and graceful balancing | George, with the idea of savage, warlike being one of the privileges or opportuni- impulses; the fair, soft creature suddenly ties of statuary in cast metal, of that hol- raging like a storm, to which, in its valow casting in which the whole weight of rious wild incidents, war is constantly the work is so much less than that of a likened in Homer; the effects of delicate work of equal size in marble, and which youth and of tempest blending, in Ares, permits a so much wider and freer dispo- into one expression, not without that sition of the parts about its centre of grav- cruelty which mingles also, like the influity. In Ægina the tradition of metal ence of some malign fate upon him, with work seems to have been strong, and the finer characteristics of Achilles, who Onatas, whose name is closely connected is a kind of merely human double of Ares. with Ægina, and who is contemporary And in Homer's impressions of war the with the presumably later portion of this same elements are blent, – the delicacy, monument, was above all a worker in the beauty of youth, especially, making it bronze. Here again, in this lurking so fit for purposes of love, spoiled and spirit of metal work, we have a new ele wasted by the random flood and fire of a ment of complexity in the character of violent tempest; the glittering beauty of these precious remains. And then, to the Greek * war-men,” expressed in so compass the whole work in our imagina- many brilliant figures, and the splendor tion, we must conceive yet another ele of their equipments, in collision with the ment in the conjoint effect; metal being miserable accidents of battle, and the actually mingled with the marble, brought grotesque indignities of death in it, thus to its daintiest point of refinement, brought home to our fancy by a hundred as the little holes indicate, bored into the pathetic incidents, — the sword hot with marble figures for the attachment of cer- slaughter, the stilling blood in the throat, tain accessories in bronze, lances, the spoiling of the body in every member swords, bows, the Medusa also on the ægis severally. He thinks of, and records, at of Athene, and its fringe of little snakes. his early ending, the distant home from

And as there was no adequate con- which the boy came, who goes stumbling sciousness and recognition of the essen. now, just stricken so wretchedly, his tials of man's nature in the older, oriental bowels in his hands. He pushes the exart, so there is no pathos, no humanity in pression of this contrast to the macabre the more special sense, but a kind of even, suggesting the approach of those hardness and cruelty rather, in those oft- lower forms of life which await to-morrow repeated, long, matter-of-fact processions, the fair bodies of the heroes, who strive on the marbles of Nineveh, of slave-like and fall to-day like these in the Æginetan soldiers on their way to battle mechani-gables. For it is just that twofold sentically, or of captives on their way to slav- ment which this sculpture has embodied. ery or death, for the satisfaction of the The seemingly stronger hand which great king. These Greek marbles, on wrought the eastern gable has shown the contrary, with that figure yearning itself strongest in the rigid expression of forward so graciously to the fallen leader, the truth of pain, in the mouth of the are deeply impressed with a natural pa- famous recumbent figure on the extreme thetic effect — the true reflection again of left, the lips just open at the corner, and the temper of Homer in speaking of war. in the hard-shut lips of Hercules. Other. Ares, the god of war hiinself, we must wise, these figures all smile faintly, alremember, is, according to his original most like the monumental effigies of the import, the god of storms, of winter rag- Middle Age, with a smile which, even if ing among the forests of the Thracian it be but a result of the mere convenmountains, a brother of the north wind. tionality of an art still somewhat immaAfterwards only, surviving many minor ture, has just the pathetic effect of gods of war, he becomes a leader of hosts, Homer's conventional epithet “tender," à sort of divine knight and patron of when he speaks of the flesh of his heroes. knighthood; and, through the old intri- And together with this touching power cate connection of love and war, and that there is also in this work the effect of an amorousness which is the universally early simplicity, the charm of its limitaconceded privilege of the soldier's life, he tions. For as art which has passed its comes to be very near Aphrodite, - the prime has sometimes the charm of an paramour of the goddess of physical absolute refinement in taste and work. beauty. So that the idea of a sort of soft manship, so immature art also, as we now dalliance mingles, in his character, so see, has its own attractiveness in the unlike that of the Christian leader, Saint Inaivetė, the freshness of spirit, which

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finds power and interest in simple mo- of the Englishman's Bible. In spite of tives of feeling, and in the freshness of this covert sneer on British snobbism, it hand, which has a sense of enjoyment in could easily be proved that few more mechanical processes still performed un- instructive books exist than a well-edited mechanically, in the spending of care and dictionary of the British nobility. It intelligence on every touch. As regards seems as the crackling of thorns under a Italian art, the sculpture and paintings of pot to those who care nothing for the the earlier Renaissance, the æsthetic gradual growth of our great families; but value of this naiveté is now well under- to those who know something of the men stood; but it has its value in Greek sculp- who have made the history of the country, ture also. There, too, is a succession of and are able to read between the lines, phases through which the artistic power few books are more thoroughly instinct and purpose grew to maturity, with the with life. Anecdotes that float about enduring charm of an unconventional, ownerless in the mind of the reader are upsophisticated freshness, in that very here localized and fixed. The refineearly stage of it illustrated by these mar- ments of the “ Peerage” are little underbles of Ægina, not less than in the work stood by the ordinary English man and of Verrocchio and Mino of Fiesole. woman, and sad havóc is often made of Effects of this we may note in that sculp- them in the novels of our time. This is ture of Ægina, not merely in the sim- not a matter of surprise, for they are plicity, or monotony even, of the whole somewhat complicated, and one composition, and in the exact and formal times wonders whether every peer knows correspondence of one gable to the other, all the ins and outs of his own class. In but in the simple readiness with which the catalogue of the exhibition of old the designer makes the two second spear-masters, now shown at the Royal Acadmen kneel, against the probability of the emy, there is a mistake of the kind to thing, so as just to fill the space he has to which we refer. There are two portraits compose in. The profiles are still not by Lely, one called Henry Howard, sixth yet of the fully developed Greek type, but Duke of Norfolk, and the other Anne have a somewhat sharp prominence of Somerset, Duchess of Norfolk. Now the nose and chin, as in Etrurian design, in du was the Henry Howard of Norfolk the early sculpture of Cyprus, and in the who figures in Evelyn's and Pepys's earlier Greek vases; and the general diaries, and gave the Arundel marbles to proportions of the body in relation to the Oxford and the Norfolk Library to the shoulders are still somewhat archaically Royal Society. He did not come into slim. But then the workman is at work the dukedom until after the death of his in dry earnestness, with a sort of hard brother in 1677, so it is clear that his first strength in detail, a scrupulousness verg. wife, who died in 1662, could never have ing on stiffness, like that of an early been a duchess. Flemish painter; he communicates to us The word nobility has grown to have a bis still youthful sense of pleasure in the peculiarly restricted meaning in England, experience of the first rudimentary diffi- which it does not bear abroad. The culties of his art overcome. And withal, gentry are really the lower nobility, and these figures have in them a true expres- in many instances the elder branch of a sion of life, of animation. In this monu- family remains untitled, while the younger ment of Greek chivalry, pensive and scions seek their fortunes and are what visionary as it may seem, those old Greek we commonly call “ennobled ;” thus at knights live with a truth like that of one time a commoner was the head of Homer or Chaucer. In a sort of stiff one of our oldest houses, a dukedom grace, combined with a sense of things being held by, a younger branch of the bright or sorrowful directly felt, the Ægin- family. The difference between English etan workman is, as it were, the Chaucer and foreign customs in this matter is well of Greek sculpture.

illustrated by an anecdote of Buffon. An WALTER H. PATER. English friend wrote to congratulate the

great naturalist on his being ennobled by Louis XVI. Buffon returned answer that certainly the king had created him a

count, at receiving which title he felt very From Temple Bar.

proud, but that he was already “noble”!

The five grades of which the peerage SCOFFERS, to whom nothing is sacred, consists are of very varied antiquity. have given to the “Peerage” the name The lowest is that of baron, which is



also one of the oldest. Originally the wall in 1335, was the first English duke, dignity was attached to the possession of and for a time this rank was confined to certain lands held according to the feudal the royal family. Although others aftersystem, and the possessor was therefore wards obtained the title, they were very a baron by tenure. In the reign of King few, and it was not until the reigns of John the greater barons were specially William III. and Anne that its general summoned to the council of the nation, character was changed. Although all and hence arose the barons by writ in holders of these different titles take precplace of barons by tenure. The practice edence according to their relative rank, of creating barons by letters patent, by they sit as peers or equals in the House which rank was converted into a mere of Lords. The eldest son of a duke, of a title of honor, was first introduced by marquess, or of an earl, although he reRichard II., who in 1387 created John mains a commoner, bears one of the titles Beauchamp, of Holt Castle, Baron Beau- of his father by courtesy. These are champ of Kidderminster. Viscount was sometimes changed, but usually the same first introduced as an hereditary title into title is used for several generations. The the English peerage by Henry VI., who son of a duke is commonly a marquess, of made John, sixth Baron Beaumont, Vis- a marquess an earl, and of an earl a viscount Beaumont, by letters patentin 1440. count, but this is not always the case ; Previously the name vice-comes had been for instance, the Marquis of Salisbury's used by the sheriff of a county as the second title is Earl of Salisbury, so in deputy of the earl. Of the five" titles to order to obviate confusion his eldest son which we are now drawing attention, earl is forced to take the third title, which is is the only one with a Saxon name, and it Viscount Cranborne. is a curious linguistic fact that this char- Since the two unions with Scotland and acteristic only applies to the man bimself, Ireland, and the consequent destruction as his wife is styled a countess. The of the Houses of Lords in those coun. synonymous names earl and count had a tries, the peers have been left in an unfight for a time, but the former survived satisfactory condition. As the unions as the fitter of the two. There were dif- took place at different periods, very different descriptions of earldoms, but they ferent regulations were enforced respectwere each, as the name comes would show, ing them. Sixteen Scotch peers are intimately connected with the county. In elected as representatives for each parliacourse of time this was changed, and ment, and twenty-eight Irish peers are Roger Mortimer, Lord of Wigmore, on chosen for life. A Scotch peer, though the Welsh March, created Earl of March not one of the sixteen representatives, is in 1328, was the first earl whose dignity debarred from sitting in the House of was unconnected with a shire. The cus- Commons, a disability which does not tom of adopting titles taken from counties attach to the Irish peers as witness the and towns was extended to villages and great prime minister, Lord' Palmerston. private estates, and in some instances Still the latter class have their own family names have even been used in troubles, which some of the order are stead of place names. The original now ventilating in the public press. marquesses were guardians of the frontier There are about forty Scotch and about marches, but the first English marquess. one hundred Irish peerages now existing ate in the modern sense was conferred without an hereditary seat in the House in 1386 upon Robert de Vere, Earl of of Lords. One of the reasons of this Oxford, who was created Marquess of discrepancy is that, while the Scotch Dublin by Richard II. The Earl of peerages are allowed to die out, Irish Somerset was made Marquess of Dorset peers are still created. This is not a by the same king, but the title was taken mere anomaly, but it partakes somewhat from him in the next reign. The House of dishonesty, and a remedy cannot too of Commons petitioned that it might be soon be applied. Certain Irish peers restored, but the earl did not wish for the created since the union are quite unconhigher honor, as it was considered an in- nected with Ireland, and have taken the novation. At one period in the reign of names of English places for their titles, George III. there was only one marquess but by a legal fiction these places are on the roll of the peerage. Dukes, in the supposed to be situated in Ireland for older European sense of governors of the purposes of the patent. Thus the dukedoms, do not appear to have been style of Baron Macdonald runs,“ of Slate, known in England. Edward the Black Antrim,” but Slate is actually in the Heb Prince, who was created Duke of Corn. I rides, and not in Antrim at all.

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The English peerage holds a unique There are certain unwritten rules as to position from the fact that a peerage con- entry into the House of Lords. Thus fers a right to a seat in the House of an ordinary mortal is made a baron, an Lords, and therefore all claims are rigidly ex-speaker or cabinet minister becomes a considered. Abroad, where there is noth- viscount, and a prime minister or statesing like this, it is nobody's business to man of the first rank springs into an earlquestion illegal titles, and in consequence dom at one bound. Walpole was created false claims to rank abound. The pro- Earl of Orford, and his rival, Pulteney, ceedings connected with the various was cajoled into accepting the earldom claims to peerages in abeyance have been of Bath. The latter, when he found he of considerable interest. Sir Egerton had stultified himself by his rise in rank, Brydges was soured for life because he Aung down his patent on the floor, and did not obtain the barony of Chandos of was with difficulty persuaded to have it Sudeley, and he was in the habit of ex- passed. bibiting his claim by signing himself“ per A somewhat similar scene occurred legem terra Chandos of Sudeley.'

when another hot-headed man was raised The “Peerage contains those his- to the peerage of Lonsdale. Sir James torical names of which Englishmen are Lowther refused any lower rank than an naturally so proud, as the Howards, the earldom. He even took offence on being Percies, and the Herberts; such great made an earl in 1784, when he found that generals as Marlborough and Wellington, he was junior to two other new earls who and admirals as Nelson and St. Vincent, had been advanced, not like him from are represented there, but sometimes among the commoners, but from among these names are lost in higher titles. the barons. At first he refused to take Thus Anson is merged in Lichfield, and his seat among the Lords, and marched Clive in Powis. Lawyers are well repre- back to the Commons. This was the sented, and trade supplies her quota. man of whom it was written in the “RolThe Duke of Leeds traces his descent liad” from Lord Mayor Osborne, the Barings E'en by the elements his power's confessid, hold two peerages, Ashburton and North- of minds and boroughs Lonsdale stands posbrook, and several peers are, or have sess'd ; been, bankers. The Earl of Jersey is a And one sad servitude alike denotes partner in Child's bank, and this connec- The slave that labors, and the slave that votes. tion of a Villiers with a lucrative business has come about by a romantic incident Several of our kings have sullied the which occurred at the end of the last purity of the peerage by the gift of titles century. The tenth earl of Westmore

Ts of honor"! to their mistresses. Charles land ran away with the only daughter of II. created Roger Palmer Earl of CastleRobert Child, the head of the bank, on

maine, in order that his mistress, Mrs. the 22nd of May, 1782. Although the Palmer, might be a countess; afterwards runaways had a good start in their jour- he made her Duchess of Cleveland. Peney to Gretna Green, the father caught ter Cunningham tells us that if Charles them up in Cumberland. Lord West- had lived Nell Gwyn would have been moreland was equal to the occasion, for created Countess of Greenwich. The he stood up in his carriage and shot the means by which Nelly obtained a peerage leading horse in Mr. Child's chaise, by for her son is well known. which bold proceeding he was able to get

A curious chapter in the history of the over the border and be married before peerage might be written on the secret Child could interfere. It is said that that history of the origin of certain titles. nobleman had, previously to the elope- Thus ministers have sometimes raised a. ment, put the following question to the man for dirty political work while they banker: "Suppose you were in love with have been heartily ashamed of the job. a girl and her father refused his consent | Bubb Dodington (the Bubo of Pope), who to the union, what should you do?” to bas damned himself to everlasting 'fame which he received the prompt reply, by writing a diary of his own rascality, " Why, run away with her, to be sure?

; had set his mind on becoming a peer. Child did not forgive his daughter and He first attached himself to Sir Robert her husband, but nevertheless he left the Walpole, who is supposed to have said, whole of his fortune to their first daugh- Do you think, sir, the king would advance such ter — this was Lady Sarah Sophia Jane, a scrub, who married the tifth Earl of Jersey, and Or the peerage debase with the name of a was grandmother of the present earl.


Then he devoted himself to the opposi- crown, and in that respect it would be tion, but they would not do what he some trouble to him to see it vested in wished, and at last, after various changes, the family of a stranger." As the patent he was created Lord Melcombe by Lord had not been prepared, Bennet contented Bute, a year before his death. As age himself with the name of the little farm came upon him he was said, in allusion to of Harlington between London and Uxhis great size, to have “grown of less bridge, which had once belonged to his consequence, but more weight.” A more father, but had since been sold. In as. respectable but equally disliked man was suming the name, however, he blundered made a peer, merely' to spite the king. in cockney fashion and left out the h, so Sir Fletcher Norton, popularly known in that the title was given as Arlington. his day as Sir Bullface Doubleface, was Lawyers have sometimes chosen theis elected speaker in 1769 as a sop because titles from the towns where they first ob he was passed over for the lord-chancel- tained a brief, but Sir Charles Pratt's lorship. In 1777 he offended George III. choice was a different one, and it has kep by a very bold speech at the bar of the alive a very noble name in a rather re House of Lords, and a few years after he markable manner. The greatest Englis was raised to the peerage as Baron Grant- antiquary, William Camden, lived and ley, to his own and every one else's great died at Chislehurst in the house called surprise. The king, on the recommenda- after him Camden Place, and when Lord tion of Lord Shelburne, raised the lawyer Chief Justice Pratt was raised to the Dunning to the peerage as Lord Ashbur- peerage he took his title from this house ton, whereat the premier (Lord Rocking- which has since been so famous as th ham) and his cabinet immediately threat- abode of Napoleon III. and the ex-em ened to resign unless a peerage was given press Eugénie. The Pratts had propert to a nominee of their own. On the king's at Kentish Town which was built ove consent being obtained, they nominated and called Camden Town, so that in Sir Fletcher in order to annoy him, and secondary sense this district may be sai he was forced to comply with the unpal- to take its name from the author of th atable request.

“ Britannia." When titles ceased to be territorial, the The succession to each peerage varie choice of a name came to be regulated according to the specified terms of th by a variety of causes. We learn from patent, and there have been many exan Pepys's diary that Sir Edward Montagu, ples of devices to carry on family pee who aided so influentially in the restora- ages by fresh creations of minor dign tion of Charles II., had his warrant ties. Thus the last Duke of Montagu drawn out as Earl of Portsmouth, and having no hopes of heirs male for h only changed the name to Sandwich at the dukedom, obtained the grant of a baron last moment.

with reversion to his nephew, so that Lord Clarendon tells an amusing story peerage might be continued in the famil in his life respecting the difficulties en- There is a cause of confusion in regar countered by Lord Arlington, the well to the peerage which must be noted her known member of the Cabal ministry, in and that is the number of families th the search for a title. Sir Henry Bennet have held certain well-known titles. had no estate from which he could take the old times, when the members of t his name, so he fixed upon the ancient nobility were continually getting into h Barony of Cheney, which had expired in water, these changes were pretty rapi 1587, although he was in no way con- Thus the title of Bedford was borne nected with the family who had formerly succession by a De Bellomont, a I held it. The warrant was drawn out, and Courcy, a Plantagenet, a Nevill, and for some days he was called Lord Cheney. Tudor, before it came into the Russ But this was not to last, for a gentleman family in the year 1550; and that of Pe of Buckinghamshire, who, although he broke by a De Clare, a De Valence had no title to the barony, was of the Hastings, a Plantagenet, a De la Pole same family, and had inherited most of Tudor, a Herbert, a Plantagenet again the property, went to Bennet and desired Tudor again, and a Boleyn, before it s him “not to affect a title to which he had tled with the Herberts in 1551. In la no relation; and to which, though he times, when the rulers were not quite (the gentleman) could not pretend of di- vindictive, the titles forfeited after t rect night, yet he was not so obscure but Scotch rebellions in 1715 and 1745 w that himself, or a son of his, might here often conveniently allowed to a son after be thought worthy of it by the brother of the rebel. There have be


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