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POETRY.-Heart-treasures, 50; The Past, 71; "Not
always shall the cloud obscure," 95; The Winding
Sheet, 105; On the death of Abel, 108; Night, 140;
The Fatherless, 159; The Shadow of the Past, 169;
Prayer, 181; May you die among your kindred,
238; Moss, 270; Sonnet to Elihu Burritt, 335; Come
kiss me and be friends, 374; A Dirge, 415; To a
346 Lark, 445; The True Hero, 469; Hymn, 492;
Westminster Abbey, 532.

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The Case of Hungary stated. Manifesto published in the name of the Hungarian Government. By Count LADISLAS TELEKI, Member of the Hungarian Diet. Translated from the French, with prefatory remarks. By H. F. W. BROWNE, B. A. London: Effingham Wilson.

tain regions which contribute minerals to the national wealth. Hungary is copiously watered by noble rivers. The Danube flows through the heart of the country; and the Thiess, the Drave, the Save, and waters of lesser magnitude, give breadth to Duna's mighty flood. The superficial magnitude of the country is estimated at nearly S8,000 square miles.

The kingdom of Hungary is composed of Hungary proper, Sclavonia, Croatia, Transylvania, and the Gränz Comitates, or military frontier. It is subdivided thus:

THE nation which, in political language, | life to supply the deficiencies of those mounwe call Hungary, but comprising many nationalities, is that large tract of country included in the Austrian dominions, extending from the Carpathian Mountains on the north, to the Gulf of Quarnero on the Adriatic and the Turkish frontier; longitudinally, it extends from the Austrian boundary line of Moravia, Lower Austria, Styria, and Illyria on the west; eastward to the Alpine chain which bounds Transylvania. It would seem as if nature had designed it for the separate habitation of a great people. On all sides it is defended by the bulwarks of nature mountain or flood. Nature has been prodigal in the gifts of a rich soil, and of a climate favorable to all productions necessary for the sustentation of man. It is a country prolific in corn and wine; the broad plains afford luxuriant pasturage for the flocks, and the mountains yield mineral treasures of boundless extent. In the admirable distribution of Providence, the richer soils of the plain yield more than enough of the staff of VOL. XVIII. NO. L

1

I.-Hungary proper, containing the following districts and population:

1. Hungary west of the Danube; divided into eleven komitats, or counties; population in 1842, 2,109,510. 2. East of the Danube; thirteen counties; population, 2,764,247.

3. West of the Thiess; eleven counties population, 1,789,700.

4. East of the Thiess; twelve counties; | Sclavo-Roman origin, the descendants of the
population, 2,631,600.
Roman colonists who peopled Dacia in the
time of Trajan.

II. Sclavonia; three counties; Syrmia,
Verócz, and Posegan; population, 336,100.
III.-Croatia; three counties; Kreutz, Wa-
radin, and Agram; population, 506,500.
IV. Transylvania; containing:

1. The Hungarian country; eleven coun-
ties; population, 1,279,700.

2. The Szekler country; five cantons; population, 373,000.

3. The Saxon country; nine cantons; population, 446,700; making, with a military force of 9,005, a total of 2,108,405.

V.-Five small separate districts; population, 296,100; making, with 66,243 military for the districts, exclusive of Transylvania, a total population of 10,500,000, according to an approximate estimate made in 1842.

The bulk of the population is composed of three races: 1. The Magyars, or Hungarians par excellence. 2. The Sclavonians, or Sclaves, comprising various tribes, as the Slovacs, Croats, Serbs, &c. 3. Germans. The relative proportions are thus stated by M. Fényes: Magyars, 4,812,759; Slovacs, 1,687,256; Germans, 1,273,677; Wallaks, 2,202,542; Croats, 886,079; Raiks, or Raitzes, 828,365; Schocks, 429,868; Wends, 40,864; Ruthenians, 442,903; Bulgarians, 12,000; French, 6,150; Greeks, 5,680; Armenians, 3,798; Montenegrins, 2,830; Clementins, 1,600; Jews, 244,035-12,880,406.*

The chief settlements of the Magyars are the plains west and east of the Danube. The Germans are for the most part of Saxon and Suabian descent, and dwell on the Austrian frontier and the mining districts. The Slovacs, who are supposed to be the oldest settlers, and who came of the Czecs of Bohemia, people the northern districts along with the Ruthenians or Russniaks (from Red Russia,) and the slopes of the Carpathians. The Schocks inhabit Sclavonia; and with the Raitzes, who people that province as well as the district called the Banat, lying between the rivers Danube, Thiess, and Arad and Transylvania, are of the Serbian stock of Sclaves. Many of this race took shelter in Hungary from the persecution of the Turks, and settled in the country. The Croats inhabit the district of Croatia. The Wends are of the Styrian tribe of Sclaves. The Walaques or Wallaks are supposed to be of

"Statistique du Royaume de Hongrie," par Alexius de Fényes. Three vols., 1843-1844-1845.

The statistics of the religious faith of these populations, according to the tables of 1842, for the whole kingdom, including Transylvania, are these: Roman Catholics, 6,444,418; Greek Church (united,) 1,379,717; (non-united) 2,603,060-3,982,777. Protestants (Lutheran,) 1,014,518; (Calvinists,) 1,949,606-2,964,124; Unitarians, 45,769; Jews, 258,882. To this bird's-eye view of the country it may be interesting to the English reader to add an outline of the history of Hungary, for which information must still be sought in the chronicles of the kingdom.

The history of Hungary is copious in incidents, replete with romance and deeds of chivalry, and affords ample materials for philosophical reflection. We cannot, however, do more than indicate the prominent points necessary to illustrate the origin, progress, and recent liberal development of the Hungarian Constitution. The earliest accounts are fabulous and obscure. We know nothing certain prior to the Roman conquest of Pannonia. And from that period till the Magyar settlement, about the close of the ninth century, there is little to arrest the attention of the political inquirer. The Hungarians, in the common desire of mankind to trace their origin to a noted ancestry, have reckoned the conquering Huns of Attila as their ancestors; but ethnology and history alike fail to support the assertion.* The country which we now call Hungary, prior to the period when it received that name, appears, according to the best authorities, to have been successively occupied by the Huns, the Goths, and Gepida, (between the years. 489 and 526;) by the Lombards, till 568; and by the far-conquering Abares or Avars. Towards the close of the ninth century, the progenitors of the Magyar or Hungarian nation obtained their first settlement in the country. The received opinion is, that they

* Gibbon has graphically described the Calmuck characteristics of Attila's Huns. The Magyars bear no traces of the personal peculiarities of that race. On the historical point we may quote Gibbon, for the brevity of his summary: Hungary has been successively occupied by three Scythian colonies.1. The Huns of Attila; 2. The Abares, in the sixth century; and 3. The Turks, or Majiars, A. D. 889the immediate and genuine ancestors of the modern Hungarians, whose connection with the two former is extremely faint and remote."-Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, chapter xxxiv.

Tradition says that seven tribes of these Magyar wanderers, under the conduct of Almus, or of his son Arpad, entered the country near the Thiess, and gradually won settlements in the fertile plain, but that it was ten years before they conquered the country. Whatever may have been the origin of the race and of the Hungarian name, these Magyar warriors had brave notions of liberty; if they enslaved the vanquished, they were yet resolved themselves to live free; they exercised but the right of the sword, which, nine centuries later in the

were of an Asian tribe which wandered westward in search of a better land, from their original settlement to the south of the Black Sea; a learned but fanciful attempt has even been made to trace them to the family of the ancient Egyptians.* As in all attempts to determine the etymology of names, there is much diversity of opinion on the origin of the Hungarian name. Some of the hypotheses are curious. It is said that the Huns of the race of Attila returned to Pannonia in the eighth century, under the leadership of their chieftain Hungar-a word signifying the valiant, or the conqueror; and that, hav-march of civilization, is still the "ultimus ing acquired a settlement, they gave the name of their commander to the land of his conquest. Others affirm that it is but a compound of the national denominations of the two races who had previously peopled the land-the Huns and the Avari. A third legend says, that near the spot where the nomade warriors first encamped, stood a fortification called Hungvar, which they made their stronghold; and that, when they sallied forth on raid or foray, the terrified natives of the plains, as they prepared for defense or fled, warned their brethren that the Hungvarians were coming. In northwestern Hungary there is a town called Unghvar, which gives the name to one of the eleven komitats of the district west of the Thiess. The town is situated on the river Ungh. But there is no bound to the fancy of the etymologist. The comic historian could possibly support an hypothesis as plausible, that the name was not given from the ferocity, but from the voracity of the conquerors.†

* Dr. F. Thomas-Conjectura de origine prima sede et linguâ Hungarorum. Buda, 1806.

In Dr. Bowring's interesting specimens of the poetry of the Magyars, there is a translation of a national ballad of the thirteenth or fourteenth cen

tury, much admired by the Magyars, and often sung
at their festivals-"On the conquest of the Magyar
Land." The minstrel sings how their sires, in search
of a better land, left their Scythian home, and came
to Erdely or Transylvania-

"And glorious were their doings then,
Seven bands composed the host;
Seven valiant chieftains led the men,
And each a Var (fort) could boast."

Arpad, "The Magyars' pride," was the leader. In
their wanderings they came on the broad waters of
the Duna or Danube, and much charmed were they
with the fatness of the land. An embassy was sent
to the ruler, the "Lengvel lord," at his court at Vez-
prim. The ambassador cunningly represented that
he had come to learn the people's laws, at which
the Herczeg or Duke expressed much self-satisfac-
tion. The messenger returned to Erdely, with a

ratio regis." The very foundation of their State was laid on the right divine of the people. To concentrate their strength, they chose Arpad as their duke, or leader; and a solemn compact was made between that chief and the heads of the tribes, that the office of chief magistrate should be hereditary to his line, but that the right of the tribes to choose their governor, if they so willed, should never be questioned. It was, in short, a federal aristocracy, or union of clans owing a limited obedience to a superior chief; for there appears to have been an express stipulation made by the heads of the tribes, that the ducal title, on every new accession to the leadership must be solemnly acknowledged by the State, and that a refusal to take certain oaths prescribed, to observe the popular liberties, should be followed by rejection. The fullest liberty of action was reserved by the people, or rather by their chiefs. They promised to yield military

glowing account of his sojourn at the Duke's court. After a council of the chiefs had been held, the messenger was sent back to Vezprim, with a snow-white steed meetly caparisoned,

"With golden bit and saddle rich,"

as a peace-offering to his Grace the Herczeg; and in the country for his tribe. Alas! poor Duke-his the messenger craved the boon of a quiet settlement love of a snow-white steed cost him his ducal dominions. The Magyars advanced to the conquest of the land

"In those proud wars, the Magyars, By God upheld, their foemen quelled, And weighty was their gain." The Duke sought oblivion in Duna's flood, and the Magyar occupied the land which his race still retains. The poet thus triumphantly concludes his

song:

"Of those who gained the Magyar land,
A chief as bold as any

Was Budon, who, when Arpad died,
Was Magyars' Kapitany.

He reared his throne by Duna's banks,
Near Pesth, along the hill;
And Buda's city, fair and rich,
Preserves his memory still."

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