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CHAPTER IX.

2 Jesus is transfigured. 11 He instructeth his disciples concerning the coming of Elias: 14 casteth forth a dumb and deaf spirit: 30 foretelleth his death and resurrection: 33 exhorteth his disciples to humility: 38 bidding them not to prohibit such as be not against them, nor to give offence to any of the faithful.

AND he said unto them, 'Verily I say unto you, That there be some of them that stand here, which shall not taste of death, till they have seen the kingdom of God come with

power.

2¶And after six days Jesus taketh with him Peter, and James, and John, and leadeth them up into an high mountain apart by themselves: and he was transfigured before them.

3 And his raiment became shining, exceeding white as snow; so as no fuller on earth can white them.

4 And there appeared unto them Elias with Moses: and they were talking with Jesus.

5 And Peter answered and said to Jesus, Master, it is good for us to be here: and let us make three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elias.

20 And they brought him unto him and when he saw him, straightway the spirit tare him; and he fell on the ground, and wallowed foaming.

21 And he asked his father, How long is it ago since this came unto him? And he said, Of a child.

22 And ofttimes it hath cast him into the fire, and into the waters, to destroy him:

6 For he wist not what to say; for they but if thou canst do any thing, have comwere sore afraid.

passion on us, and help us.

7 And there was a cloud that overshadowed them and a voice came out of the cloud, saying, This is my beloved Son: hear him.

23 Jesus said unto him, If thou canst believe, all things are possible to him that believeth.

24 And straightway the father of the child cried out, and said with tears, Lord, I believe; help thou mine unbelief.

25 When Jesus saw that the people came running together, he rebuked the foul spirit, saying unto him, Thou dumb and deaf spirit, I charge thee, come out of him, and enter no more into him.

8 And suddenly, when they had looked round about, they saw no man any more, save Jesus only with themselves.

9 And as they came down from the mountain, he charged them that they should tell no man what things they had seen, till the Son of man were risen from the dead.

10 And they kept that saying with themselves, questioning one with another what the rising from the dead should mean.

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11 ¶ And they asked him, saying, Why say the Scribes that Elias must first come? 12 And he answered and told them, Elias verily cometh first, and restoreth all things; and how it is written of the Son of man, that he must suffer many things, and be set at nought.

he saw a great multitude about them, and the Scribes questioning with them.

15 And straightway all the people, when they beheld him, were greatly amazed, and running to him saluted him.

16 And he asked the Scribes, What question "with them?

ye

17 And one of the multitude answered and said, Master, I have brought unto thee my son, which hath a dumb spirit;

18 And wheresoever he taketh him, he teareth him: and he foameth, and gnasheth with his teeth, and pineth away: and I spake to thy disciples that they should cast him. out; and they could not.

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19 He answereth him, and saith, O faithless generation, how long shall I be with you? how long shall I suffer you? bring him unto me.

26 And the spirit cried, and rent him sore, and came out of him: and he was as one dead; insomuch that many said, He is dead.

27 But Jesus took him by the hand, and lifted him up; and he arose.

28 And when he was come into the house, his disciples asked him privately, Why could not we cast him out?

29 And he said unto them, This kind can come forth by nothing, but by prayer and fasting.

And they departed thence, and passed through Galilee; and he would not that any man should know it. 5 Or, among yourselves. * Or, dasheth him.

7 Matt. 17. 28.

31 For he taught his disciples, and said unto them, The Son of man is delivered into the hands of men, and they shall kill him; and after that he is killed, he shall rise the third day.

32 But they understood not that saying, and were afraid to ask him.

33 ¶ And he came to Capernaum: and being in the house he asked them, What was it that ye disputed among yourselves by the way?

34 But they held their peace: for by the way they had disputed among themselves, who should be the greatest.

35 And he sat down, and called the twelve, and saith unto them, If any man desire to be first, the same shall be last of all, and servant of all.

36 And he took a child, and set him in the midst of them: and when he had taken him in his arms, he said unto them,

37 Whosoever shall receive one of such children in my name, receiveth me: and whosoever shall receive me, receiveth not me, but him that sent me.

38 And John answered him, saying, Master, we saw one casting out devils in thy name, and he followeth not us: and we forbad him, because he followeth not us.

39 But Jesus said, Forbid him not: 10for there is no man which shall do a miracle in my name, that can lightly speak evil of

me.

40 For he that is not against us is on our part.

8 Matt. 18. 1. 9 Luke 9. 49.
14 Or, cause thee to offend,

41 "For whosoever shall give you a cup of water to drink in my name, because ye belong to Christ, verily I say unto you, he shall not lose his reward.

42 And whosoever shall offend one of these little ones that believe in me, it is better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and he were cast into the

sea.

43 And if thy hand "offend thee, cut it off: it is better for thee to enter into life maimed, than having two hands to go into hell, into the fire that never shall be quenched :

44 15 Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched.

45 And if thy foot offend thee, cut it off: it is better for thee to enter halt into life, than having two feet to be cast into hell, into the fire that never shall be quenched:

46 Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched.

47 And if thine eye "offend thee, pluck it out it is better for thee to enter into the kingdom of God with one eye, than having two eyes to be cast into hell fire:

48 Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched.

49 For every one shall be salted with fire, and every sacrifice shall be salted with salt.

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50 18Salt is good: but if the salt have lost his saltness, wherewith will ye season it? Have salt in yourselves, and have peace one with another.

101 Cor. 12. 3.
U Matt. 10. 42. 12 Matt. 18.6. 13 Matt. 5. 29, and 18. 8.
15 Isa. 66. 24. 18 Or, cause thee to offend. 17 Levit. 2. 13. 28 Matt. 5. 13.

Verse 12. "Elias verily cometh."-Few things appear more conspicuously in the Gospels than the expectation of the Jews that Elias was to come among them as the harbinger of the Messiah. This expectation was founded on the prophecy of Malachi; which, however, they misunderstood, as they did the prophecies concerning the Messiah himself. Our Saviour himself explains the sense in which this foretold coming of Elias was to be understood-that is, of one who was not Elias personally, but who should come "in the spirit and power of Elias," that is, who should be the antitype of Elias, as the Messiah himself was of David. We are further told that this was accomplished in John the Baptist, who in spirit and power, and even in some personal circumstances, resembled Elias, and who came to prepare the way of the Lord, as it had been predicted that Elias should come. And here the small but not unimportant circumstance may be noted, that in the Old Testament history, Elijah is always distinguished as "Elijah the Tishbite;" whereas in the prophecy, this mere personal distinction is dropped, and he is called. "Elijah the prophet."

However, the Jews did, and do still expect the bodily appearance of Elias himself; and knowing that his coming must precede that of the Messiah, their prayers for his manifestation have for ages been most constant, and have formed indeed one prominent subject of the public prayers in their synagogues. In their expectations concerning Elias they do not forget that the Tishbite did not "taste of death," but was taken away in a whirlwind: and hence an opportunity was offered, which the Jews, of all men, were least likely to neglect, of indulging in most ingenious conjectures concerning his condition and employments, which conjectures at last became articles of fixed belief. They taught that although he retains a body, it is not like our bodies, all its moisture having been dried up by that whirlwind and flaming fire in which he disappeared: and that in virtue of this change, he received a sort of semi-spiritual being, subsisting without meat or drink, or the necessities of human life. They held also that he was not taken to the "heaven of heavens," but to the earthly paradise from which our first parents were expelled, where his proper station is beneath the tree of life. Yet that he is not so there stationed, but that he is present in different places in this world-in many or in all places at once-interesting himself greatly in the affairs of the Jews, watchful of their conduct and constantly employed in doing good to Israel-redressing wrong, punishing injustice, and doing mercy. It is in particular believed that he is present at all circumcisions, for which reason an empty chair is always set on the right hand of the person who holds the child, and on which, though invisible, he is supposed to sit. It is believed that Elias is visible to all those who are acquainted with the mysteries of the Cabbala: hence the Jewish books contain many

ounts of interviews with him and instructions received from him. In these accounts he is described as a venerable man with a white beard; but with nothing in his appearance to suggest that he is not as other men. Most of se views concerning Elias, if not all of them, were certainly entertained in the time of our Saviour. What therefore Jews seek is not the presence of Elias, for he is already present, but for the manifestation of his presence in the pernance of that high office appointed for him-to "restore all things," and "to make straight the way of the Lord."

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For this cause shall a man leave his er and mother, and cleave to his wife; And they twain shall be one flesh: so 1 they are no more twain, but one flesh. What therefore God hath joined toge, let not man put asunder.

And in the house his disciples asked again of the same matter.

1 And he saith unto them, "Whosoever I put away his wife, and marry another, mitteth adultery against her.

2 And if a woman shall put away her band, and be married to another, she mitteth adultery.

3 And they brought young children im, that he should touch them: and his iples rebuked those that brought them.

But when Jesus saw it, he was much leased, and said unto them, Suffer the e children to come unto me, and forbid a not: for of such is the kingdom of

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18 And Jesus said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God.

19 Thou knowest the commandments, Do not commit adultery, Do not kill, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, Defraud not, Honour thy father and mother.

20 And he answered and said unto him, Master, all these have I observed from my youth.

21 Then Jesus beholding him loved him, and said unto him, One thing thou lackest: go thy way, sell whatsoever thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come, take up the cross, and follow me.

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27 And Jesus looking upon them saith, With men it is impossible, but not with God: for with God all things are possible.

28 Then Peter began to say unto him, Lo, we have left all, and have followed thee. 29 And Jesus answered and said, Verily say unto you, There is no man that hath

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3 Matt. 19. 13.

Matt, 19. 16.

5 Matt. 19. 27.

left house, or brethren, or sisters, or father, | shall be given to them for whom it is preor mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my sake, and the Gospel's,

pared.

41 And when the ten heard it, they began to be much displeased with James and John.

30 But he shall receive an hundredfold now in this time, houses, and brethren, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and lands, with persecutions; and in the world to come eternal life.

31 But many that are first shall be last; and the last first.

32 And they were in the way going up to Jerusalem; and Jesus went before them and they were amazed; and as they followed, they were afraid. And he took again the twelve, and began to tell them what things should happen unto him,

33 Saying, Behold, we go up to Jerusalem; and the Son of man shall be delivered unto the Chief Priests, and unto the Scribes; and they shall condemn him to death, and shall deliver him to the Gentiles:

34 And they shall mock him, and shall scourge him, and shall spit upon him, and shall kill him: and the third day he shall rise again.

35 And James and John, the sons of Zebedee, come unto him, saying, Master, we would that thou shouldest do for us whatsoever we shall desire.

36 And he said unto them, What would ye that I should do for you?

37 They said unto him, Grant unto us that we may sit, one on thy right hand, and the other on thy left hand, in thy glory.

38 But Jesus said unto them, Ye know not what ye ask: can ye drink of the cup that I drink of? and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with?

39 And they say unto him, We can. And Jesus said unto them, Ye shall indeed drink of the cup that I drink of; and with the baptism that I am baptized withal shall ye be baptized:

40 But to sit on my right hand and on my left hand is not mine to give; but it

6 Matt. 19. 30. 7 Matt. 20. 17. 8 Matt. 20. 20.

42 But Jesus called them to him, and saith unto them, 'Ye know that they which are accounted to rule over the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and their great ones exercise authority upon them.

43 But so shall it not be among you: but whosoever will be great among you, shall be your minister:

44 And whosoever of you will be the chiefest, shall be servant of all.

45 For even the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many.

46 "And they came to Jericho: and as he went out of Jericho with his disciples and a great number of people, blind Bartimæus, the son of Timæus, sat by the highway side begging.

47 And when he heard that it was Jesus of Nazareth, he began to cry out, and say, Jesus, thou Son of David, have mercy on

me.

48 And many charged him that he should hold his peace: but he cried the more a great deal, Thou Son of David, have mercy

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51 And Jesus answered and said unto him, What wilt thou that I should do unto thee? The blind man said unto him, Lord, that I might receive my sight.

52 And Jesus said unto him, Go thy way; thy faith hath made thee whole. And immediately he received his sight, and followed Jesus in the way.

Luke 22. 25. 10 Or, think good. 11 Matt. 20. 29. 12 Or, saved thee.

Verse 12. "And if a woman shall put away her husband."-This is a very singular clause, inasmuch as it appears to intimate that the wife sometimes exercised the right of divorcing her husband. Certainly there is nothing in the Law that can, by any construction, be made to sanction such a practice. We may therefore infer that the Jews had learnt it from the Romans, among whom it was deplorably common. It does not appear, however, that such a practice could have been common or popular among the Jews; that, however, it did exist, we learn not only from the passage before us, but from Josephus: and the instances mentioned by him lead us to conclude that the practice only existed in the higher ranks of society, which were most exposed to the contagion of Roman example; and, seemingly, where the wife was by birth and connections superior to the husband, and could depend upon being supported in a measure so extreme; and which, as it appears to us, must have been so entirely opposed to the established habits of thinking in the Jewish nation. The instances afforded by Josephus are those of Salome, the sister of Herod the Great, who sent a bill of divorce to her husband Costobarus, and dissolved her marriage with him; and that of the notorious Herodias, who divorced her husband Philip, in order to marry his brother Herod, the tetrarch of Galilee. In both cases it would have been useless for the husbands to have made any opposition; and both occur in the Herodian family, so noted for its disposition to adopt Roman customs. Probably these examples had some influence in the higher ranks of society: at

all events, the matter had, in these examples, so lately and prominently been brought before the people, as to account for our Saviour's allusion to it. It ought to be observed, that Josephus, in mentioning the case of Salome, is careful to notice that her act was contrary to the Jewish law; under which a woman, even if she left her husband, was not free to marry another until her former husband had put her away. However, as he strongly remarks, Salome chose rather to follow the law of her authority than the law of her country. And we find that even she considered it prudent to gain the support of her brother Herod, by pretending that what she had done was out of regard for him. (Antiq.' xv. 7, 10.) Philo assigns to the falsely-accused wife the liberty of putting away her husband; but we do not know that this was generally allowed among the Jews; and in this and other cases it appears to us very doubtful whether, even in the most extreme cases, any right which the woman may have possessed of "putting away" her husband was not rather a right of demanding a bill of divorce from her husband, than of giving one to him. It appears, from the second Apology of Justin Martyr, that the first Christians limited divorce to cases of adultery, and considered that the wife had as clear a right to divorce her guilty husband, as the husband had to put away his criminal wife.

17. "What shall I do that I may inherit eternal life?"-This person appears to have been, in doctrine, a Pharisee of that sect which were wont to say, "Let me know what my duty is, and I will do it:" an expression, the spirit of which admits of being differently understood; but which the Talmudical gloss interprets as equivalent to a boastful declamation, that none could point out in what he had transgressed. Both the Talmuds inform us that there were seven sorts of Pharisees; and these, however much they were divided among themselves, seem to have entirely concurred in their enmity to Christ. The six besides the above were,-1. The Shechemite Pharisee-from a reference to the people of Shechem, who were circumcised not from regard to the truth, but for their own gain and profit. 2. The Dashing Pharisee, who walked in humility, scarcely lifting his foot from the ground, so that his feet were dashed against the stones. 3. The Bleeding Pharisee-one who shut his eyes when he walked abroad, to avoid the sight of women; and would press himself close to the walls, that he might not be defiled by touching those who passed by; whence he frequently hurt his person, particularly his feet, making them bleed. 4. The Mortar Pharisee-so called, according to some, from his wearing a loose coat, in the shape of a mortar with the mouth downward; or, as others, from his wearing a cap or head-dress of such a shape. 5. The Pharisee of Fear; who followed the law chiefly from the dread of punishment; and who, from the operation of that principle, paid most attention to the negative commands. 6. The Pharisee of Love, who obeyed the law from a principle of love, and paid more attention than the former to its affirmative commands.

None of these orders of Pharisees are specified by name in the New Testament; but it is possible that allusions to some of them may, on more than one occasion, be discovered. Matth. xxiii. 5, 14, for instance, may very probably allude to the Shechemite Pharisees.

46. "Jericho."-We here introduce a representation of this interesting spot, for a note on which see the note on 1 Kings xvi. 34.

"Bartimeus, the son of Timæus."-This is a name and its translation; for "Bartimæus" means "the son of Timæus." Bar is Syrian for "son," equivalent to the Hebrew Ben; and it occurs rather commonly in the New Testament, in such names as Bartholomew, Barnabas, Barjona, Barjesus. It is incorporated with the proper name, as a patronymic, on the same principle as our "son" in such names as Johnson, Jackson, Thomson, Nelson, and others. The only difference is, that we place the term of relationship at the end rather than the beginning of the name.

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