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and prayed, saying, O my Father, if this 59 Now the Chief Priests, and elders, cup may not pass away from me, except land all the council, sought false witness drink it, thy will be done.
against Jesus, to put him to death, 43 And he came and found them asleep 60 But found none : yea, though many again: for their eyes were heavy.
false witnesses came, yet found they none. 44 And he left them, and went away At the last came two false witnesses, again, and prayed the third time, saying the 61 And said, This fellow said, "I am able same words.
to destroy the temple of God, and to build 45 Then cometh he to his disciples, and it in three days. saith unto them, Sleep on now, and take 62
arose, and said your rest: behold, the hour is at hand, and unto him, Answerest thou nothing? what is the Son of man is betrayed into the hands it which these witness against thee? of sinners.
63 But Jesus held his peace. And the 46 Rise, let us be going: behold, he is High Priest answered and said unto him, I at hand that doth betray me.
adjure thee by the living God, that thou 47 And while he yet spake, lo, Judas, tell us whether thou be the Christ, the Son one of the twelve, came, and with him a of God, great multitude with swords and staves, from 64 Jesus saith unto him, Thou hast said. the Chief Priests and elders of the people. nevertheless I say unto you, *Hereafter
48 Now he that betrayed him gave them shall ye see the Son of man sitting on the a sign, saying, Whomsoever I shall kiss, right hand of power, and coming in the that same is he: hold him fast.
clouds of heaven. 49 And forthwith he came to Jesus, and 65 Then the High Priest rent his clothes, said, Hail, master; and kissed him.
saying, He hath spoken blasphemy; what 50 And Jesus said unto him, Friend, further need have we of witnesses ? behold, wherefore art thou come? Then came they, now ye have heard his blasphemy. and laid hands on Jesus, and took him. 66° What think ye? They answered and
51 And, behold, one of them which were said, He is guilty of death. with Jesus stretched out his hand, and drew 67 "Then did they spit in his face, and his sword, and struck a servant of the High buffeted him; and others smote him with Priest's, and smote off his ear.
*the palms of their hands, 52 Then said Jesus unto him, Put up 68 Saying, Prophesy unto us, thou Christ, again thy sword into his place : "for all they Who is he that smote thee? that take the sword shall perish with the 69 7 *Now Peter sat without in the pasword.
lace: and a damsel came unto him, saying, 53 Thinkest thou that I cannot now pray Thou also wast with Jesus of Galilee. to my Father, and he shall presently give 70 But he denied before them all, saying, me more than twelve legions of angels? I know not what thou sayest.
54 But how then shall the Scriptures be 71 And when he was gone out into the fulfilled, ''that thus it must be ?
porch, another maid saw him, and said unto 55 In that same hour said Jesus to the them that were there. This fellow was also multitudes, Are ye come out as against a with Jesus of Nazareth. thief with swords and staves for to take me? 72 And again he denied with an oath, I I sat daily with you teaching in the temple, do not know the man. and ye laid no hold on me.
73 And after a while came unto him they 56 But all this was done, that the "Scrip- that stood by, and said to Peter, Surely tures of the prophets might be fulfilled. thou also art one of them; for thy speech Then all the disciples forsook him, and fled. bewrayeth thee.
57 I And they that had laid hold on 74 Then began he to curse and to swear, Jesus led him away to Caiaphas the High saying, I know not the man. And immePriest, where the Scribes and the elders diately the cock crew. were assembled.
75 And Peter remembered the word of 58 But Peter followed him afar off unto Jesus, which said unto him, Before the cock the High Priest's palace, and went in, and crow, thou shalt deny me thrice. And he sat with the servants, to see the end. went out, and wept bitterly.
17 Mark 14. 43. Luke 22. 47. John 18. 3.
24 Isa, 30. 6. 25 Or, rods.
18 Gen. 9. 6. Rev. 13. 10.
19 Isa. 53. 10.
20 Lam, S. 88 John 9. 19. 23 Chap. 16. 87. Rom. 14. 10. 1 Thess. 4. 16.
** Mark 14. 66. Luke 92. 55. Joko 18. 25.
Verse 3. “ The palace of the high priest.”—This was not their proper place of asse:nbly; and we may therefore sappose that they met there for the sake of privacy, or that it might not be known that they had any affair in agitation. The Sanhedrim had been accustomed to meet in a room belonging to the Temple, called Gazith, or the paved chamber; but, according to the Babylon Talmud, they ceased to sit in this place forty years before the destruction of the Temple that_is, rather more than a year before the death of Christ. But they still continued to meet within the bounds of the Temple, at a place called Chanoth, or the sheds. The palace of the high priest was in Jerusalem, where he constantly resided; but he was only to be found there at night, as, during the day, he was always in attendance at the Temple, where he had a suitable apartment, called the chamber of the high priest. If that personage were therefore himself present at this meeting, it must have been held in the night time, which indeed appears from other circum
“ Caiaphas.”—This was his surname, his proper name being Joseph. He was appointed high priest by Valerius Gratus, Pilate's predecessor in the government of Judea, towards the end of his administration, or about A.u.c. 777 (A.D. 24); and his removal was one of the first acts of Vitellius, Pilate's successor, a.u.c. 789 (A.D. 36). Caiaphas was, consequently, high priest during the whole of Pilate's administration. Vitellius, who went to Jerusalem soon after his appointment to the government, was well received by the people ; and, in acknowledgment of the honour done to him, granted some important favours, among which Josephus includes the deposition of Caiaphas - which sufficiently shows that he was not popular among his own countrymen. It is not known what became of him after this.
5. “ Not on the feast day, lest there be an uproar among the people.”—It is not very clear, as some suppose, that their apprehensions of a tumult arose from the popularity of Christ among the people ; particularly when we recollect that the multitude had just before been greatly disappointed in the expectations under which they had conducted him with triumphant “ Hosannas” to Jerusalem. A better reason for their apprehensions may be found in the fact, frequently mentioned in the Talmud, that the trial of causes on days of public festival was forbidden-though such a prohibition certainly was not in accordance with the spirit of the law of Deut. xvii. 13. That the people might possibly resent the infraction of a popular usage was therefore very likely. But, as Jahn observes (Arch. Bib. sect. 245), it appears that, as soon as a person was found treacherous enough to betray the Saviour, their fears even from this source vanished. It seems indeed that there is scarcely one of the then existing rules concerning the conduct of public trials which was observed on this occasion. Not to mention in this place other examples, it will be observed that the trial (if it may be so called) and condemnation took place by night; whereas their own canon strictly inculcated that capital causes should be proceeded with and completed by day. Cases of debt, and perhaps some others of a civil nature, were also to be taken by day; but, if prolonged, these might be concluded in the night-time: and this exception the more strongly marks the difference, and consequently points out the irregularity of the present proceeding.
6. “Simon the leper." —Simon was probably one of the lepers whom Jesus had healed. The reason usually given for his not being at present a leper, namely, that he would not have been allowed to live in Bethany, is however not a good 00e, since Bethany appears to have been only a village, and lepers were only excluded from walled towns.
7. " An alabaster bor.”—Theophrastus and Pliny speak of very precious unguents as kept in vessels of alabaster, for their better preservation ; but sometimes the vessels or boxes employed for this use were of gold, silver, glass, stone, or even wood. The vessels of small size, and appear to have borne a form similar to that of our oil-Aasks, with long and narrow necks. They were sometimes much ornamented. Our present cut offers rather a proximate than an exact
illustration, showing the form and ornaments of the small and rich boxes or coffers in which the Romans kept their incense.
Some other observations on this transaction may be found under the parallel account in Mark xiv.
18. “I will keep the Passover at thy house.”—The inhabitants of Jerusalem prepared rooms, with the necessary famiture, in their houses, where strangers might celebrate the passover. These apartments were not let out for the occasion, nor was any compensation taken, but were of common right, for any persons by whom they were wanted, and were freely allowed to any who came to claim them. This was also the case at the other great festivals, when the inhabitants of other places resorted to Jerusalem. The desire to accommodate their brethren was so strongly manifested by the people of Jerusalem that, as we are told by the Jewish writers, notwithstanding the multitudes which resorted to the city, “ A man could never say to his friend, I have not found a fire to roast the passover lamb in Jerusalem, nor have I found a bed to sleep on in Jerusalem ;' nor • The place is too strait for me to lodge in, in Jerusalem.'" See Gill, in loc. These parties for the celebration of the passover had commonly no communication with that of the family of the house ; for not only might two parties celebrate the passover in the same house, but even in the same chamber, if the concourse to Jerusalem were such as to render it necessary.
73. “ Thy speech bewrayeth thee.” —Compare Luke xxii. 59:-“ Another confidently affirmed, saying, Of a truth this fellow also was with him: for he is a Galilean.” From which we learn that the dialect of the Galileans was so distinctly marked from that of the inhabitants of Judea, that a man could without hesitation be distinguished for a Gali lean by his manner of speech. This is not surprising; since we see that even in comparatively small countries--our own for one-the dialects are found differing greatly from one another, and all from that of the metropolitan district. Even in the small island of Malta, where the vernacular language is a kind of barbarous Arabic, the dialects are se marked, that there was a knight of Malta who acquired some credit for being so well versed in them, that he was able, from hearing them spoken, to discover from what casals (villages) the peasantry who frequented the market of Valetta came. It appears from the Talmudists that the dialect of Galilee was considered very barbarous and corrupt by the people of Judea. This may have partly proceeded from the circumstance that the population was of a character much more mixed than that of Judea, being occupied along with the Jews by people of different origin and languages, whose attempts to understand and be understood by one another occasioned accommodations and amalgamations of words and sounds which, while they facilitated intercourse, tended to the corruption of the several languages. If we rightly collect the results of the Rabbinical statements, it appears that the dialect of the Galileans was marked by the inde terminate pronunciation of particular letters, so that the nice ear of the metropolitan Jew was often at a loss to distinguish their meaning; and in mispronouncing or confounding particular letters, especially the gutturals, in such a manner that they were frequently, out of their own country, understood to express something very different indeed from that which they intended to say. Lightfoot ( Chorog. Lent.,'ch. 87) has collected some amusing examples, which we may cite in a condensed form.
A certain Galilean said, “Whose is ( 10X immar) this lamb?” But he pronounced the first letter of the word 70X immar, so confusedly and uncertainly, that his hearers could not tell whether he meant 20 chamar, “ an ass ; ** or non chamar, “ wine;" or Joy amar, “wool ;" or 10X immar, “a lamb.” Another case is mentioned of a Galilean woman who said to her neighbour, sabot T1287 X tai doclic chalaba —“Come, and I will feed you with milk :” she pronounced the two last words as x25 Tobain toclic labe, words that imply a curse, “ Let a lion devour thee.” Another case is that of a woman who intended to say before a judge, “ My lord, I had a picture, which they stole, and it was so large that if you had been placed in it, your feet would not have touched the ground." But she su managed the pronunciation, that she was understood to say, “Sir
, slave, I had a beam, and they stole thee away, and it was so large that if they had hung thee in it, thy feet would not have touched the ground.”
74. “ The cock crew."—To this it has been objected that there were no cocks kept in Jerusalem, lest their habit of turning over dunghills, where they might find creeping things, should expose to pollution the holy food—the peace offerings and thank offerings—which were eaten in that city. It is not disputed that such a regulation existed; but we know that it was on some account or other dispensed with or not enforced. For Lightfoot and others have shown that cocks were actually kept at Jerusalem, as in other places, and instance the story, in the Jerusalem Talmud, of a cock which was stoned, by the sentence of the council, for having killed a little child.
thirty pieces of silver to the Chief Priests
and elders, 1 Christ is delivered bound to Pilate. 3 Judas hang
eth himself. 19 Pilate, admonished of his wife, 4 Saying, I have sinned in that I have 24 washeth his hands : 26 and looseth Barabbas. betrayed the innocent blood. 29 Christ is crowned with thorns, 34 crucified, said, 'What is that to us ? see thou io 40 reviled, 50 dieth, and is buried : 66 his sepul- thať. chre is sealed, and watched.
5 And he cast down the pieces of silver When the morning was come, 'all the Chief in the temple, "and departed, and went and Priests and elders of the people took counsel hanged himself. against Jesus to put him to death:
6 And the Chief Priests took the silver 2 And when they had bound him, they pieces, and said, It is not lawful for to put ied him away, and delivered him to Pontius them into the treasury, because it is the price Pilate the governor.
of blood. 3 Then Judas, which had betrayed 7 And they took counsel, and bought him, when he saw that he was condemned, with them the potter's field, to bury stranrepented himself, and brought again the l gers in.
I Mark 15. 1.
Luke 22. 66. Juho 18. 28,
2 Acts 1. 18.
8 Wherefore that field was called, The 25 Then answered all the people, and field of blood, unto this day.
said, His blood be on us, and on our chil. 9 Then was fulfilled that which was dren. spoken by Jeremy the prophet, saying, 26 Then released he Barabbas unto *And they took the thirty pieces of silver, them: and when he had scourged Jesus, he the price of him that was valued, 'whom delivered him to be crucified. they of the children of Israel did value; 27 Then the soldiers of the governor took
10 And gave them for the potter's field, Jesus into the 'common hall, and gathered as the Lord appointed me.
unto him the whole band of soldiers. 11 And Jesus stood before the governor: 28 And they stripped him, and put on and the governor asked him, saying, Art | him a scarlet robe. thou the King of the Jews? And Jesus said 29 | And when they had platted a crown unto him, Thou sayest.
of thorns, they put it upon his head, and a 12 And when he was accused of the Chief reed in his right hand: and they bowed the Priests and elders, he answered nothing. knee before him, and mocked him, saying,
13 Then said Pilate unto him, Hearest Hail, king of the Jews ! thou not how many things they witness 30 And they spit upon him, and took the against thee?
reed, and smote him on the head. 14 And he answered him to never a 31 And after that they had mocked him, word; insomuch that the governor marvelled they took the robe off from him, and put his greatly.
own raiment on him, and led him away to 15 •Now at that feast the governor was crucify him. wont to release unto the people a prisoner, 32 And as they came out, they found a whom they would.
man of Cyrene, Simon by name: him they 16 And they had then a notable prisoner, compelled to bear his cross. called Barabbas.
33 "And when they were come unto a 17 Therefore when they were gathered place called Golgotha, that is to say, a place together, Pilate said unto them, Whom will of a skull, ye that I release unto you? Barabbas, or 34 q They gave him vinegar to drink Jesus which is called Christ?
mingled with gall: and when he had tasted 18 For he knew that for envy they had thereof, he would not drink. delivered him.
35 And they crucified him, and parted 19 | When he was set down on the his garments, casting lots : that it might be judgment seat, his wife sent unto him, say- fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, ing, Have thou nothing to do with that just "They parted my garments among them, man: for I have suffered many things this and upon my vesture did they cast lots. day in a dream because of him.
36 And sitting down they watched him 20 "But the Chief Priests and elders per- there; suaded the multitude that they should ask 37 And set up over his head his accuBarabbas, and destroy Jesus.
sation written, THIS IS JESUS THE 21 The governor answered and said unto KING OF THE JEWS. them, Whether of the twain will ye that I 38 Then were there two thieves crucified release unto you? They said, Barabbas. with him, one on the right hand, and an
22 Pilate saith unto them, What shall I other on the left. do then with Jesus which is called Christ? 39 | And they that passed by reviled They all say unto him, Let him be crucified. him, wagging their heads,
23 And the governor said, Why, what 40 And saying, Thou that destroyest the evil hath he done? But they cried out the temple, and buildest it in three days, save more, saying, Let him be crucified.
. If thou be the Son of God, come 24 | When Pilate saw that he could pre- down from the cross. vail nothing, but that rather a tumult was 41 Likewise also the Chief Priests mockmade, he took water, and washed his hands ing, him, with the Scribes and elders, before the multitude, saying, I am innocent said, of the blood of this just person: see ye to
42 He saved others; himsell he cannot save. If he be the King of Israel, let him
3 Acts 1. 19. 4 Zerh. 11. 13 Or, whom they bought of the children of Israel.
8 John 19. 1. Or governor's huuse. 10 Mark 15. 21. Luke 23. 26,
. Luke 23. 17.
10 Joho 19. 17.
1 John 18. 40. Acts 3. 14. 1* Psal. 22. 18.
now come down from the cross, and we will 45 Now from the sixth hour there was believe him.
darkness over all the land unto the ninth 43 He trusted in God; let him deliver hour. him now, if he will have him : for he said, 46 And about the ninth hour Jesus cried I am the Son of God.
with a loud voice, saying, Eli, Eli, lama sa44 The thieves also, which were crucified bachthani ? that is to say, "My God, my with him, cast the same in his teeth.
God, why hast thou forsaken me? 13 Psal. 22.8. Wisd, 2. 16, 17, 18.
14 Psal. 22. 1.