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12 But when ye sin so against the bre- 13 Wherefore, 'if meat make my brother thren, and wound their weak conscience, ye to offend, I will eat no flesh while the world sin against Christ.

standeth, lest I make my brother to offend.

7 Rom. 14. 91. Verse 4. Eating of those things...offered... unto idols.It could not be unlawful in itself to eat what had been offered to idols'; for the consecration of Aesh or of wine to an idol did not make it the property of the idol ; an idol being in fact a nonentity, and incapable of property. This is the doctrine of the apostle, who therefore allows the Corinthians to eat freely whatever was sold in the shambles, without being careful to ascertain whether it had been offered to idols or not. In case, however, “ a weak brother” should call their attention to the circumstance, that the meat before them had been thus offered, they were, for his sake, to abstain. The Corinthians, however, had carried their ideas of liberty much further than this ; being probably led away by their spirit of opposition to the Jewish Christians, who were disposed, according to their old notions, to abstain most scrupulously from the idol sacrifices, and deemed it their duty to ascertain that nothing of which they partook had been offered to an idol. But the Gentile converts, being taught that the eating of such food was a matter of indifference, and knowing that “an idol was nothing," chose to understand that all the circumstances which might be connected with such eating, were also matters of indifference. Therefore they thought it lawful to visit the heathen temples, which were frequently places of riot and debauchery, and to par. take of the offerings, amidst the praises which were sung to the heathen gods. "This," as Michaelis observes, " was an actual participation of the idolatry; and such persons were of course considered by the heathen as having joined in their worship. St. Paul therefore judged it necessary to warn the Corinthians against idolatry, which he has done especially in 1 Cor. x. 7, 2; 2 Cor. vi. 14-17. Whether an act be a religious test or not depends on the circumstances and place of its performance. If I eat a wafer in my room, it siguifies nothing: but if I eat it before a Romish altar, 1 avow myself a member of the church of Rome.” It will be observed that in this note we have adverted not merely to the contents of this chapter, but to all which the apostle has said on the subject in his epistles to the Corinthians.

race.

CHAPTER IX.

written : that he that ploweth should plow 1 He sheweth his liberty, 7 and that the minister

in hope; and that he that thresheth in hope ought to live by the Gospel : 15 yet that himself should be partaker of his hope. hath of his own accord abstained, 18 to be either 11 'If we have sown unto you spiritual chargeable unto them, 22 or offensive unto any, in

things, is it a great thing if we shall reap matters indifferent. 24 Our life is like unto a

your carnal things ?

12 If others be partakers of this power Am I not an apostle ? am I not free? 'have over you, are not we rather? Nevertheless I not seen Jesus Christ our Lord ? are not

we have not used this power; but suffer all ye my work in the Lord ?

things, lest we should hinder the Gospel of 2 If I be not an apostle unto others, yet Christ. doubtless I am to you: for the seal of mine 13 'Do ye not know that they which miapostleship are ye in the Lord.

nister about holy things olive of the things 3 Mine answer to them that do examine of the temple ? and they which wait at the me is this,

altar are partakers with the altar? 4 Have we not power to eat and to 14 Even so hath the Lord ordained 'that drink?

they which preach the Gospel should live of 5 Have we not power to lead about a the Gospel sister, a 'wife, as well as other apostles, and 15 But I have used none of these things : as the brethren of the Lord, and Cephas? neither have I written these things, that it

6 Or I only and Barnabas, have not we should be so done unto me: for it were better power to forbear working ?

for me to die, than that any man should 7 Who goeth a warfare any time at his make my glorying void. own charges ? who planteth a vineyard, and 16 For though I preach the Gospel, I eateth not of the fruit thereof? or who feed

have nothing to glory of: for necessity is eth a flock, and eateth not of the milk of laid upon me; yea, woe is unto me, if I the flock?

preach not the Gospel! 8 Say I these things as a man? or saith 17 For if I do this thing willingly, I have not the law the same also ?

a reward: but if against my will, a dispen9 For it is written in the law of Moses, sation of the Gospel is committed unto me. Thou shalt not muzzle the mouth of the ox 18 What is my reward then? Verily that, that treadeth out the corn. Doth God take when I preach the Gospel, I may make the care for oxen ?

Gospel of Christ without charge, that I 10 Or saith he it altogether for our abuse not my power in the Gospel. sakes? For our sakes, no doubt, this is 19 For though I be free from all men, yet 1 Chap. 15. 8.

* Or, feed.

2 Or, woman.

3 Deut. 25. 4. • Rom, 15. 27.

7 Gal. 6. 6. 1 Tim. 5. 17.

Num. 18, 20, Deut. 10. 9. and 18. 1.

ye may obtain.

law;

have I made myself servant unto all, that I 23 And this I do for the Gospel's sake, might gain the more.

that I might be partaker thereof with you. 20 And unto the Jews I became as a 24 Know ye not that they which run in a Jew, that I might gain the Jews; to them race run all, but one receiveth the prize ? that are under the law, as under the law, So run, that that I might gain them that are under the 25 And every man that striveth for the

mastery is temperate in all things. Now 21 To them that are without law, as they do it to obtain a corruptible crown; without law, (being not without law to God, but we an incorruptible. but under the law to Christ,) that I might 26 I therefore so run, not as uncertainly; gain them that are without law.

so fight I, not as one that beateth the air 22 To the weak became I as weak, that 27 But I keep under my body, and bring I might gain the weak: I am made all it into subjection : lest that by any means, things to all men, that I might by all means when I have preached to others, Í myself save some.

should be a castaway. Verse 1. Am I not an apostle?”—It seems that St. Paul's apostolical authority had been questioned by the Judaizing Christians at Corinth ; and in proof of this, they had referred to certain disagreements between his practice and that of the other apostles, which they adduced as implying his own consciousness that he was not invested with the same powers which they possessed. In answer to this, Paul first asserts his full apostolical authority, and his equal right with them to all that which they claimed, but which he, from considerations of expediency, had deelined. He then adduces instances in which, from such considerations, he had waived the exercise of his apostolical right; particularly that, although fully entitled to have his wants provided for by the church in which he laboured, he had, for the sake of independence, and to preclude the suspicion of interested motives, chosen rather to earn his own living by the labour of his hands. This is the general scope of the chapter.

7. Who goeth a warfare... at his own charges ?”—In times more ancient, it had not been customary for soldiers to receive pay from the public; the people, or a certain class of the people, being liable to be called out as occasion arose, and to serve at their own expense. This had been originally the Roman custom also ; but at this time the Roman soldiers had long been in the habit of receiving pay from the public; as always happens when the military service becomes a profession. Consequently, the Roman empire scarcely at this time afforded an example of a soldier going a warfare at his own charges. Even those kings, ethnarchs, and tetrarchs, whom the Romans permitted to hold sovereignty, seem generally to have adopted the custom of paying the troops in their service. Thus, John the Baptist counselled the soldiers of Herod the tetrarch, to be “contented with their wages."

Eateth not of the fruit thereof."-This alludes to the custom for the tenant of a vineyard to pay a produce-rent to the owner.

Eateth not of the milk.”—The Oriental shepherd is generally paid not in money, but by being allowed a part of the milk of the flock which he tends, and a certain proportion of the lambs which it produces while under his care. The proportion varies with circumstances; every tenth lamb is not unusual.

24. Run in a race.” -- Here follow some beautiful allusions to the Isthmian Games, which, as already mentioned, were celebrated on the isthmus which connected the Morea with the continent, and near which the city of Corinth stood. The Isthmian were the third of the four sacred games celebrated in Greece ; the others being the Olympic, the Pythian, and the Nemæan. They were celebrated every third year, in the summer. They consisted of racing, wrestling, leaping, boxing, and quoiting ; nor were music and poetry, or whatever was rare and costly in nature or art, wanting to aggrandize the spectacle. The illustrations of the apostle are taken almost exclusively from the stadiun, or foot-race; the course for which was 300 cubits long.

They... run all, but one receiveth the prize.”—In the other games there were several prizes of different value, but in the race there was but one prize for the victor.

that ye may obtain.”—This probably refers to the necessity of adherence to the rules by which the race was regulated. The path which the racers were to keep was marked out by white lines or by posts ; and he who trespassed beyond these lines, diverging from the path which they marked out, lost the prize, even though he were the first to reach the goal. Indeed, if, as some state, the course was bounded on one side by the river Alpheus, and on the other was kept by men with drawn swords, a greater danger was involved, in any deviation, than the mere loss of the victor's crown.

25. Is temperate in all things.”—This refers to the severe previous training which those underwent who intended to compete for the prize at the Isthmian Games. This training lasted twelve months, during which, under an expe rienced teacher of the gymnastic arts, all the wants of nature, and all sensual indulgence, was under the most strict regulation. Their eating, drinking, walking, and sleeping were determined, as to time and quantity, by rule ; and they were constantly exercised in those arts the prizes for which they intended to contest. Raphelius and others have pointed out the illustration which the following passage in Epictetus offers :—“Would you be a victor in the Olympic games? So, in good truth, would I ; for it is a glorious thing. But pray consider what must go before, and what must follow, and so proceed in the attempt. You must then live by rule, eat what will be disagreeable, and refrain from delicacies: you must oblige yourself to constant exercise, at the appointed hour, in heat and cold'; you must abstain from wine and cold liquors: in a word, you must be as submissive to all the directions of your master as to those of a physician.” (“Enchirid, c. 35.)

They do it to obtain a corruptible crown.”—The immediate reward of the victor in these games, was a garland of leaves, which faded and perished soon. The victor's garland in the Isthmian Games was of pine-leares; in the Olympic Games, of wild olive; in the Pythian, of laurel; and in the Nemæan, of parsley. It is true that there were, besides this, some important emoluments and privileges, which rewarded the victor in the games ; but the “ corruptible

was the immediate and sensible reward of the victor, and probably was at the time more thought of than any

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ulterior benefits, since it gave the right to them all, and covered the person who wore it with honour and distinction in the eyes of assembled Greece. 26. “ Run, not as uncertainly.—The third note on verse 24 explains this.

Fight.—The metaphor here is changed from running to boxing. The apostle, in saying that he does not fight “as one that beateth the air,” possibly alludes to the preliminary exercises of those who intended to engage in the pugilistic contests. In order to acquire the proper dexterity and firmness of muscle, it was customary for them to exercise themselves with the gauntlet, and to Aing their arms about as if they were engaged with an actual combatant. This was called bearing the air ; and came to be a proverbial expression applied to those who missed their aim in the actual conflict; which seems to be the thing here intended by the apostle.

27. I keep under my body," &c.—This is a continuation of the pugilistic metaphor, and is opposed to the uncertain beating of the air just mentioned. The word (útonia.sv) rendered " I keep under," means to strike on the face, and particularly on that part under the eyes, hence to strike under the eye, that being the part especially aimed at by the combatants. The word also is ofen used to signify a livid tumour on that part, and is sometimes proverbially employed to denote a face terribly bruised and disfigured, as the face of a boxer usually is when he comes from the combat.

Bring it into subjection.”—This is thought by Hammond and others to allude to the practice of the wrestiers, in securing the victory by giving their opponent a fall. The connection of the two allusions, this to wrestling and the preceding to boring, is the more obvious when it is understood that one of the games combined both sorts of play, There is an allusion which connects them as closely in Aristotle (Rhet.' 1. i. c. 5); "He who can oppress and get down his adversary is called good at wrestling; he who can smite him down with his fist, an able boxer ; but he that can do both is the pancratiasta.”

14

what I say.

CHAPTER X.

them for ensamples: and they are written 1 The sacraments of the Jews 6 are types of our's,

for our admonition, upon whom the ends of 7 and their punishments, 11 examples for us.

the world are come. We must fly from idolatry. 21 We must not

12 Wherefore let him that thinketh he make the Lord's table the table of devils : 24 and standeth take heed lest he fall. in things indifferent we must have regard of our 13 There hath no temptation taken you brethren.

but such as is common to man: but God Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye is faithful, who will not suffer you to be should be ignorant, how that all our fathers tempted above that ye are able; but will were under 'the cloud, and all passed with the temptation also make a way to through the sea;

escape, that ye may be able to bear it. 2 And were all baptized unto Moses in 14 Wherefore, my dearly beloved, flce the cloud and in the sea;

from idolatry: 3 And did all eat the same 'spiritual 15 I speak as to wise men; judge ye meat;

4 And did all drink the same spiritual 16 The cup of blessing which we bless, is drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock it not the communion of the blood of Christ? that followed them: and that Rock was The bread which we break, is it not the Christ.

communion of the body of Christ? 5 But with many of them God was not 17 For we being many are one bread, well pleased : for they 'were overthrown in and one body: for we are all partakers of the wilderness.

that one bread. 6 Now these things were 'our examples, 18 Behold Israel after the flesh: are not to the intent we should not lust after evil they which eat of the sacrifices partakers of things, as they also lusted.

the altar? 7 Neither be ye idolaters, as were some 19 What say I then ? that the idol is any of them; as it is written, "The people sat thing, or that which is offered in sacrifice to down to eat and drink, and rose up to play. idols is any thing ?

8 Neither let us commit fornication, as 20 But I say, that the things which the some of them committed, and fell in one Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils, day three and twenty thousand.

and not to God: and I would not that

ye 9 Neither let us tempt Christ, as some should have fellowship with devils. of them also tempted, and were destroyed 21 Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, of serpents.

and the cup of devils: ye cannot be par10 Neither murmur ye, as some of them takers of the Lord's table, and of the table also murmured, and were destroyed of the of devils. . destroyer.

22 Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? 11 Now all these things happened unto are we stronger than he ? i Exod. 13. 21. Num. 9. 18.

5 Or, went with them. 7 Gr. our figures.

13 0r, types.

Num. 26. 65.

2 Exod. 14. 22. 3 Exod. 16. 15. • Exod. 17. 6. Num, 20. 11.
8 Num, 11. 4. Psal. 106. 14. 9 Exod. 32. 6. 10 Num. 25. 9. 11 Num. 21. 6.

14 Or, moderate. 15 Deut. 32. 17. Psal. 106. 37.

18 Num. 14.37.

23 All things are lawful for me, but all for the earth is the Lord's, and the fulness things are not expedient: all things are law- thereof: ful for me, but all things edify not.

29 Conscience, I say, not thine own, but 24 Let no man seek his own, but every of the other: for why is my liberty judged man another's wealth.

of another man's conscience ? 25 Whatsoever is sold in the shambles, 30 For if I by 'grace be a partaker, why that cat, asking no question for conscience am I evil spoken of for that for which I gire sake:

thanks? 26 For the earth is the Lord's, and the 31 "Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, fulness thereof.

or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of 27 If any of them that believe not bid God. you to a feast, and ye be disposed to go; 32 *Give none offence, neither to the whatsoever is set before you, eat, asking no Jews, nor to the "Gentiles, nor to the question for conscience sake.

Church of God: 28 But if any man say unto you, This is 33 Even as I please all men in all things, offered in sacrifice unto idols, eat not for his not seeking mine own profit, but the profil sake that shewed it, and for conscience sake: of many, that they may be saved.

16 Deut. 10.14. Psal. 24. I. 17 Deut. 10. 14. Psal. 24. 1. 18 Or, thanksgioing. 19 Col. 3. 17. 20 2 Cor. 6. 3. 11 Gr. Greeks Chap. X.-The general design of this chapter appears to be to impress upon the Corinthians that they carried their ideas of Christian liberty to a dangerous extent, when they joined idolaters in the feasts held in the idol temples upon the sacrifices which had been offered there ; since they could not do this without at least seeming to be idolaters thenselves. This he illustrates by a reference to the idea of communion involved in the act of eating and drinking, in the Lord's Supper on the one hand, and in a participation of the sacrifices of the Jewish altar on the other; showing by these instances that to join in a feast considered sacred was considered the act of an adherent to that system under which it took place, and with which it was connected. Such being the scope of this chapter, its contents may be comprehended in the general illustration which has been given in the note to ch. viii.

Verse 16. The cup of blessing.”—This, as we have already shown, was the name which the Jews gave to the final cup of wine at the Paschal feast.

the man.

CHAPTER XI.

a woman to be shorn or shaven, let her be

covered. 1 He reproveth them, because in holy assemblies 4

7 For a man indeed ought not to corer their men prayed with their heads covered, and 6 women with their heads uncovered, 17 and be

his head, forasmuch as he is the image and cause generally their meetings were not for the glory of God: but the woman is the glory of better but for the worse, as 21 namely in profaning with their nun feasts the Lord's supper. 8 For the man is not of the woman; but 23 Lastly, he calleth them to the first institution

the woman of the man. thereof.

9 •Neither was the man created for the BE

ye followers of me, even as I also am of woman; but the woman for the man. Christ.

10 For this cause ought the woman to 2 Now I praise you, brethren, that ye re- have 'power on her head because of the member me in all things, and keep the 'or- angels. dinances, as I delivered them to you.

11 Nevertheless neither is the man with3 But I would have you know, that 'the out the woman, neither the woman without head of every man is Christ; and the head the man, in the Lord. of the woman is the man; and the head of 12 For as the woman is of the man, even Christ is God.

so is the man also by the woman; but all 4 Every man praying or prophesying, things of God. having his head covered, dishonoureth his 13 Judge in yourselves : is it comely that head.

a woman pray unto God uncovered? 5 But every woman that prayeth or pro- 14 Doth not even nature itself teach you, phesieth with her head uncovered disho- that, if a man have long hair, it is a shame noureth her head: for that is even all one

unto him? as if she were shaven.

15 But if a woman have long hair, it is a 6 For if the woman be not covered, let glory to her: for her hair is given her for a her also be shorn : but if it be a shame for covering. ' Ephes. 5. 23.

• Gen, 2. 23, • That is, a covering, in sign that she is ender the power of her husban?.

i Or, tradition

3 Gen. 1 26.

6 Or, vuil.

16 But if any man seem to be conten- 25 After the same manner also he took tious, we have no such custom, neither the the cup, when he had supped, saying, This churches of God.

cup is the new testament in my blood : this 17 Now in this that I declare unto you I do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance praise you not, that ye come together not of me. for the better, but for the worse.

26 For as often as ye eat this bread, and 18 For first of all, when ye come together drink this cup, ''ye do shew the Lord's death in the church, I hear that there be divisions till he come. among you; and I partly believe it.

27 Wherefore whosoever shall eat this 19 For there must be also heresies among bread, and drink this cup of the Lord, unyou, that they which are approved may be worthily, shall be guilty of the body and made manifest among you.

blood of the Lord. 20 When ye come together therefore 28 But let a man examine himself, and into one place, 'this is not to eat the Lord's so let him eat of that bread, and drink of supper.

21 For in eating every one taketh before 29 For he that eateth and drinketh unother his own supper: and one is hungry, worthily, eateth and drinketh "damnation and another is drunken.

to himself, not discerning the Lord's body. 22 What? have ye not houses to eat and 30 For this cause many are weak and to drink in? or despise ye the Church of sickly among you, and many sleep. God, and shame to them that have not? 31 For if we would judge ourselves, we What shall I say to you? shall I praise you should not be judged. in this? I praise you not.

32 But when we are judged, we are chas23 For I have received of the Lord that tened of the Lord, that we should not be which also I delivered unto you, That the condemned with the world. Lord Jesus the same night in which he was 33 Wherefore, my brethren, when ye come betrayed took bread :

together to eat, tarry one for another. 24'"And when he had given thanks, he 34 And if any man hunger, let him eat brake it, and said, Take, eat: this is my at home; that ye come not together unto body, which is broken for you : this do "in condemnation. And the rest will I set in remembrance of me.

order when I come.

that cup:

? Or, schisms.

11 Matt. 26. 96
8 Or, sects.
10 Or, them that are poor.

Mark 14. 22. Luke 22. 19
9 Or, ye cannot eat.
1% Or, for a remembrance.

13 Or, shew ye.

1. Or, judgment. 15 Or, judgment.

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