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tion within themselves, and said, Why was disciples said unto him, Where wilt thou this waste of the ointment made ?
that we go and prepare that thou mayest 5 For it might have been sold for more eat the Passover ? than three hundred pence, and have been 13 And he sendeth forth two of his given to the poor. And they murmured disciples, and saith unto them, Go ye against her.
into the city, and there shall meet you a 6 And Jesus said, Let her alone; why man bearing a pitcher of water : follow trouble ye her? she hath wrought a good him. work on me.
14 And wheresoever he shall go in, say 7 For ye have the poor with you always, ye to the goodınan of the house, The Masand whensoever ye will ye may do them ter saith, Where is the guestchamber, where good : but me ye have not always.
I shall eat the Passover with my disci8 She hath done what she could: she is ples? come aforehand to anoint my body to the
15 And he will shew you a large upper burying
room furnished and prepared: there make 9 Verily I say unto you, Wheresoever ready for us. this Gospel shall be preached throughout 16 And his disciples went forth, and the whole world, this also that she hath came into the city, and found as he had done shall be spoken of for a memorial of said unto them: and they made ready the her.
Passover. 10 | 'And Judas Iscariot, one of the 17 And in the evening he cometh with twelve, went unto the Chief Priests, to be the twelve. tray him unto them.
18 And as they sat and did eat, Jeil And when they heard it, they were sus said, Verily I say unto you, One of glad, and promised to give him money. you which eateth with me shall betray Ånd' he sought how he might conveniently me. betray him.
19 And they began to be sorrowful, and 12 1 °And the first day of unleavened to say unto him one by one, Is it I ? and bread, when they "killed the Passover, his another said, Is it I ?
7 Or, sacrificed.
See Matt. 18. 28.
5 Matt. 26. 14.
& Matt. 26. 17.
8 Matt, 26. 20
20 And he answered and said unto them, 28 But after that I am risen, I will go It is one of the twelve, that dippeth with me before you into Galilee. in the dish.
29 "But Peter said unto him, Although 21 The Son of man indeed goeth, as it is all shall be offended, yet will not I. written of him : but woe to that man by
30 And Jesus saith unto him, Verily I whom the Son of man is betrayed ! good say unto thee, That this day, even in this were it for that man if he had never been night, before the cock crow twice, thou shalt born.
deny me thrice. 22 f 'And as they did eat, Jesus took 31 But he spake the more vehemently, If bread, and blessed, and brake it, and gave I should die with thee, I will not deny thee to them, and said, Take, eat: this is my in any wise. Likewise also said they all. body.
32 And they came to a place which was 23 And he took the cup, and when he named Gethsemane: and he saith to his dishad given thanks, he gave it to them: and ciples, Sit ye here, while I shall pray. they all drank of it.
33 And he taketh with him Peter and 24. And he said unto them, This is my James and John, and began to be sore blood of the new testament, which is shed amazed, and to be very heavy;
34 And saith unto them, My soul is ex25 Verily I say unto you, I will drink no ceeding sorrowful unto death : tarry ye here, more of the fruit of the vine, until that day and watch. that I drink it new in the kingdom of 35 And he went forward a little, and God.
fell on the ground, and prayed that, if it 26 | And when they had sung an "hymn, were possible, the hour might pass from they went out into the mount of Olives. him.
27 "And Jesus saith unto them, All ye 36 And he said, Abba, Father, all things shall be offended because of me this night: are possible unto thee; take away this cup for it is written, I will smite the shepherd, from me: nevertheless not what I will, but and the sheep shall be scattered.
what thou wilt. Matt; 26. 26. 10 Os, psalm.
13 Matt, 26, 36.
11 Matt. 26. 31.
12 Matt. 26. 33.
37 And he cometh, and findeth them sat with the servants, and warmed himself sleeping, and saith unto Peter, Simon, at the fire. sleepest thou? couldest not thou watch one 55 16And the Chief Priests and all the hour?
council sought for witness against Jesus to 38 Watch ye and pray, lest ye enter into put him to death; and found none. temptation. The spirit truly is ready, but 56 For many bare false witness against the flesh is weak.
him, but their witness agreed not together. 39 And again he went away, and prayed, 57 And there arose certain, and bare and spake the same words.
false witness against him, saying, 40 ‘And when he returned, he found them 58 We heard him say, I will destroy this asleep again, (for their eyes were heavy,) temple that is made with hands, and within neither wist they what to answer him. three days I will build another made with
41 And he cometh the third time, and out hands. saith unto them, Sleep on now, and take
59 But neither so did their witness agree your rest: it is enough, the hour is come; together. behold, the Son of man is betrayed into the 60 And the High Priest stood up in the hands of sinners.
midst, and asked Jesus, saying, Answerest 42 Rise
up, let us go; lo, he that betray- thou nothing ? what is it which these witeth me is at hand.
ness against thee? 43 | "And immediately, while he yet 61 But he held his peace, and answered spake, coineth Judas, one of the twelve, and nothing. Again the High Priest asked him, with him a great multitude with swords and and said unto him. Art thou the Christ, the staves, from the Chief Priests and the Scribes Son of the Blessed ? and the elders.
62 And Jesus said, I am: "and ye shall 14 And he that betrayed him had given see the Son of man sitting on the right hand them a token, saying, Whomsoever I shall of power, and coming in the clouds of heakiss, that same is he; take him, and lead him away safely.
63 Then the High Priest rent his clothes, 45 And as soon as he was come, he goeth and saith, What need we any further witstraight way to him, and saith, Master, mas- nesses ? ter; and kissed him.
64 Ye have heard the blasphemy: what 46 9 And they laid their hands on him, think ye? And they all condemned' him to and took him.
be guilty of death. 47 And one of them that stood by drew 65 And some began to spit on him, and a sword, and smote a servant of the High to cover his face, and to buffet him, and to Priest, and cut off his ear.
say unto him, Prophesy: and the servants 48 And Jesus answered and said unto did strike him with the palms of their them, Are ye come out, as against a thief, hands. with Swords and with staves to take 66 | 8 And as Peter was beneath in the me ?
palace, there cometh one of the maids of the 49 I was daily with you in the temple | High Priest : teaching, and ye took me not : but the Scrip- 67 And when she saw Peter warming tures must be fulfilled.
himself, she looked upon him, and said, 50 And they all forsook him, and fled. And thou also wast with Jesus of Nazareth.
51. And there followed him a certain 68 But he denied, saying, I know not, young man, having a linen cloth cast about neither understand I what thou sayest. his naked body; and the young men laid And he went out into the porch; and the hold on him :
52 And he left the linen cloth, and fled 69 And a maid saw him again, and began from them naked.
to say to them that stood by, This is one of 53 | "And they led Jesus away to the them. High Priest : and with him were assembled 70 And he denied it again. And a little all the Chief Priests and the elders and the after, they that stood by said again to PeScribes.
ter, Surely thou art one of them: for thou 54 And Peter followed him afar off, even art a Galilæan, and thy speech agreeth into the palace of the High Priest: and he thereto.
14 Matt, 26. 47.
15 Matt. 26. 57.
18 Matt. 26.59.
17 Matt. 24. 30.
18 Matt, 86. 69.
71 But he began to curse and to swear, And Peter called to mind the word that saying, I know not this man of whom ye Jesus said unto him, Before the cock crow speak.
twice, thou shalt deny me thrice. And 72 And the second time the cock crew. 20when he thought thereon, he wept.
19 Matt. 26.73.
20 Or, he wept abundantly, or, he began to weep. Verse 3. “Spikenard.”—Næpons, which also occurs in the Ou Testament, under the same name, 77) nard; and in the Latin, nardus. Although the word occurs in Hebrew, it is not supposed by lexicographers to be a proper Hebrew word, but a foreign one, probably Indian, as well as the perfume it denoted; but Sir William Jones regards the word as Persian. That the nard of the ancients came from India is generally admitted by their writers ; and although some speak of a Syrian and Persian nard, not much stress is to be laid on this, as the Greeks and Romans have often mystified us with respect to other products, by regarding them as produced in the country of the people from whom they obtained them, but who really procured them from a far country. However, as it is allowed, that even if India did not alone produce the spikenard, it produced the best and most costly, there need be no difficulty in allowing that Syria, &c. may have produced a kind of spikenard, or something which went by that name, however inferior to the true In-lian perfume. That the present was the Indian sort, is evinced by the high price, which clearly denotes a costly foreign commodity, as well as does the sensation which its lavish waste excited in the persons present. The Romanis gave the name of nardus to the plant, and that of nardum to its aromatic essence, exhibited, apparently, as an essential oil, or attar, as it is called in the East. The classical writers bear witness to its custliness and the high estimation in which it was held. Horace describes a small quantity contained in an onyx-box, as a sort of equivalent to a large vessel of wine; and he and others describe its use at baths and entertainments. Its high price rendured it liable to much adulteration, and difficult to procure in a pure and genuine state ; whence the Evangelist takes care to apply to it the epithet F1671x95, pure, or unadulterated.
The difficulty which has been felt in identifying the plant which produced this precious perfume, was felt to be alınost insuperable, till Sir William Jones turned his attention to the subject while in India, and published the result of his inquiries in the • Asiatic Researches,' (vol. ii. p. 40.3–117); where the evidence may be seen on which he concludes that the nardus of Ptolemy, the Indian sambul of the Persians and Arabs, and the spikenard of our shops, are the same with the Jatamansi of the Hindoos. This plant appears to be a native of the region of Bootan and Nepaul. It is a species of valerian, and grows erect above the ground, resembling in colour an ear of green wheat. The radical leaves, rising from the root, and enfolding the young stem, are plucked up with a part of the root, and being dried in the sun, or by an artificial heat, are sold as a drug, which from its appearance has been called spikenard ; though, as observed by a Persian writer, it might be compared more properly to the tail of an ermine. When nothing remains but the dry fibres of the leaves, which retain their original form, they have some resemblance to a lock of hair, from which the Sanscrit name (Jatamansi) it seems is derived. When recent, the plant has a faint odour, which is greatly increased by the simple process of drying it. It abounds on the hills and even on the plains of Bootan, where it is collected for medi. cinal uses ; for which it is so much valued, that the natives were very reserved in giving information concerning it. A learned Brahmin gave Sir William Jones a parcel of the drug, and told him that it was used in their sacrifices; that, when fresh, it was exquisitely sweet, and allded much to the scent of rich essences, in which it was a principal ingredient. This applies to it as drug; but its effects are still more powerful in the form of an attar, or essential oil, to which we perceive the present text to refer.
The spikenard is still brought to Syria by the ancient overland route, where it is used in substance, mixed with other perfumes, and worn in small bags; or in the form of essence, and kept in little boxes or phials, like attar of roses. The following conjectures of Sir William Jones appear to us to obviate many of the difficulties which have attended the investigation of the history of this famous perfume. “I am not of opinion that the nardum of the Romans was merely the essential oil of the plant from which it was denominated, but am strongly inclined to believe that it was a generic word, meaning what we now call altar, and either the cittar of roses from Cashmir and Persia ; that of cetaca, or pandonus, from the western coast of India ; or that of agura, or aloe-wood, from Asam or Cochin China; or the mixed perfume called abir, of which the principal ingredients were yellow sandal, violets, orange-flowers, wood of aloes, rosewater, musk, and true spikenard: all of these essences and compositions were costly; and most of them being sold by the Indians to the Persians and Arabs, from whom, in the time of Octavius, they were received by the Syrians, they must have been extremely dear at Jerusalem and at Rome. There might also have been a nardine oil , as Athenæus calls it; but nardum probably meant an Indian essence in general, taking its name from that ingredient which had, or was commonly thought to have, the most exquisite scent.”
" She brake the box."-— Some think from this that it was broken in pieces; but this does not seem very proper or probable. The original would justify us in understanding that the woman opened the box (or rather fask or phial, probably long-necked) by breaking it open, as we break open a bottle, by forcibly extracting its tightly-inserted stopple. Or, perhaps better, as the phials of nard were closely sealed up to preserve the odour, and the stopple could not be conveniently extracted, it may be that the top of the neck was broken off, together with the stopple and seal, to tain access to the contents, on such occasions as the present.
5. “ More than three hundred pence.”—That is, more than 91.78.6d. This was therefore truly a royal anointing, and argues that the woman was a person of substance. Anointing the principal guests with nard and other aromatics was a common and ancient custom. But the rabbins and public teachers refused to be anointed with fragrant unguents, as tending too much to luxurious niceness. This may partly explain the indignation of the disciples at what they called the “waste” of the ointment; beyond the mere regret that so precious a thing should be lost.
51. “ A young man,” &c.— This interesting little circumstance--so perfectly incidental and unconnected with the main narrative, that no inventor of a fictitious narrative would have thought of its introduction - is noticed only by St. Mark. It is impossible to ascertain who the young man was, though various conjectures have been offered on the subject. He may or may not have been an apostle or disciple. If an apostle (some think John), the linen cloth must be understood as being his ordinary dress; and we are to conclude, that, although he fled in the first instance, he returned, on reflection, to watch the result. Christ had none but the les with him: if therefore the young man was a disciple, we may suppose that, having heard so many persons pass the place where he was, and guessing or learning something of their object, his anxiety induced him to throw the linen cloth hastily around him, and follow to observe what happened. Or an indifferent person, sleeping somewhere within hearing, may have been induced, from mere curiosity, to do the same. We are inclined to think that the form of the expression would seem to imply that the “ linen cloth" had been thrown hastily around him, and that, consequently, he had probably been roused from his rest.
52. “ The linen cloth.”—Some of those who acquiesce in the conclusion just stated, consider it necessary to suppose that the linen cloth” was one of the sheets in which the young man had lain-forgetting that the ancients did not use sheets, and that the Orientals do not to this day. We cannot recollect any thing, answering to the description, likely to have been at the hand of a person soused from sleep, unless something ihat he had worn during the day. Therefore, so far as this linen cloth is concerned, it amounts to the same whether we conceive him to have been a person in his ordinary dress, or one who had thrown something hastily around him when roused from sleep; especially as we learn from the Law, that poor people used their ample outer robe - perhaps their only one-for a covering when they slept. Bishop Pococke has something on this subject which deserves attention. It is almost a general custom among the Arabs and Mohammedan natives of the country (Egypt) to wear a large blanket, either white or brown, and in summer a blue and white cotton sheet, which the Christians constantly use in the country; putting one corner before, over the left shoulder, they bring it behind, and under the right arm, and so over their bodies, throwing it behind over the left shoulder, and so the right arm is left bare for action. When it is hot, and they are on horseback, they let it fall dowa on the saddle ; and about Faiume I particularly observed that young people especially, and the poorer sort, had nothing on whatever but this blanket; and it is probable the young man was clothed in this manner, who followed our Saviour when he was taken, having a linen cloth cast about his naked body; and when the young men laid hold on him, he left the linen cloth and Aed from them naked.” (* Description of the East,' vol. i. p. 190.)
The loose, sleeveless abba, or cloak, which is also used by the Arabs, and which may be slipped or pulled off with the most perfect ease, when the wearer does not detain it, might also be proposed as an alternative.
The original word Gurday is the same as that which describes the “ linen cloth” in which the body of Christ was wrapped, when hastily laid in the sepulchre of Joseph of Arimathea ; but this was a circumstance which proves nothing for the present case, as a mere web of cloth, like the hyke mentioned by Pococke, or such an ample, square, and shapeless robe as the abba, might very well have served for such a purpose.' Lightfoot adduces many rabbinical authorities to show that the sindon was that outer garment to which the memorial “fringes" were attached.
Fled from them naked.”—Many understand that this means absolutely naked; yet there seems to us considerable difficulty in admitting this conclusion. If the man was in his usual dress, it is not likely that he had on but one garment, and that too of linen ; particularly when we observe that the nights were cold at this time of the year, and are indeed expressly informed that this night was cold (John xviii. 18). We also know that the Jews generally wore txo garments ; it was unlikely that the inner one should be dispensed with, when the outer one was only of linen. Neither dves the alternative, that'the man had risen hastily from bed, improve this common conjecture ; for the Orientals do not take off all their clothing when they retire to rest, but sleep in more of their personal clothing than Europeans. But the “ linen cloth” being the outer garment, it is clear that, if roused from sleep, the man throwing this over that part of his dress which he wore while asleep, could be little less than completely dressed. As, therefore, " to be naked,” in Scripture, often implies no more than to be destitute of the external robe, we incline to think it must be here so understood." We indeed see not how the young man" could have been absolutely naked in any other hypothesis than the rather forced one of Lightfoot,--that he was one of those austere sectaries whó macerated their bodies, among other ways, by wearing but one robe when others wore two.
6 Now at that feast he released unto them CHAPTER XV.
one prisoner, whomsoever they desired. 1 Jesus brought bound, and accused before Pilate. 7 And there was one named Barabbas,
15 Upon the clamour of the common people, the which lay bound with them that had made murderer Barabbas is loosed, and Jesus delivered up to be crucified. 17 He is crowned with thorns, insurrection with him, who had committed 19 spit on, and mocked : 21 fainteth in bearing murder in the insurrection. his cross : 27 hungeth between two thieves : 29 8 And the multitude crying aloud began suffereth the triumphing reproaches of the Jews : to desire him to do as he had ever done unto 39° but confessed by the centurion to be the Son of them. God: 43 and is honourably buried by Joseph.
9 But Pilate answered them, saying, Will And 'straightway in the morning the Chief ye that I release unto you the King of the Priests held a consultation with the elders Jews? and Scribes and the whole council, and 10 For he knew that the Chief Priests bound Jesus, and carried him away, and de- had delivered him for envy: livered him to Pilate.
11 But the Chief Priests moved the 2 And Pilate asked him, Art thou the people, that he should rather release BarabKing of the Jews? And he answering said | bas unto them. unto him, Thou sayest it.
12 And Pilate answered and said again 3 And the Chief Priests accused him of unto them, What will ye then that I shall many things: but he answered nothing. do unto him whom ye call the King of the
4 And Pilate asked him again, saying, Jews ? Answerest thou nothing? behold how many 13 And they cried out again, Crucify him. things they witness against thee.
14 Then Pilate said unto them, Why, 5 But Jesus yet answered nothing ; so what evil hath he done? And they cried that Pilate marvelled.
out the more exceedingly, Crucify him.
1 Matt. 27. 1.
Matt, 27. 13.