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45 Thou hast made us as the offscouring 56 Thou hast heard my voice: hide not and refuse in the midst of the people. thine car at my breathing, at my cry.
46 All our enemies have opened their 57 Thou drewest near in the day that I mouths against us.
called upon thee: thou saidst, Fear not. 47 7Fear and a snare is come upon us, 59 O Lord, thou hast pleaded the causes desolation and destruction.
of my soul; thou hast redeemed my life. 48 Mine eye runneth down with rivers of 59 O Lord, thou hast seen my wrong water for the destruction of the daughter of judge thou my cause. my people.
60 Thou hast seen all their vengeance 49 Mine eye trickleth down, and ceaseth and all their imaginations against me. not, without any intermission,
61 Thou hast heard their reproach, o 50 Till the LORD look down, and behold LORD, and all their imaginations against me; from heaven.
62 The lips of those that rose up against 51 Mine eye affecteth 18 mine heart 'be- me, and their device against me all the day. cause of all the daughters of my city.
63 Behold their sitting down, and their 52 Mine enemies chased me sore, like a rising up; I am their musick. bird, without cause.
64 I Render unto them a recompence, 53 They have cut off my life in the dun- O LORD, according to the work of their geon, and cast a stone upon me.
hands. 54 Waters flowed over mine head; then
en 65 Give them “sorrow of heart, thy curse I said, I am cut off.
unto them. 55 (I called upon thy name, O Lord, 66 Persecute and destroy them in anger out of the low dungeon.
from under the heavens of the Lord. 17 Isa. 24.17. 18 Heb. my soul. 19 Or, more than all. 20 Or, obstinacy of heart. Verse 10. " A bear lying in wait.”—As the bear does not, like the lion and other animals of the feline race, spring forth from its secret covert upon its prey, the fact of its lying in wait has not been so much noticed. It is true hoy. ever that the bear remains in ambush in some suitable place, as under a thicket, or on the skirts of a wood, and there waits patiently till an unwary passenger, or some other victim, not only appears, but seems to be off his guard, and then steals in silence upon him. If the intended human victim discovers the bear's approach, the animal will seldon persevere in its design, but withdraws sulkily to its covert, frequently looking back as if expecting to be pursued. That the bear comes suddenly upon the unwary, without its approach having been noticed, has been frequently mentioned, but it has not so often been stated, which, however, is obvious, that it had previously been on the watch for the favour. able moment. Compare Lewis and Clarke's • Travels,' vol. i. p. 362, with various anecdotes in the · Third Voyage of William Barents,' in Harris's Collection, p. 552, &c.
13. ". The arrows of his quiver."— Literally, “ the sons of his quiver.” It is thus frequent in Hebrew, and indeed in most Oriental languages, to call the subject, adjunct, accident, effect, &c., the son or daughter of the object, place, circumstance, or feeling. (See chap. ii. 18.) Perhaps, in the present instance, there is, as Aben Ezra conjectures, a more definite comparison of the quiver to a pregnant woman--the arrows being then properly the “sons of its womb. This comparison is very natural, and is not unknown in classical poetry. Thus Horace (lib. i. Ode 22):
“ The man, who knows not guilty fear,
Nor wants the bow, nor pointed spear ;
Nor needs, while innocent of heart,
16 1 Cor. 4. 13.
SI Psal. 8. 3.
the daughter of my people is become cruel,
like the ostriches in the wilderness. i Zion bewaileth her pitiful estate. 13 She con- 4 The tongue of the sucking child clear
fesseth her sins. 2! Édom is threatened. 22 Zion eth to the roof of his mouth for thirst: the is comforted.
young children ask bread, and no man breakmost fine gold changed the stones of the 15 "They that did feed delicately are desosanctuary are poured out in the top of every late in the streets : they that were brought street.
up in scarlet embrace dunghills. 2 The precious sons of Zion, comparable 6 For the 'punishment of the iniquity of to fine gold, how are they esteemed as earth- the daughter of my people is greater than en pitchers, the work of the hands of the the punishment of the sin of Sodom, that potter!
was overthrown as in a moment, and no 3 Even the 'sea monsters draw out the hands stayed on her. breast, they give suck to their young ones:
7 Her Nazarites were purer than snow they were whiter than milk, they were more unclean; depart, depart, touch not: when ruddy in body than rubies, their polishing they fled away and wandered, they said ras of sapphire:
2 Or, iniquity.
1 Or, sca-calves,
3 Gen. 19. 25,
among the heathen, They shall no more so8 Their visage is 'blacker than a coal ; journ there. they are not known in the streets: their skin 16 The langer of the Lord hath divided cleaveth to their bones; it is withered, it is them; he will no more regard them: they become like a stick,
respected not the persons of the priests, 9 They that be slain with the sword are they favoured not the elders. better than they that be slain with hunger: 17 As for us, our eyes as yet failed for for these 'pine away, stricken through for our vain help: in our watching we have want of the fruits of the field.
watched for a nation that could not save us. 10 The hands of the pitiful women have 18 They hunt our steps, that we cannot sodden their own children: they were their go in our streets: our end is near, our days *meat in the destruction of the daughter of are fulfilled; for our end is come. my people.
19 Our persecutors are swifter than the Ti The Lord hath accomplished his fury; eagles of the heaven: they pursued us upon he hath poured out his fierce anger, and the mountains, they laid wait for us in the hath kindled a fire in Zion, and it hath de wilderness. voured the foundations thereof.
20 The "breath of our nostrils, the 12 The kings of the earth, and all the anointed of the LORD, was taken in their inhabitants of the world, would not have pits, of whom we said, Under his shadow we believed that the adversary and the enemy shall live among the heathen. should have entered into the gates of Jeru- 21 [ Rejoice and be glad, O daughter of salem.
Edom, that dwellest in the land of Uz; the 13 | For the sins of her prophets, and cup also shall pass through unto thee: thou the iniquities of her priests, that have shed shalt be drunken, and shalt make thyself the blood of the just in the midst of her, naked.
14 They have wandered as blind men in 2:29 "The punishment of thine iniquity the streets, they have polluted themselves is accomplished, O daughter of Zion; he with blood, &so that men could not touch will no more carry
will no more carry thee away into captivity: their garments.
he will visit thine iniquity, o daughter of 15 They cried unto them, Depart ye ; "it | Edom; he will discover thy sins.
5 Heb. flow out. 6 Dent. 28. 57. 2 Kings 6. 29. 8 OT, is that they could not but louch. 9 Or, ye polluted.
10 Or, face.
14 Or, thine in quity. 13 Or, carry thee captive for thy sins. Verse 3. “ Even the sea-monsters ... give suck to their young ones."— The word here rendered "sea-monsters" (non lannin) is the same that is translated “great whales” in Gen. i. We there observed that it seemed to include all the inammiferous animals of the deep; and the truth of that observation is established by the present text. All the creatures of this class suckle their young ones, and exhibit the greatest attachment to them, encountering any danger in their defence. The cerebral hemispheres in cetaceous animals are large and well developed ; and, whether from this or other causes, they far exceed the other inhabitants of the sea in sagucity, as well as in maternal tenderness.
7. * Her Nazarites,” &c.—The word 72 nazar means to separate, set apart, distinguish, from the common. Hence it gave a title to the Nazarites, who were separated and distinguished by a religious vow; but it also applies to nobles, chiefs, and others, distinguished from the mass of the people by their dignity or rank. The context commonly distinguishes the sense in which the term is to be understood. In the present instance it does not so very clearly; but it seems more properly to refer to the nobles and persons delicately brought up, than to the religious Nazarites.
“ Their polishing was of sapphire.”—This is not very easily understood, nor is it clear how the sense of “to polish" should be assigned to the word 72 gazar. Its usual meaning is to divide or intersect; and as the veins thus intersect the body, and moreover present a blue appearance, which is considered beautiful, and may be compared in colour to the sapphire, Braunius, and, after him, Blayney, Boothroyd, and others, think the veins must be intended, translating—“Their veining was that of sapphires."
20. “ The breath of our nostrils, &c.—This doubtless refers to the king Zedekiah, whose flight was intercepted by the Chaldeans.
“ Under his shadow we shall live among the heathen.”—The word rendered “ heathen” (On goim) means nations and peoples in the widest sense; and also, in the more restricted, of foreign nations, as distinguished from the Jews. It is probably here to be understood of “ nations” indefinitely; and would then suggest that the Hebrews, in expecting to live under their king's shadow among the nations, had hoped, to the last, that their distinct political existence, as one among the nations, under their own king, would be preserved, as it had been on former occasions, whatever else might happen to them.
• Heb. darker than blackness.
7 Jer. 5. 31, and 23 91 11 Gen. 2. 7.
11 They ravished the women in Zion, and
the maids in the cities of Judah. 1 pitiful complaint of Zion in prayer unto God.
12 Princes are hanged up by their hand: REMEMBER, O Lord, what is come upon us:
the faces of elders were not honoured. consider, and behold our reproach.
13 They took the young men to grind, 2 Our inheritance is turned to strangers,
and the children fell under the wood. our houses to aliens.
14 The elders have ceased from the gate, 3 We are orphans and fatherless, our the
young men from their musick. mothers are as widows.
15 The joy of our heart is ceased; our 4 We have drunken our water for money; dance is turned into mourning. our wood 'is sold unto us.
16 “The crown is fallen from our head: 5 'Our necks are under persecution : we woe unto us, that we have sinned! labour, and have no rest.
17 For this our heart is faint; for these 6 We have given the hand to the Egyp: things our eyes are dim. tians, and to the Assyrians, to be satisfied 18 Because of the mountain of Zion, whicu with bread.
is desolate, the foxes walk upon it. 7 'Our fathers have sinned, and are not;
19 Thou, O LORD, 'remainest for ever; and we have borne their iniquities.
thy throne from generation to generation. 8 Servants have ruled over us: there is 20 Wherefore dost thou forget us for none that doth deliver us out of their hand. ever, and forsake us 'so long time?
9 We gat our bread with the peril of our 21 'Turn thou us unto thee, O LORD, lives because of the sword of the wilder- and we shall be turned; renew our days as
of old. 10 Our *skin was black like an oven be- 22 But thou hast utterly rejected us; cause of the 'terrible famine.
thou art very wroth against us. illeb, cometh for price. ? Heb. on our necks are we persecuted,
3 Jer. 31. 29. Ezek. 18. 9.
5 Or, terrors, or, storns & Heb. the crown of our head is fallen, 7 Psal. 9., and 29. 10, and 102. !2, and 145. 13. 8 Heb. for length of days. Jer, 31. 18.
10 Or, Fur wilt thou utterly reject us? Verse 4. “We have drunken our water for money.”—In the East all water, except at a private well or fountain, is free ; but it is so far bought, that householders, who have no supply of water close at hand, are necessarily obliged to pay per sons for the labour of bringing it, as often as wanted, to their houses, unless this is done by members or servants of the family. Such payment can scarcely be supposed the present subject of complaint, since it is voluntary, and may be avoided by those who choose rather to labour than pay the price of labour. If the prophet speaks of Jerusalem, or places in its neighbourhood, we know that there were no streams or rivers which furnished a constant and full supply of water, the most considerable being dry for a great part of the year. It appears that the supply was, in summer at least. derived from wells, fountains, and pools, which were free to the people, as appears from many passages of Scripture. The most obvious explanation of this passage is therefore to suppose that the Chaldeans took possession of those sources of supply, and required payment from the persons who applied for water. This may have been a measure either of gain or precaution, or both: but it does appear, from the frequent mention of suffering from thirst, here and in the prophecy, that a drought at this time prevailed: and this fact will perhaps, better than anything else, supply the required explanation ; for the Chaldeans, or any other ruling power, would naturally under such circumstances take possession of the existing public supply of water, and sell it to the mass of the people, to ensure a diminished consumption.
“ Our wood is sold unto us.”—This is less remarkable than that, as the complaint implies, their wood should not pre viously have been sold to them. It appears, however, that the woods in Israel were anciently common to the inhabitants; so that those persons who lived in towns or villages, the vicinity of which did not supply them with sufficient wood for fuel or other purposes, might obtain what they required from the common forests and wooded places. The Jews allege a regulation of Joshua to this effect. Thus they had nothing to pay for wood, unless they saw fit to employ others to perform for them the service of cutting the wood and bringing it to their homes. It may therefore be conjectured that the Chaldeans, coming from a country where wood was scarce and costly, did not understand this state of things, but appropriated the forests as royal property, and obliged the remaining inhabitants to pay for the wood they required. Some conjecture that this verse, if not the whole chapter, applies to the condition of the Jews in captivity at Babylon, If so, they most certainly had to pay, for the wood they needed there, a price which must have seemed to them enormous. The condition of that country with respect to wood seems, from the ancient historians, to have been then much the same as at present. The fuel chiefly consists of brushwood, with which the rivers are in some parts very thickly lined. It is cut down by men who make it their employment, and who convey it to the towns for sale in clumsy boats laden half-mast high. On account of the distance from which it is brought, and the time and labour employed in cutting it down and transporting it, such a price is required from the consumer as renders it, although very sparingly used, one of the most costly articles of domestíc consumption in the country. It is sold by weight, and the sellers are notorious for fraudulence in their dealings.
4 Psal 119.83.
11 Thus were their faces : and their wings
were 'stretched upward ; two wings of every 1 The time of Ezekiel's prophecy at Chebar. 4 His
vision of four cherubims, 15 of the four wheels, one were joined one to another, and two co26 and of the glory of God.
vered their bodies.
12 And they went every one straight forOW it came ward: whither the spirit was to go, they to pass in went; and they turned not when they the thirtieth went. year,
in 13 As for the likeness of the living creathe fourth tures, their appearance was like burning month, in coals of fire, and like the appearance of the fifth lamps: it went up and down among the day of the living creatures; and the fire was bright, month, as I and out of the fire went forth lightning. was among 14 And the living creatures ran and rethe 'cap- turned as the appearance of a flash of lighttives by the ning.
river of Che. 15 Now as I beheld the living creatures, bar, that the heavens were opened, and I behold one wheel upon the earth by the saw visions of God.
living creatures, with his four faces. 2 In the fifth day of the month, which 16 The appearance of the wheels and was the fifth year of king Jehoiachin's cap- their work was like unto the colour of a tivity,
beryl: and they four had one likeness: and 3 The word of the LORD came expressly their appearance and their work was as it unto 'Ezekiel the priest, the son of Buzi, in were a wheel in the middle of a wheel. the land of the Chaldeans by the river Che- 17 When they went, they went upon their bar; and the hand of the LORD was there four sides: and they turned not when they
went. 4 | And I looked, and, behold, a whirl- 19 As for their rings, they were so high wind came out of the north, a great cloud, that they were dreadful; and their rings and a fire Sinfolding itself, and a brightness were full of eyes round about them four. was about it, and out of the midst thereof 19 And when the living creatures went, as the colour of amber, out of the midst of the wheels went by them: and when the the fire.
living creatures were lifted up from the 5 Also out of the midst thereof came the earth, the wheels were lifted up. likeness of four living creatures. And this 20 Whithersoever the spirit was to go, was their appearance; they had the likeness they went, thither was their spirit to go; of a man.
and the wheels were lifted up over against 6 And every one had four faces, and every them: for the spirit 'of the living creature one had four wings.
was in the wheels. 7 And their feet were 'straight feet; the 21 When those went, these went; and sole of their feet was like the sole of a calf's when those stood, these stood; and when foot: and they sparkled like the colour of those were lifted up from the earth, the burnished brass.
wheels were lifted up over against them 8 And they had the hands of a man under for the spirit Sof the living creature was in their wings on their four sides; and they the wheels. four had their faces and their wings.
22 And the likeness of the firmament 9 Their wings were joined one to another; upon the heads of the living creature was as they turned not when they went; they went the colour of the terrible crystal, stretched every one straight forward.
forth over their heads above. 10 As for the likeness of their faces, they 23 And under the firmament were their four had the face of a man, and the face of wings straight, the one toward the other : a lion, on the right side: and they four had every one had two, which covered on this the face of an ox on the left side; they four side, and every one had two, which covered also had the face of an eagle.
on that side, their bodies. 1 Heb. captivity.
3 Heb. catching itself. * Heb. a straight foot. 3 Or, divided above. & Or, strakes, 7 0r, of life.
8 Or, of life.
? Heb, Jehezkel.