the subjective conscience, or prac rule of conscience subsisting in an tical judgment respecting right or infallible tribunal interferes with wrong, in the individual. It is, of allegiance to civil authority one course, supreme ; for it is an unerr- whit more than obedience to any ng promulgation of the divine law. kind of rule whatever. In fact, The definition of the infallibility of what Prince Bismarck denounces Le Pope has not made the slightest and wishes to crush is the resistpractical change in respect to his ance of subjective conscience to the

uthority of defining and proclaim- absolute mandates of the state, for ing this infallible Catholic rule of

which we have his own plain and onscience. All Catholics, bishops express words. His doctrine is the included, even when assembled in very quintessence of the basest and eneral council, were always re- most degrading slavishness--the quired to assent to and obey his slavishness of intelligence and conmudgments in matters of faith and science crouching abjectly before orals, as final and without right pure physical force-h force prime of appeal. The assent of the le droit. hurch could never be wanting, Legislative and governing auince it was obligatory on every thority in the church is something otshop, priest, and layman to give quite distinct from infallibility. It it once, under pain of excommu- proceeds from the power delegated 1 ation. If some were illogical by Jesus Christ to his Vicar to exnough to maintain that the infalli- ercise spiritual jurisdiction over all bility of his judgments depended bishops and all the members of in this assent, the erroneous opin- their flocks, and in general over all on which they held did not sub- the faithful. No direct temporal lect them to excommunication as jurisdiction is joined with it by diormal heretics before the solemn vine right. The direct temporal julefinition of the Vatican Council risdiction of the Pope in his kingad condemned and anathematized dom is from human right, and his meir error as a heresy. Yet the ancient jurisdiction as suzerain over {oman Pontiff always exercised his sovereign princes was also a mere niallibie prerogative without hesi- human right. The indirect jurisation, and was always obeyed, ex- diction which springs from the diepit by heretics and rebels. In re- vine right is only an application pect to the promulgation of the of spiritual jurisdiction, varying in vine law to the consciences of all its exercise as the civil laws are hen, the Pope has always been, by more or less conformed to the diivine right, just what he now is vine law, and depending on the -the supreme teacher and judge of concurrence of the civil power. e whole earth, as the Vicar of Suppose, for instance, that a bishop hrist. His power is spiritual, and revolts against the Holy See.

. The executive is the conscience of Pope judges and deposes him. wh individual. Infallibility is

Infallibility is This act deprives him of spiritual eved only by interior assent, rights and privileges. If he is to hich is a free act of volition not be violently expelled from his cabject to any coercive force. It thedral, his palace, and the posses

utterly silly, therefore, to say sion of his revenues, the civil magat this submission is a surrender istrate must do this in virtue of a 1 freedom, or that obedience to a civil law. If he were one of the prince-bishops of a former age, and constitution of Western Christerwere deprived of his principality, dom under the headship of the the civil law would deprive him. Pope as something needing an If he married, and incurred tem- apology, or as a state less perfect poral penalties thereby, it would be than the one which has supplanted through the civil law. The judg. it. We do not share in or symp.:ment which pronounces him guilty, thize with this view or with the deposed, excommunicated, invalid political doctrines of those wi ly married, and therefore liable to hold it, however estimable they all the temporal penalties incurred may be, in the slightest degret: under the civil code, is an act of Although convinced that the medspiritual jurisdiction. The tem- æval system has passed away for poral effect of this judgment is in- ever, and that the present and direct, varies with the variation in coming age needs a régime suited civil jurisprudence, and depends on to its real condition, and not to one an executive clothed with a direct which is ideal only, we glory in temporal and civil authority. the past which partly realized that

Nothing is more certain than Christian ideal. that the church has always recog- France was par excellence the nized the immediate derivation of Christian nation, as even Durur. the civil power in the state from advocate though he be of the God, its distinction from the spirit- principles of '89, proclaims with ual power, and its sovereign inde. Frenchman's just pride in the Gescu pendence in its own sphere of any Dei per Francos. Her golden a direct temporal jurisdiction of the was the period between Louis er Pope. The statements made above Gros and Philippe le Bel. Hir show how the immutable rights of decadence and disasters began wil the Pope as Christ's Vicar in re- the contest of the latter sovereis spect to indirect jurisdiction in and the infamous Nogaret, pre temporal matters have a variable cursor of the Cavours and B.-. application in practice, according marcks, against Boniface VIII to the variation of times, laws, and Crecy, Poitiers, and Agincourt, th: circumstances. It is futile, there. dismemberment of France, the confore, to attribute to the Holy See or quests of Edward III. and Henry to Catholics in general, on account V., the apparition of Etienne Marof the doctrine of Papal infallibility cel, the father of Parisian revoluand supremacy, the intention of tionists and communists, were in striving after a restoration of all logical sequence from Philippe that actual exercise of ecclesiasti- rebellion, and the logical antests cal power in political affairs which dents of the modern French Revol was formerly wielded by popes and tion and the disasters of 1870. 1 bishops. Much more futile is it to that olden time France was resc suppose that a claim to revive an- only by the miraculous mission o' cient political rights derived purely Joan of Arc, a kind of living ra from human laws and voluntary sonification of the Catholic Chun concessions is always kept in abey- in her three characters as virs ance, and to be ever dreaded and warrior, and victim. So, at a i guarded against by states.

ter period, S. Pius V., that poni' Çatholics ought to beware, nev- whom Lord Acton has so vis ertheless, of regarding the ancient calumniated, saved Europe

the Turkish invasion to which the rature and grace, have, during this recreant sovereigns had exposed it long, eventíul course of time, been by basely abandoning the Crusades mixed up with the arrogant tyrants, to despoil each other. It needs cunning politicians, bold blasphebut small knowledge of history mers, shameless sensualists, and to see through the sophisms of their common herd of followers, in Second-class writers like Buckle the war against the vicegerent of and Draper, who seek to despoil the God and the spouse of Christ. ('atholic Church of her glory as What is now, has been in the time the sole author and preserver of past, and will be until the curtain vilization in Western Christen- drops after the finished drama. tom. The history of Europe from There are similar actors on both he fall of the Roman Empire to sides now, and a similar struggle. his moment is only the record to those recorded in the history of of an effort of the popes to lead the past. We may expect a simihe nations in the path of true lar result. La Pucelle was falsely glory and happiness, and of the accused, unjustly condemned, sufver-recurring struggle of the civil fered death by fire, and triumphed. rower, of sophists, and of revolu- The Catholic religion is La Pulonists to drag them aside into the celle. Abandoned, falsely accused, ath of degradation and misery, doomed to the flames, by an unor their own base and selfish pur- grateful world, recreant or cowardly oses. Faithless priests, unworthy adherents, and open enemies, it will leirs of noble names, men who be hailed in the age to come by all Tive perverted the highest gifts of mankind as the saviour of the world.


I SOMETIMES wish that hour were come

When, lying patient on my bed,
My soul should view her future home

With eager, trembling wings outspread
And earnest faith; that age and pain

Should pass at death’s divine behest,
As the freed captive leaves his chain

When he has ceased to be the guest
Of prisons--on the dungeon floor
A burden dropped for evermore.
Eternal joy, eternal youth,

Await beyond that portal gray-
Which all must pass that hope for truth-

The lonely spirit freed from clay;
But suffering only bids us yearn

For that mysterious, strange release
Which through the grave, the funeral urn,

Brings such infinitude of peace.
Oh! in that dread, ecstatic hour
Uphold me, Saviour, with thy power.





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I PRETENDED to be very much rectly, his letter seemed intendei surprised the next morning when to warn me, as he had once done, Lando informed me Gilbert was with regard to questions, advice, and obliged to take his departure the promises, that he was not disposed following day in order to join an to endure the slightest reproach. English friend of his who was to Not a word that appealed to my accompany him to Egypt and had generosity, not one that could touch sent a despatch he should be at my heart! I could see nothing to Malta by the end of the week. cheer and console me in that direc

I recollect nothing more tion. All was dark and cold. cerning that morning except my Such was my conviction on readdepression, which only increased as ing this letter. But I did not the day advanced. Towards night appear the less cheerful when this sadness assumed a new cha- evening came to remind me that racter, and became still deeper in my interior struggle would be consequence of a letter from Lo

over in a few hours, and the next renzo, announcing his return the day I should feel at liberty to yield following day.

without restraint to thoughts I He had left Milan, and was now should no longer be afraid to be at Bologna. He was really there tray. this time, and not pretending to The large drawing-room on the be, as when he went to Sorrento to ground floor which opened into the see Donna Faustina! Oh! what small garden after the fashion of bitter thoughts, what feelings of in- Pompeii, with its pillared portico, dignation, were awakened by the had been arranged for the occasion perusal of this letter, at once de- by Lando, who had constructed a void of affection and sincerity! platform, ornamented with lights He doubtless supposed a scandal and flowers, where the concert he published in so many newspapers, had improvised was to take place. though only the initials of the per varied by speeches. sons concerned were given, had Gilbert was to explain its olije: come to my knowledge, but he was at the commencement, and at the in that sort of humor in which the end, Angiolina, for whom Larde wrongs one has to endure produce had begged this exceptionally lon:

irritation against those who evening, was to go around with have the most to suffer in conse- basket to collect the money inte? quence.

It was evident he felted for the poor people whose jits some regret for the past, but there had been saved by her mother. was not a symptom of repentance ; Lando excelled in such and though he did not say so di- ments, and, to tell the tru:h.


had left nothing here to be desired. unusual brilliancy of Teresina's I must also add that all of our lit- black eyes, greatly set off by the tle coterie, except Gilbert, Stella, white dress and coral ornaments and myself, eagerly participated in she wore. Her sister had also the work.

something in her manner that My aunt, in particular, looked evening that differed a little from with a favorable eye on this mix- the unmeaning placidity which ture of charity and amusement, usually characterized her. She which at once satisfied her kind was not as pretty as Teresina, but heart and gratified her dominant she had a more agreeable exprespassion. It seemed to her a more sion, and a better right to the epidelightful invention had never been thet of simpatica which was somebrought from beyond the Alps. times given her. Their faces were Besides, she had that very day both fushed with the excitement made a discovery which put an end produced in advance by the pleato her maternal indecision with re. sure of singing in company when it gard to her daughter's fate. This could be done without fear and withindecision, in consequence of Lan- out any doubt of success. And cio's intentions, which became more my cousins had voices of superior and more evident, was caused nei- quality, such as are often met with ther by the frivolity for which he in Italy, and harmonized wondermight have been reproached, nor fully together. They were, moreby the extravagance with which he over, very good musicians, and had squandered his modest patri- though their style was not perfect, mony, nor by any other motive every one listened to them with dictated by prudence, but solely pleasure, more especially the young by a difficulty which vanished in amateur of music who had been aptie twinkling of an eye as soon as pointed to accompany them that my aunt discovered a fact she was evening. For some time, the Barbefore ignorant of, to wit, that on von Brunnenberg had regarded lando Landini, like a great many Mariuccia in a most sentimental younger sons of good family in manner; but hitherto the handsome Italy, had a right to assume, on young Englishman, Harry Leslie, marrying, a title he had not hereto- seemed to please her more than fore borne. Oh! from that in- the baron, and consequently she stant nothing more was wanting. had always treated the latter with She had always found Don Landol- more or less coldness. It was evito nearly faultless, but now he dent, however, that Leslie, since the could offer her daughter the charm- evening on Mt. Vesuvius, had not ing title of the Countess del Fiore, a thought or look, or scarcely 2

was perfection itself. After word, for any body but Stella. I such a revelation, her consent was

often wondered if this had any efnot deferred for an instant. Lan- fect on her, as I observed her do, in the midst of the prepara- occasionally pensive air so unlike tions he was making, had taken her usual self. However the case time to come in haste to commu- might be, Mariuccia had drawn nicate the news. This explained therefrom a practical conclusion the air of triumph, as well as joy, for her own personal benefit : Leswith which my aunt made her ap- lie did not care for her; she must pearance in the evening, and the therefore resign herself and turn to

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