that, without the injunctions en- doxy and of the church of which forced by this Code, the people they call themselves the guardians. would confess to priests whom The day must soon come when, by they so utterly despise ?

the intrinsic force of things, the To resume: There are historical regulations of which we have been facts still living in the memory of speaking will disappear from the the Russian people which show Russian Code, and when nothing them their czars making small ac- will force the Russians any longer count, personally, of orthodoxy, at to keep up any relations with a the very time when, by laws of clergy whom they scorn, nor to great severity, they compel its ob- practise the religion of which ther servance by the people. They see are the teachers and representatives. the higher ranks sceptical or unbe- That will be the day to lieving, revolutionary ideas in favor Catherine II. looked forward with sa with a great number of their fellow- much dread-the day when the countrymen; the Raskolniks, who Russian people will "know how to in the time of Peter the Great were read and write, and will feel a scarcely sufficient to form them- desire for instruction." What will selves into sects, now so powerful happen then in Russia has been by their numbers and their politi- shown to us, on a small scale, in cal importance that they have al- what has taken place before our ready forced the government and eyes in more than one Catholi the synod into making some con- country, where the clergy, strong siderable concessions; they see the in the support of the luns, lised clergy reduced, thanks to the insti- without anxiety about the future. tutions of Peter, which have been until political revolutions, coming continued and completed by his suddenly to change the relations successors, to mere agents of the between church and state, placed police, tools in the hands of power, them without any preparation face and forming a caste so despised to face with unbelief. We say, hor. that rareiy is a pope admitted fur- ever, on a small scale, for if the Cathther than the antechamber of any olic clergy could not foresee the house belonging to a member of first outbreak of unbelief, they rethe upper classes, and powerless to quired but a little space of time in exercise any influence whatever, which to moderate or ciieck is even upon the lower orders; this


Neither in Spain rik is a true portrait of the Russian Italy can unbelief boast of having Church of to-day-the Russian greatly diminished the number of Church such as the czars have Catholics;. one might say rather made it. *

that the new legislation has but And to-morrow ?

served to open an easy way oui t. This to-morrow, now drawing those who were such only in name near, will still more clearly reveal and has tirus delivered the church what the czars have made of ortho- from them. Information obtained

from undoubtedly authentic sources * During the last few years endeavors have been proves that the churches are no les made to raise the status of the Russian clergy, and filled by the faithful, and the sacraalthough it remains fundamentally the same, the government has given proof of no less good will than ments no less frequented, than be. intelligence in its endeavors. In fact, terrible re

fore. This is a state of things prisals are in store for the upper classes whenever the people shall have lost all faith.

which it will be difficult to find in


would any

Russia; and we will mention the in the first place, that the monks reason why.

who have received holy orders And in the first place, if it is just (hiero-moines) are very rare, and, to acknowledge that, in some pro- secondly, that vinces of the countries we have just Russian parish desire the intervenlaimed, abuses may have crept in tion of a monk. Stations, retreats, mong the clergy, still they were spiritual exercises, general comneither so serious nor so general as riunions, all these expressions do cople have been pleased to repre- not, so far as we know, possess sent them. Their principal source even any equivalents in the Russian was to be found in the too great language to this day, unless, indeed, l-umber of ecclesiastics, of whom in the Catholic books in that tongue some had entered holy brders with- which the government of St. Petersout a true vocation. But, precisely burg has recently caused to be by reason of the large number of printed, in order, it might seem, priests, there are very many good that more prayers might ascend to unes to be found, and enough of heaven in the Russian language, tiese to suffice amply for the needs and fewer in Polish. In any case, of the faithful. Their virtues, the interference of monks in the which contrast with the manner of management of parishes would be ile habitual to the apostles of a far bolder innovation even than irreligion, thus formed a first en- the "correction " of the liturgical trenchment against unbelief. books, which gained for Russia the

Will it be the same in Russia ? ten millions of sectaries she can

We are far from wishing to dis- reckon at the present day. And pirage the Russian clergy. Their this comparison reminds us that on defects neither destroy nor excuse the self-same day whereon orthoany which may be met with among doxy shall lose the support of the Catholic priests; we will even ad- Penal Code, the Russian popes will mit that the great majority of the not only have to defend it against Russian popes lead exemplary lives. unbelief, but also against the variLost is it known what is the gain ous Russian sects, some of which o unbelief, in Russia, from even a surpass in their diabolical supersti. very small minority of bad popes? tions and abominable mysteries all li Russia each parish has only just that has been related of the Gnosw many priests as are absolutely tics and Manicheans. And, more::cessary to carry on the worship; over, it must not be forgotten that ..d with scarcely any exceptions, the Russian popes, however ex2mpecially in the country, no parish plary they may be, and however full i is more than one priest. If, then, of zeal for orthodoxy, are married its priest lose the faith, unbelief priests. Thus one quality is wants ill have free course in his parish. ing to them, of which the prestige I'ie reader would here perhaps is far from being superfluous. rimind us of the monks, who are We will not ask how it happens ::Il numerous in Russia, and ask that the Russian clergy, if truly whether these could not come to virtuous, are “cast off by the high

assistance of the secular clergy. er classes, barely tolerated by the .11.y Russian would smile, were middle class, and turned into ridinucli a question put to him; but we cule by the lower orders of the will contine ourselves to remarking, people," when goodness and virtue


rarely, if ever, fail to give their pos- touching upon morals, while, on il.

an ascendency, especially other hand, the “orthodox "churia over the masses, which is indepen- possesses an authority which du dent of either rank or learning cides upon them in the sense leax At the same time, we do not intend favorable to natural inclinations. to place any reliance on the state. It is only some few forms of Prot ments we find in Russian writings estantism that impose any partic". on this subject; the falsehoods and lar mode of worship; whereas th: exaggerations which are so frequent, orthodox communion does not even in Catholic countries, with re- this point allow freedom of choi's gard to priests, make it a duty to to its members. Protestantism liareceive with mistrust the accusa- banished expiatory works; the o:tions of the Russians against their thodox church requires prolongaj clergy. But, we repeat, the Rus- fasts and abstinences. Protestan:sian clergy wlio are in contact with ism sends us to God for the humthe people are married, and this ble confession of our sins, but the fact deprives them of a quality orthodox church commands that which is far from being unneces- they should be confessed to a pries:. sary.

in order to obtain, by this painki. Here we may perhaps be re- act of humiliation, the pardon o minded of the Protestant ministers, God. If Protestantism poinis tri especially the Anglican, "so respect Jesus Christ as our model, it nererable," we are assured,

theless circumscribes the sphere 17 rounded with confidence and es- which we are allowed to invitati teem, and at the same time a mar him; while the orthodox churc! ried clergy."

fixes no limit to the imitation of o: We have made it our rule to divine Example. Virginity, poveravoid all recrimination, and there- ty, and obedience are for Prote:fore accept on trust all that we are antism that which the cross was iu told of the excellence of the Prot- the Gentiles—“foolishness"; but estant ministers; but we ask, in our the orthodox church recognizes turn, how is it possible to establish in them the counsels of perfection a parallel between their mission and bequeathed by Christ himself i that of the “orthodox” clergy? those who desire most closely to reProtestantism, of whatever form, semble him. recognizes no other judge than in- We will not pursue the parallel dividual reason, on many questions further.




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IN Algeria, with Bugeaud,

Harassed by a crafty foe,
Were the French, in eighteen hundred thirty-one;

Swarthy Arabs prowled about
Camp and outpost and redoubt
Crouching here and crawling there,

Lurking, gliding everywhere,
Tiger-hearted, under stars and under sun,

Seeking by some stealthy chance
Vengeance on the troops of France-
Vengeance fierce and fell, to sate
Savage rage and savage hate
For the decds of desolation harshly done.


On a rugged plateau,
Forty miles from headquarters of Marshal Bugeaud,
Lay an outpost, besieged by the merciless foe.
Day by day close and closer the Arab lines drew

Round the hard-beset French.

To dash out and flash through, Like a wind-driven flame, they would dare, though a host Hot from Hades stood there. But abandon the post ? Nay, they dare not do that; they were soldiers of France, And dishonor should stain neither sabre nor lance; They could bravely meet death, though like Hydra it came Horror-headed and dire, but no shadow of shame For a trust left to perish when danger drew nigh Should e'er dim the flag waving free to the sky. But soon came a terror more dread to the soul Than war's wild thunder-crash when its battle-clouds roll, And the heavens are shrouded from light, while a glare, As of hell, breaks in hot, lurid streams on the air !

It was Famine, grim-visaged and gaunt,
To the camp most appalling of foes-
Slow to strike, slow to kill, but full sure
As the swift headsman's deadliest blows.
O'er the ramparts it sullenly strode,
Glided darkly by tent and by wall,
Spreading awe wheresoever it went,

And the gloom of dismay over all;
Blighting valor that ne'er in war's red front had quailed,
Blanching cheeks that no tempest of strife e'er had paled.


Then a council was held, and the commandant said
Direst peril was near; they must summon swift aid
From the Marshal, or all would be lost ere the sun
Of to-morrow went down in the west. Was there one
Who, to save the command and the honor of France,
Would ride forth with despatches? He ceased, and a glance
At the bronzed faces near showed that spirits to dare
Any desperate deed under heaven were there.
But the first to arise and respond was a youth
Whose brow bore nature's signet of courage and truth,
In whose eye valor shone calm and clear as a star
When the winds are at rest and the clouds fade afar.
Who was he that stood forth with such resolute air?
Young Lieutenant MacMahon, bold, free, débonnaire ,
Never knight iooked more gallant with shield and with spear,
Never war-nurtured chieftain less conscious of fear.
In his mien was the heroic flash of the Gaul,
With the fire of the Celt giving grandeur to all;
And he said, head erect, face with ardor aglow,
“I will ride with despatches to Marshal Bugeaud !"


It is night, and a stillness profound
Folds the camp; Arabs stealthily creep
Here and there in the moonlight beyond,
With ears eagerly bent for a sound
From the garrison, watchful and weak;
O'er the tents welcome night-breezes sweep,
Bringing balm unto brow and to cheek
Of men scorched by a pitiless sun
To a hue almost swarthy and deep
As the hue of the foe they would shun.

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