that he is. All that introductory alternative, or fall into psycholopart of his work which treats of gism. There is no solid rational ontology was, however, suppressed basis, except that of scholastic phiby the author when the Problems losophy, on which we can stand. of the Age was published in book. The master in this school is the form, precisely on account of the Angelic Doctor. Our interpretatincture of ideas and phraselogy, tion, or that of any greater disciwhich too nearly resembled those ple of S. Thomas, has no auof ontologists, and were too obscure thority, except that which is intrinand ambiguous.

sic to the evidence it furnishes that We do not suppose that the ideo- it is really his doctrine. The evilogy of those Catholic philosophers dence is clear enough, however, 10 whom we may call Platonisers, for any competent person who examwant of a more specific term, has ines it, that we have stated his docbeen condemned; or the Peripa- trine correctly, and that tetic ideology enjoined as the only criticisms upon the ideology we one which can safely be taught in vindicate fall upon S. Thomas, and the schools; by any positive pre- not upon us. Any one who will cept of the Holy See. Neverthe- read the great works of Kleutgen · less, we think the former ideology, and Liberatore can see this prored in all its various shapes, has receiv- in the amplest manner from the ed a back-handed blow, by the writings of S. Thomas and in his condemnation of ontologism, which own distinct statements. And must prove fatal to it. We see no any person of ordinary common logical alternative for those who re- sense will conclude that a man ject psychologism, except between of the acute intelligence, conontologism and the ideology of S. scientiousness, and patient appliThomas. The objective term of cation which characterize Father intellective conceptions must be, if Liberatore, in a lifelong study of it has real existence, either in God, the clearest and most lucid author in created things outside the mind, who ever wrote, cannot have failed or in the mind itself. If it is the lat to understand his philosophical ter, a vague idealism which carries system. Liberatore avowedly conphilosophy into an abstract world, fines himself to an exposition of separated by a chasm from the the philosophy of S. Thomas pure real, seems unavoidable. There is and simple. And in his great no real, concrete being, except in work, Della Conoscenza Intelletucir. God and that which God has creat he has given the most ample and ed. Unless the universals lucid exposition of that particular mere conceptions or ideas, and un- part of it, with a solid refutatio less ideas are, not that by which the of the other principal theories intellect perceives, but that which Kleutgen is more original, and not it perceives--and this is psycholo- less erudite, though perhaps in gism-they must have their entita- equal to Liberatore in the thorougt. tive existence in the essence of mastery of the writings of the AnGod, and be indistinguishable from gelic Doctor; and he has giren :. it; or they must have it in created most extensive and complete expurobjects. The former cannot be sition of scholastic philosophy, lsafely held and taught. Therefore companied by an exhaustive appre we must take the latter side of the ciation of modern systems, in his


Philosophie der Vorzeit. It is very which they recognize as absolutely well for those who can do so to infallible, or submit to through the study S. Thomas for themselves, worship which they pay to genius though even they cannot neglect his and to ideas which have captivated commentators. But it is idle to re- their intellect and imagination; are commend this study to the general- apt to indulge the futile and danity of students in philosophy and the gerous dream of remodelling phiology, as a substitute for the study losophy and theology. Such have of the minor approved authors. been the leaders of dissension, of Dogmatic and moral theology and heresy, and of apostasy. De Lamenphilosophy are real sciences, as they nais, St. Cyran, Gioberti, and Dölare taught in the Catholic schools, linger are examples. They began and they can be and must be learn- to deviate by breaking away from ed from text-books and the oral in- the common and present sense of struction of professors. The pre- the great body of authors in actual sumption is in favor of the books use and living teachers of theology. and teachers approved by ecclesi- Every one knows where they endastical authority, that they teach ed. Similar tendencies and prosound doctrine. There cannot be clivities can be effectually suppressanything more injurious to the in- ed only by a sound theology and a terests of ecclesiastical or secular sound philosophy, together with education than to depreciate and that spirit called the piety of faith, undermine their legitimate authori- which goes much beyond a mere ty, and thus awaken distrust in the submission to absolute and categominds of those who must receive rical decrees in regard to faith and their instruction from them, or else morals. In conclusion, we venundertake the task of instructing ture very earnestly to advise all themselves. Such an undertaking converts who have finished a usually results in a failure which liberal education before entering may have disastrous consequences. the church, not to study theology The greater number follow self- without also going through chosen and dangerous guides. The careful course of philosophy, befew of superior intelligence and ginning with text-books such as activity of mind; who throw off re- those of Father Hill and Liberaspect for all authority except that tore.



Once upon a time there lived a king's presence or the prying eyes king and a queen in a grand old of his court. West of the Louvre, group of Gothic towers that was and in the then open country, was called the Louvre. Nowadays a tile-field, which, from the fac: we should call their house a palace, of tuiles being manufactured there. but in those good old times kings was called Les Tuileries. The built houses to fight in as well as to Médicean sorceress touched the tile: live in, and their abodes had to do with her wand, and up rose under duty at once as palace, fortress, and that magic stroke the stately palace prison. At the time we speak of which was to be the centre of so this mass of straggling roofs and many high and wonderful destigables resembled a citadel mounting nies, and which continued to bear guard over Paris from the western through all changes and vicissitudes side, as the Bastile did from the its first homely title of Les Tuilecast; but when Francis I. came on ries. One life could not suffice the scene, he denounced the bar- for the completion of such a monubaric-looking stronghold as a place ment, however, and Catherine left it too like a dungeon for a king to live to her three king sons, successively in, though it did well enough for a to finish. But already in her own hunting-lodge. It was too venerable time the tile-field was baptized in to be thrown down, and too stern blood. From one of its Gothic in its original character to bend to windows the mother pulled the any architectural modifications, so trigger in the trembling hand of the he decided to leave it as it was, and son which gave the signal for the build a palace after his own fancy massacre of S. Bartholomew. Thus by the side it. He began, accord- in its very cradle did the Tuileries ingly, the florid Italian edifice

edifice sign itself Haceldama, a field where which now forms the western side blood should flow, where princes of the old Louvre. He did not should sell and be sold, where a live to see the work completed; king should wrestle with the powers but it was continued by his son, of darkness, and be dragged forth who died soon after it was finished, in ignominy to death. The two and left his widow, Catherine de palaces, hitherto distinct and sepa

, Médicis, in enjoyment of it. But rate, were united by Charles IX., the wily queen, looking to the who erected the long gallery by the future, saw that her son would one river's side. It was not entirely of these days be reigning in the finished when he died, leaving his

, Louvre, and that it might not suit brothers to make it ready for her to remain his guest; so she set Henry IV., who is represented as about building a palace for herself, traversing the gallery, leaning on

, where in due time she might plot De Guise, the day before Ravaillac's and scheme, distil poisons, and dagger cut short the Bearnais' light civil wars unmolested by the


The idea of turning it into a rection reared its hydra-head unmuseum was first suggested by der the windows of the Queen of Louis XVI., who reverted to the France, and battered in the chamber plan frequently, but was compell- door with clubs and tricolor-bedized by financial difficulties to leave ened pikes, and sent her flying in the glory of its execution to Bona- terrified déshabillé through secret parte. Those who have seen the corridors and trap-tapestries into beautiful old palace recently, before the king's room for safety ; ever its partial destruction, would hardly since “rascality looked in the king's recognize it as the same which face, and did not die,” but seized fifteen years ago was choked up to royalty by the beard, and led it, its very windows by the rubbish of amidst hootings of triumph, to lodge the encroaching town; the space where the people willed, the grand now cleared away between the two château of Versailles has stood vapalaces, the Louvre proper and•the cant of kings and queens, its polishTuileries, was filled with mean ed floors reflecting the dead monhouses, for the most part shops. archs on the walls, a great hush Even the facade of the Tuileries was filling its broad galleries, grass growcumbered and disfigured by a va- ing in its courts, the silence of the riety of shabby buildings, barracks, past brooding everywhere. Noisy stables, and domestic offices, these demagogues may scream and howl latter being necessary for the con- in the theatre where the Grand Monvenience of its inmates-since royal- arch applauded the verses of Corty must dine the original plan of neille and Racine, and their nimble the palace having made no provision heels may tread down some of the for those vulgar essentials for the grass between the paving-stones of carrying on of daily life.

It was an the Cour du Roi, but they are but unsafe abode for royalty when safety jackdaws chattering in the deserted needed to be thought of and the temple. Versailles has lived its day, hearts of the people had ceased to and outlived its generation. be the king's best stronghold; but Neglected and uncomfortable as when the Médicis reared the noble, the Tuileries was, the royal family picturesque old pile, they were trou- had no choice but to go there. The bled with no such considerations. Louvre was partly dilapidated and The ghosts of constitutionalism and quite unfurnished, while the sister sans - culottism

slumbering palace, though so long uninhabited, quietly unsuspected in the womb was still furnished, and needed comof the future, and no provision was paratively little to make it, even in made for slaying or defying them. this sudden emergency, a suitable For nearly a century the Tuileries domestic residence. The discomhad been uninhabited, when, on the forts of the first few days were great, wrathful day of the 6th of October, but the royal captives were absorbthe mob surged from Paris to Ver. ed in graver cares, and bestowed sailles, and dragged Louis Seize ana no idle regrets on such small matMarie Antoinette from their beds, ters as personal accommodation. and installed them within its empty, Louis was satisfied with his truckleneglected walls.

bed, hurriedly provided by the na** Buildings, like builders, have tion in the tapestried room. "Where their destiny." Ever since the will your majesty please to sleep?" memorable morning when insur- inquired an obsequious municipal,


entering the presence; and majesty, house from the windows of the with head bowed over his knees, Manège, and the prospect served answers, without deigning to look to point many an insolent period in around and choose, *'I am well the tribune. Mirabeau used it enough here ; let each lodge as he with fine effect. “I see," he cried, may.” So the truckle-bed is got " the window whence a king of ready. Strange days followed this France, under the influence of strange beginning.

Paris' for a execrable advisers, fired the shot week was drunk with joy. The mob which gave the signal of the massahad got the king in their possession, cre of S. Bartholomew !" Loyal subjects looked on, not know- But the Assembly did not content ing whether to weep or to rejoice. itself with pointing the arrows of The Orleanist faction chuckled its rhetoric at the doomed Louis; boldly over the degradation of the it sought to give him more practicrown, and over the fact that the cal proofs of disrespect. The ridpersons of the king and, above all, ing-school being situated on the of the queen were safe in a gilded Terrace des Feuillants, the memprison.

bers declared that this terrace beThe queen was far too wise and longed to them, and not to the keen-eyed to be deceived by the king; it was therefore thrown open pale glimmer of popularity which, as a public thoroughfare, the palace during the early days of their being thus exposed to the coming abode in Paris, shone upon them. and going of the populace, who Louis took pleasure in the scanty availed themselves of the opportuvivats that greeted him when he nity of flaunting their disloyalty sauntered out for a walk on the under the very windows of the sovterrace-his only place of exercise ereign. There was no longer any now-and within doors amused barrier on the north side, and, the himself with carpentry and lock- external posts being all sentinelled making. The Dauphir played at by National Guards, the royal family soldiering, dressed in military uni- had no control

no control over either the form, and gave the word of com- courts or the gardens. This scanmand to his men, a regiment of dalous violation of his privacy warriors from five to eight years roused even Louis to utter a mild old. Marie Antoinette had her li- protest to the Assembly, but it was brary brought from Versailles, and met by one of the Girondists resought refuge from thought in read- torting that "the people lodged ing. Mme. Elizabeth, meanwhile, Louis in the Tuileries, but it no

. watches the signs of the coming wise followed that they gave up to storm, prays, loves, and hopes. him the exclusive use of the gar

The Assembly had followed the dens." The unhappy king had no king to Paris, and installed itself in resource henceforth but in dignithe Salle de Manège, formerly the fied patience, .fed by the hope of riding-school of the Tuileries, and escaping to the freedom and seclesituated within sight of the palace sion of St. Cloud at Easter. We on the north terrace. This prox- know how, just as he had entered imity, whether accidental or de- his carriage to start for that subursigned, was a source of danger and ban castle, it was surrounded by the humiliation to the king. The mob, and he himself only rescued members could see the royal prison- from personal violence by Lafay.


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