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workings of the king's mind up to der as a wife would stand to anthis madness. He strives to argue other man. But he to whom “his himself up to godhead only by ar- purposes were wife and child" guing godhead down to him: could not lean on a woman. It
“A race of gods hath fallen: must be a man, strong, brave, keenThen Zeus in turn may fali. I find for gods eyed as himself, but calmer, larger No thrones secure; to man's advance no limit:
hearted, humbler, greater souled. No certain truth amid contending rites; No base for faith."
Such was Hephestion, and his He remembers the warning about strong yet sweet character is not limit and term, only to say scorn- only admirably drawn, but affords fully,
an excellent foil throughout to the "That's for others : eager, impetuous, fiery nature and To grasp a world for me is feasible
fiery words of the king. To keep a half-world, not."
Omens thicken around him, and He turns further and further the end comes at Babylon.
The away from faith of any kind; his fever that burns at his heart seizes creed resembles that of more mod.
on his body while sailing on the ern conquerors :
Lake of Pallacopas. As the royal "The man that empire founds
barge passes, a strain rises up from Mast measure all things by the needs of empire.”
the waters : And the final outcome of his
“We sate beside the Babylonian river: thoughts is this:
Within the conqueror's bound, weeping we sate : "This only know we
We hung our harps upon the trees that quiver We walk upon a world not knowable,
Above the rushing waters desolate. Sare in those things which kuowledge least deserve,
"If I forget thee, Salem, in thy sadness, Yet capable, not less, of task heroic.
May this right hand forget the harper's art ! My trust is in my work: on that I fling me,
If I forget thee, Salem, in my gladness, Trampling all questionings down."
My tongue dry up and withcr, like heart!" And yet the next moment he cries
It is a relic of the Babylonian capo'it :
tivity. The song forces from Alex" I sometimes think That I am less a person than a power,
ander the sad confession, signitiSome engine in the right hand of the gods,
cant to all conquerors :
"The ages pass, like winds;
The old wrong remains, rooted like tombs, and Hath been an agony of means to ends ; An ultimate end I find not. For that cause,
All may be done through Time ; yct Time does On reeling in the oppression of a void, At times I welcome what I once scarce brook'd
Let kings look well to that."
The end is on him. Though dramatic power in this drama-the “maimed, and tamed, and shamed," death of Darius, the quarrel with he is resolute still, but impotent, Parmenio, the rebellion of the and the empire lacks completion, Greeks, the last scene with Philo- he confesses, while tas, and others; but the power and
"The years, the months,
The hours, like ravening wolves that hunt a stag, intensity deepen at the close, wher
Come up upon my haunches." death at last creeps into the veins of the conqueror.
Fighting time to the last, he suc
He has lost Hephestion earlier in the drama,
cumbs; but he will not even die as
other men. In his half-delirium and this loss rends his heart.
he tells Ptolemy: There is much truth in his singular, almost selfish love for his great
“I have a secret-one for thee alone:
'Twas not the mists from that morass disastrous souled friend, who stood to Alexan- Nor death of him that died, nor adverse gods,
Nor the Fates themselves; 'twas something might- Lord thy God, and him only shalt And secreter in the great night, that slew me."
thou serve." And thus, surrounded by his war
When he died, Alexander was riors and his generals, with success nearly thirty-three. With him realwithin his grasp, but that grasp ly, though remnants lingered after nerveless, his last moments troubled him, his scheme and his empire passwith awful visions and ill dreams, ed away; and when to-day we look resentful to the last against what for what is left of the world's conslew him, in doubt and in fear, in queror, of Alexander the god, we youth and glory and empire, in the must search in musty tomes and fatality of success, staring with grope in desert sands. Nothing is strained eyes into the dread void left of him, save some words and beyond that no ray of faith illumines, histories; and even were they lost he whose nod was life or death to also, and his very memory blotted nations, Alexander, the god, passes out with them, the world to-day away and dies--of a little slow fe- would in reality be little or none ver that has entered and claimed for the loser. its own the clay of which he was
Some centuries later there died made.
Another at the age of thirty-three. Mr. de Vere has written at once He came into life silently; he went a magnificent poem and a powerful out of life ignominiously. He led drama. We have devoted no army; he had no following of any attention in both instances to the note; he was the son of a carpenter, chief characters, and thus many and born of a despised race. He scenes and personages in Alexander was born, he lived, he died, in povthe Great on which in reading we erty, sorrow, and suffering, a socia! have dwelt with much pleasure and outcast even from his own people. admiration must pass unnoticed. The last three years of his life he The author, if we may say so, has spent in preaching in and about surprised us by the strength and Jerusalem. His doctrines were finish of this work. The action of the strange and startling. They were piece is rapid; the characters, small utterly subversive of all human and great, rounded and full; the glory and greatness. Like Alexanscenes most varied and dramatically der, he proclaimed himself divine, set. The clew to the play we take and claimed to be the Son of God to be that old whisper which first Like Alexander, he too died, but a allured our parents from their alle- death of ignominy. Before his name giance, and tempts forever the race had spread far beyond Jerusalem, of man: Ye shall be as gods. The men rose up, Jew and Gentile, king whisper runs through the piece from and priest, church and state, tothe first line to the last, and lends gether hanged him on a tree, nailcui to it a purpose and a plan of its own. him there, tortured and slew bim, The dramatist has taken the man and when he was dead sealed up who in human history came the the tomb in which he was buried. nearest to exemplifying its truth to And there, humanly speaking, was prove its utter and miserable false- an end to him and his. hood, and to read with a new force To the world what had he left? the old and eternal command that A memory-nothing more. alone can order the life of man wise. said that he had wrought wonders, ly and well: “ Thou shalt love the that virtues flowed out of him, that
his hands rained mercies, that the rules singularly comprehensive, simblind saw, the lame walked, the ple, and clear: to believe in him, to lepers were cleansed, the very dead obey him as the son of God and rose again. Idle rumors ! like that God, to believe and obey those, and other of his bursting the tomb and those only, whom he sent forth in rising again, walking in the flesh and his name, armed with the powers he ascending into the heaven from gave them, fighting with the weapon which he said he had come. And of the cross. And what is the rethis was “the Expected of the na- sult? Who is the conqueror of the tions," " the Prince of Peace,” who world now? Jesus Christ, in whose was to accomplish what the high- name every knee shall bow, or Alexpriest warned Alexander was not ander the Great? Here is a mystery for him, with all his power, to ac- surely that men should ponder. complish-to unite all the nations What shall explain the victory over under one yoke. A likely prospect the world, over sin, and over death, with the material he had left! of Him whom they nailed to the tree
He left behind him no empire, nineteen centuries ago? Nothing no record, not a line of writing. He but the words of Peter-" Thou art left a few words, a few maxims, a Christ, the Son of the living God.” few rules of life, a few prayers, a
Thou art he that was to come, and few promises, a few men who timid- we look for no other. “And he ly believed in him, a few commands. was clothed with a garment sprinkThe world, its belief and non-belief led with blood: and his name is alike, its customs, maxims, tenden- called The Word of God. And he cies, he condemned as wrong. He hath on his garment and on his commanded it to remodel itself ac- thigh written King of kings and cording to the few rules he had left- Lord of lords."
Keep me, sweet love! Thy keeping is my rest.
Not safer feels the eaglet from beneath
Whose love my life is, yea, my very breath!
Thy Son to Egypt fled to prove our faith.
Or changed his thronèd slumber into death.
So close, so tender; and as if thine eyes
And this inconstant heart were such a prize!
Art reigning imperturbably serene !
ONTOLOGISM AND PSYCHOLOGISM.
Our readers sometimes complain and operations, which is a sub-divi
, that the philosophical articles of sion of special metaphysics. ThereTHE CATHOLIC World are too hard fore every philosopher must be an to be understood. Yet some of these ontologist and a psychologist, in very readers make a great effort to the proper sense of those terms read these articles, and ask ques- Yet, there is a difference between tions about metaphysical subjects, ontology and ontologism, psychoamong others, about the very topic logy and psychologism. Ontoloof the present article-showing a gism and psychologism are names great desire to gain some knowledge denoting opposite philosophical about them. We are going to try systems which diverge in opposite to make this article intelligible to directions from the scholastic phithese readers, even to those who losophy, or that philosophy comare yet quite young persons, in monly taught in the Catholic schools whose laudable efforts to improve after the method and principles of their minds and acquire knowledge the Angelic Doctor, S. Thomas we are greatly interested.
Aquinas. Of the authority which this We shall begin, therefore, by ex- philosophy possesses in the church plaining some terms which need to we cannot now treat at length. We be well understood before they can will, however, cite here the latest be used in a satisfactory manner, utterance of the Sovereign Pontifi and especially the two which make which has come to our knowledge, up the title of this article. Onto- as a sample of a great number of logy is the name given to one branch similar official expressions of approof metaphysics, which is also call- bation from the Holy See. In a leted general metaphysics, in distinc- ter to Dr. Travaligni, founder of the tion from the two other principal Philosophico-Medical Society of branches of that science-to wit, S. Thomas Aquinas, dated July 23, logicʻand special metaphysics. It 1874, Pius IX. says: “With still is derived from two Greek words- greater pleasure we perceive that, that is, the first two syllables from a faithful to your purpose, you have word which means being, and the determined to admit only such last two from one which means members to your society as hold reasoning. It is therefore a reason- and will defend the doctrines proing about being, or the scientific pounded by the sacred councils exposition of the object of the idea and this Holy See, and in particuof real being, of metaphysical truth, lar the principles of the Angelic
, good and evil, beauty, substance, Doctor concerning the union of the accident, quantity, causality, the intellective soul with the human finite and the infinite, the contin- body, and concerning substantial gent and the necessary, etc. Psy- form and primary matter (materia chology is also a Greek derivative prima)." We shall take for grantsignifying a scientific exposition of ed at present that in all its essenthe rational soul of man, its powers tial parts, as well as in those speci
fied in the above quotation, the phi- because they follow, or are supposlosophy of S. Thomas has the high- ed to follow, Plato, in regard to cerest sanction and authority in the tain opinions differing from those church which any system of phi- maintained by Aristotle. losophy can have, and that it is the The philosophical disputes which only true and sound philosophy. have been lately carried on with so The system of ontologism differs much vehemence about questions of from it by proposing a totally differ- ontology are by no means of recent ent ontology, which is made the origin. They have been waged both basis of an essentially different phi- within and without the limits of the losophy. The advocates of that Catholic Church. Des Cartes, the system call themselves ontologists, great modern master of psychoas claiming to be the only philoso- logism, always professed to be a loyphers who understand rightly real al son of the church, and had many being and the relation of intelli- disciples among Catholics. Malegence to it as the object of its in- branche, the author of modern ontuition and knowledge. They are tologism, was a devout priest of the also called by that name by their French Oratory; and Cardinal Gerantagonists for the sake of conve- dil, who began as an earnest advonience and courtesy, as those who cate of the same doctrine, but gradbelieve in God, but not in revela. ually approached toward the schotion, are called theists, although lastic philosophy in his maturer neither party has an exclusive right years, was really the second man to to the appellation given to it by the Pope for a long time in authousage. Psychologism is a system rity and influence, as well as a most which makes the basis and starting- illustrious modelof virtue and learnpoint of philosophy to lie exclusive. ing. More recently, the principal ly in the individual soul and its advocates of ontologism have been modifications, like Des Cartes, whose very devoted Catholics. The Loufirst principle is, “ I think, therefore vain professors, Hugonin, BrancheI am.” The opponents of the reau ; for anything we know to the scholastic philosophy who pretend contrary, Fabre, and many others, to be ontologists give it the nick- have been most zealous and devotname of psychologism, because they ed Catholics. Only Gioberti, who either misunderstand or misinterpret was, however, the prince among its ontological and psychological them all, and one of the most gifted doctrine. The scholastic philoso- men of the century, among the phy is also frequently called Aris- well-known leaders of that school, totelian, because S. Thomas derived was a disloyal Catholic.
We have a great part of his metaphysics heard on very good authority that from the great philosopher of Gioberti continued to receive the Greece; and Peripatetic, which was sacraments up to the time of his the name given to the school of death, and was buried with CathoAristotle, because the teachers and lic rites. Nevertheless, as a numpupils used to walk up and down ber of priests were still in the exduring their lectures and discus- ternal communion of the church sions. Those who diverge from at the time Gioberti was living in the philosophy of S. Thomas in the Paris, who were really heretics and same direction with the ontologists have since apostatized, this fact are also frequently called Platonists, alone does not count for much as a