tion. But the sturdy, free-hearted much matter, for one fact is cermountaineers replied that they pre- tain: that the whole country was ferred the old rights they had in- discontented, and Gessler grew herited from their fathers, and de- alarmed without knowing of the sired to continue direct vassals of conspiracy, which alarm was the the empire. Albrecht was not pre- cause of his conduct towards Tell." pared to enforce their submission, “Oh! William Tell is all a myth," so he resorted to the expedient of exclaimed young , who never sending them Reichsvögte who were could conceal his sentiments on this wicked and cruel men, that were point. “No one believes in him ordered, besides, to oppress and nowadays." torment them in such a manner “My dear young gentleman," anthat they should at last desire in swered Herr H— quietly, “it is preference to place themselves easy for modern critics to say this. under Austro-Habsburg protec- They may laugh and sneer as they tion. Chief of these was the now like. Nothing is more easy than far-famed Gessler, and also Lan- to argue against anything. I rederberg, whose castle at Sarnen was member often hearing that Archthe first destroyed later. Not only bishop Whately — your own archwere they cruel, but they insisted bishop—was so convinced of this on living in the country, although that he once undertook to write a all previous Reichsvögte, or gover- pamphlet in this style, disproving nors, had only come there occa- the existence of the First Napoleon, sionally, and had allowed the people and succeeded triumphantly. But to govern themselves. Unable to I hold with Buckle — your own bear it, the celebrated 'three,' Buckle too !” he said, laughingStauffacher, Fürst, and Melchthal, “who declares that he relies more whom you now know through Schil- on the strength of local traditions ler, if from no other source, met and on native bards than on anytogether. Stauffacher came from thing else. The great argument Schwytz, Walther Fürst from Uri, against William Tell, I know perand Arnold von Melchthal repre- fectly well, is that the same story sented Unterwalden, and they chose is to be found in Saxo-Grammatifor their meeting the central spot cus, and also in Sanscrit; but that of the meadow, called the Rüti, does not disturb me, for there is no which you will pass when sailing reason why the same sort of thing up the lake. Each brought ten may not have happened in many a others with them, and in their name place. These mountaineers cerand that of all their fellow-coun- tainly had no means of studying trymen they took that oath which either the one or the other in what was quoted in the sermon as I read you, no doubt, will call the dark it just now. This union of the ages'! Just have patience until three cantons was the foundation you see the Tell chapels and hear of the Swiss Confederation. Lu- a little more on the subject, and I cerne joined it in 1332, and then it hope you will change your mind. became the League of the Four For- One thing is certain, namely, that est Cantons, all surrounding this Tell was not the cause of the conlake. Some say that Tell was one spiracy, and that his treatment did of the ten from his canton, but not make the confederates depart others deny this. It does not from their original plan, which was


to rise on the New Year's night of even Albrecht's worst enemies were 1308. In my humble opinion, Schil- horrified, and it is said that the ler has done poor William Tell no murderers wandered over the world, good, for between him and the and ultimately died as outcasts. opera the story has been so much Zurich shut its gates against them, popularized that this alone has and the forest cantons refused raised all the doubts about it. Peo- thern all shelter. But Albrecht's ple fancy it was Schiller's creation family not only pursued them, but more or less, altogether forgetting behaved inhumanly. His widow that the chapels and the veneration and two children, Duke Leopold for Tell have existed on the spot and Agnes, Queen of Hungary, came these hundreds of years. It is for- at once to Switzerland, and seized tunate Arnold von Winkelried has innocent and guilty right and left, not been treated in the same way, destroying without scruple the casor we should doubt his existence tle of any noble whom they sus

pected in the slightest degree, and “ You have not told us anything executing all without mercy. Agnes about Sempach yet,” broke in Caro- in particular was cruel beyond mealine C-, anxious to stop the dis- sure. One story related of her by cussion, which seemed likely to vex Swiss historians is that, after havthe old gentleman, especially as she ing witnessed the execution of sixtywell knew her brother's school-boy three innocent knights, and whilst disposition for argument.

their blood was flowing at her feet, "Morgarten and much more oc- she exclaimed: Now I am bathcurred before that, mademoiselle," ing in May-dew!' Whether liteanswered Herr H---, “all tend- rally true or not, it shows what she ing to increase the national hatred must have been to have given cause of Austria. As a natural conse- for such a tale. In fact, the stories quence of the Rüti and its uprising, of her merciless character are too Albrecht became enraged against numerous and terrible to repeat the forest cantons, and marched

At last she and her mother, at once to Switzerland with a large the widow, built a magnificent conforce. But a most unexpected, vent on the site of the murder, startling event happened. He had which you may have heard of as a nephew, Duke John of Swabia, Königsfelder, or the King's Field. who was his ward, but from whom There she subsequently retired to he continued to withhold his patri- 'end her days in piety'; but the mony on one pretext or another. people detested her, and Zschokke The young man at length grew fu. says that once when she was passrious, and, as they were crossing ing through the convent, and bowed this very same river Reuss at Win- to one of the monks, he turned disch, Duke John stabbed his uncle, round and boldly addressed her whilst a noble, a conspirator of thus : 'Woman ! it is a bad way to John's, struck him on the head. serve God, first to shed innocent There were a few others present, blood, and then to found convents but in a panic they all fled, and left from the spoils of the victims.' She the Emperor of Germany to die in died there, and we have a piece of the arms of a poor woman who silk in the arsenal in Lucerne which happened to be passing.

formed part of her funeral apparel.” " The deed was so fearful that “Oh! how horrible," exclaimed

VOL. XX. -17


see it!

Caroline C- " But I would who was defeated at Morgarten. give anything to

How Full of anger, he gathered all his could we manage it?"

forces, and marched in hot haste “Very easily,” replied Herr against Lucerne. But on the heights H- “ If you only have time, we near the Lake of Sempach he enmight go there after dinner. It is countered the confederates. They close to the Spreuner Brücke, and I had come from Lucerne, with concan get you in. There are many tingents, though in small force, trophies also from Sempach, and from all the forest cantons. It other victories besides."

was hilly ground, most unfitted for “ Do tell us about Sempach," I cavalry; but Leopold would not interposed. “It is getting late, and wait for his infantry, and, making I fear the dinner-bell will soon his heavily-armed knights dismount, ring."

he ordered them to rush with their “First came the battle of Mor- pointed lances in close ranks on garten, of which you will see the site the enemy. It was like a wall of from the top of the Rigi. Albrecht's iron, and at first the confederates son Leopold followed up his father's could make no impression upon it. grudge against the forest cantons, They fell in numbers, and were just and gave them battle there in 1308, beginning to despair when a voice when he was signally defeated. It cried out, “I will open a path to was a glorious victory by a hand- freedom ! Faithful, dearly-loved ful of peasants. But you will read confederates, take care of my wife about it on your journey. Sempach and child !' and a man, rushing is our Lucerne property. It did forward, seized as many lances as he not take place for sixty-nine years could clasp, buried them in his own after Morgarten, but in the interval body, and fell dead. This was there had been constant fighting with Arnold von Winkelried, an inthe house of Austria, which still kept habitant of Stanz, about whom its possessions in Switzerland, and little else is known. Over his also with the nobles, who hated corpse his comrades pressed forthe towns-people, and clung to the ward through the opening he had Habsburgs more or less. It was thus made, and they never again about this time that a castle belong- yielded the dear-bought advantage. ing to the latter, on this lake, just The struggle became fearful on round the projecting corner to our both sides; prodigies of valor were left, was destroyed by the people. performed, and it is said that three It was called here Habsburg, and standard-bearers were killed before has lately been restored by a for- the flag of Austria couid be captureigner. On all sides the worst feel- ed. Eventually the knights turned ings were kept alive, and it only in order to retreat; but their heavy required a spark to set all in a armor impeded them, and their men, blaze. This eventually happened sure of victory, had led their horses by some angry Lucerners levelling far away. So they were cut down by to the ground the castle of a knight hundreds. Duke Leopold was killed who had imposed undue taxes upon by a man from Schwytz; but they them. He, on his side, appealed to all fought bravely, and defended the Habsburg of the day, who, by their banners with such tenacity a curious coincidence, was also a that one was found torn into small Duke Leopold, son of the Leopold shreds, in order that the enemy might not get it, while its pole was too, and we sat entranced by its tones, firmly clenched between the teeth especially by its heavenly Vox

f the dead man who had been car- Angelica, fully sympathizing with rying it. That was the glorious Wordsworth when standing on the battle of Sempach, which finally old Hofbridge that came up to the crushed the power of the Habsburgs church hill in his day, and writing : in Switzerland, and after which our “Volumes of sound, from the cathedral rolled, liberty was firmly established. Is

This long-roofed vista penetrate." it any wonder, then, that we cele- We had arranged to sleep that brate it so religiously, or that the night at Vitznau, at the foot of the antipathy to Austria was so deeply Rigi, in order to ascend by the first rooted in the nation? The whole train next morning, and for this puraim of the Habsburgs after Ru- pose were to leave in a six o'clock dolph's reign, and of the nobles who steamer. It seemed difficult to were their vassals, was to crush our

tear ourselves so quickly away from privileges and freedom. In con- Lucerne, and the hurry was considsequence, they were so hated that erable. The remainder of our parno one could even venture to wear ty, however, returned just in time, a peacock's feather, merely because full of all they had seen—“Agnes' it was the favorite ornament of the shroud," a dreadful title for a piece Austrian dukes. In fact, peacocks of heavy silk used at her funewere forbidden in Switzerland; and ral, striped yellow and black, the a story is told, to show how far the Habsburg colors; Duke Leopold's feeling went, of a man having broken coat-of-mail, in which he was killed his wine-glass at a public tavern, at Sempach, and a dozen others; a merely because he fancied that he heap of lances taken there; numsaw the colors of a peacock's tail in bers of trophies from Grandson and the play of the sun's rays on the Morat, the battles with Charles the glass."

Bold; but, what interested them As Herr H-pronounced these most, the great standard of Habswords the first dinner-bell rang, and burg, of yellow silk with a red lion we all rose, thanking him cordially on it, taken at Sempach, and anfor his most interesting lecture. Other, a white flag, covered, they Caroline C-- in particular was said, with blood, also captured most grateful, declaring that she there. Young C-

most never could understand anything struck besides with a very old vase of Swiss history before, but now

decorated with the meeting at the had the clearest view of its general Rüti. bearings.

a lovely evening, but, After dinner all except myself though the sail promised to be deand Mrs. C- started off at once lightful, we left Lucerne and its for the arsenal to see the "relics," worthy citizen with regret, thanking as they now called them ; but wetwo him cordially, over and over again, adjourned to the Hofkirche at four for the interest he had given us in o'clock to listen to the organ, play- his country, and at last persuaded ed there daily for strangers, as at him to come and meet us in a day Berne and Freyburg. The Lucerne or two, and act as our cicerone in instrument is not so well known as part of the forest cantons, which those two, but it is equally fine, if by his means already assumed a not finer.

It was admirably played, place in our affections.

It was





she resolved to conceal herself ODILE, who had returned to Ho- from all mankind, and lead hencehenbourg without her father's con- forth a difficult and solitary life for sent, was now forced to remain the love of her Redeemer. She against her own will. Her reputa- therefore directed her steps totion so spread throughout the pro- ward the Rhine, and, meeting a vince that people of the highest fisherman, she gave him a small rank went to see her, and several piece of money to take her across aspired to her hand. Among these the river. suitors was a young German duke Odile had been accustomed to whose station, wealth, and personal seclude herself several hours a day qualities gave him an advantage for prayer and meditation, so her over his rivals. Adalric and Ber- non-appearance excited no surswinde joyfully gave their consent, prise. She was supposed to be at and the marriage settlements were her devotions, and was already sevagreed upon. The arrangement eral miles from home, when the rewas then made known to Odile, port of her disappearance spread who declared firmly but respect- consternation throughout the manfully that she had chosen Christ

The duke, distressed by her for her spouse, and could not re- flight, assembled all his followers, nounce her choice. But this pro- ordered his four sons to pursue her jected marriage flattered the pride in four different directions, and diand ambition of her father, and, rected his servants to scour the after vainly endeavoring to per- surrounding country. Berswinde suade her to consent to it, he alone did not share the general sought to obtain by force what grief. She would indeed have been mildness had not been able to ef- pleased by the marriage of her fect. Odile, seeing that her liberty daughter and the German duke, of action was to be infringed upon, but Odile's motives for declining felt that flight was her only re- the alliance, the remembrance of source. Commending herself to the miracle wrought at her baptism. God and Our Blessed Lady, she and the manifest protection of clothed herself early one morning heaven she was so evidently under, in the rags of a beggar, and left the made her mother sure that the castle unobserved, descending the support of the Most High would mountain by an obscure and al- not in this case be wanting. most impassable ravine. It was in Adalric himself set off with serthe year 679. Her first intentioneral esquires, and unwittingly took was to take refuge in the Abbey of the same route as his daughter. Baume, but, considering that would He soon came to the Rhine, where be the first place to seek for her, he heard that a young beggar-girl,



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