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INDEX.

ORIGEN BACHELER’S TEN LETTERS.

LETTER 1.-PAGE 4. PROPRIETY of free inquiry. Who free inquirers are. Importance of the subjects of the divine existence, and the authenticity of the Bible; and hence the peculiar propriety of their discussion. Statement of the first question. The atheist's first and principal objection. Investigation thereof. It proves to be an evidence of the divine existence.

LETTER II.- PAGE 8. Sincere sceptics and insincere ones. Unreasonableness of neither be. lieving nor disbelieving on such a subject as that of the existence of God. The subject under discussion, not whether we can know there is a God, but whether there is reason to believe in one. Omnipotenre consists in physical, not in moral, power. How sceptics ought to examine religious subjects. Why God requires us to know and glorify him. Man not blameless for wrong actions, notwithstanding the power, knowledge, &c., of God. Proofs of God's existence. Why we should concern ourselves in relation thereto.

LETTER III.-PAGE 15. Definition of an insincere sceptic. How to know God. The question under ciscussion is, the belief in a God. Why the universe is proof of more than its own existence. Proof of mind in man. Proof of mind in general. Infallible evidences of mind, or no evidences at all. Nature has these evidences, and that too in the fullest manner conceivable. Absurdity of saying, that 'tis the nature of things to be as they are. Knowing a thing not the way to prove it. The sceptic bound to give a reason for his scepticism, and to abide by the consequences of his position. Wherein the analogy between natural and artificial works consists. Investigation reasonable. What investigation is, and what it is not. Things that have a beginning must have a maker. Nothing without a beginning. Evidence that the universe itself

from the order in which it exists; in which order unintelligent matter cannot of itself exist. The chair and the chair maker. The chair åropping from the clouds, or formed of the roots of a tree. The Egyptian munimy. Design not proved by a designer, but vice versa. The argument that a designer must have a designer, if a design must, a confounding of things, and untenable. Demonstration that something must have been eternal. An eternal intelligence, or an eternal non-intelligence. Which the more rational belief?

had one,

LETTER IV.-PAGE 26. The ordinary cause of scepticism. The reasoning of Socrates touching the difficulties of nature. Experience not explainable to the inexperienced. Design itself invisible, and its existence proved only by the external mani. festations thereof. These manifestations infallible proofs or no proofs at all. If infallible, they prove a designer of the universe, as much as a designer of a work of art. Not necessary to see an agent, in order to prove a design, inasmuch as the proof lies in the work itself. Seeing him would merely be proof that he was the one that designed. How to distinguish between divine and human works, without seeing them performed. Absurdity of the rule, that we are to doubt what we can't unriddle. The manifestations of mind, and not the mind itself, the proof of a designer. Keeping on the pivot between the different sides of a question, no warrant against absurdity.

LETTER V.-PAGE 40. Proof that some sceptics are insincere. Explanation and proof of experimental knowledge of the divine existence. Attraction the cause, not the mode, of action. Consequence of doubting what we can't unriddle. T proof and the only proof of desig viz., appearance thereof. This proof infallible, or no proof at all. Nature, as well as art, has it. Various instances designated as samples. These instances such appearances, if any thing is. Nature exhibits infinitely greater evidences of design than do the works of art. Comparison between the reasonableness of scepticism and belief. Optimism disclaimed. Omnipotence explained. This attribute of the deity under the guidance of his omniscience. What that omniscience sees to be for the best, we finite beings cannot, a priori, decide; and hence we ought not to make any thing in his management an objection to that wisdom. In a universe managed by such wisdom, we are to expect what to us finite creatures seem difficulties : hence these difficulties are rather favourable than objectionable to the belief in an infinite God.

LETTER VI.-PAGE 59. Renunciations of infidels. Case of the editor of “Priestcraft Exposed.” Attraction defined. Evidence of design briefly considered. The workshop of the deity approachable. Mind separable from matter. The appearances of design in nature admitted by Mr. Owen. Unreasonableness of doubting, or even of suspending judgment, under such circumstances. Man's adaptation of his works to the state of things surrounaing him, no evidence that there is no designer in natural adaptation, but rather the reverse. Not absolutely to admit a God, involves the individual declining so to do in all the difficulties attendant on an absolute denial of his existence. Motion considered. The existence of evil considered. It is no objection to the divine attributes, but rather an evidence in their favour. A finite God admitted by my opponent. Absurdity of the admission. Demonstration of the infinity of the attributes of the deity, and of the perfection of his works as a whole. Ten additional evidences of his existence.

LETTER VII.-PAGE 69. Iniberality of liberalists. Cause and effect treated upon. Motion further considered. Proof of the transcendant goodness of God. Being good, he is not to be supposed to cause or even to permit avoidable evil. Proof of his omnipotence. Being omnipotent, the existence of evil cannot be attributed to a want of power on his part. Hence it follows, that he permits it in consequence of his infinite wisdom, seeing it on the whole to be for the best for himself, in his sphere, not to prevent it. The ten additional evidences of the divine existence considered.

LETTER VIII.- PAGE 82. Specimen of the integrity and moral principle of sceptics. Evidence of cause. Difference between optimism and a system of the highest wisdom including real evil. The God of nature and the God of the Jews the same. The permission of evil no evidence of a deficiency of goodness or power in hiin, but to be attributed to his infinite wisdom. His own glory the chief object to be consulted. Demonstration that this could not be fully displayed, without the existence of sin and its consequent misery. Other reasons for the existence of these. Divine wisdom displayed in the exist ence of natural evil. The ten evidences of the divine existence further con. sidered. Evidences of the divine unity.

LETTER IX.-PAGE 96. Integrity of sceptics. The editor and printer of "Priestcraft Exposed.” Difference between optimism and the system that admits real evil. God's glory the great object in his creating other beings. This glory the principal item in that "great whole” which is signified by the phrase, “all things considered." The ten evidences again.

LETTER X.-PAGE 109. Sceptics deficient in moral courage. Christianity insists on the exercise of this virtue. Sceptics do not thoroughly examine the evidences of Christianity. The divine glory again. Further consideration of the ten evidences. Recapitulation of the discussion.

ROBERT DALE OWEN'S TEN LETTERS.

LETTER 1.-PAGE 6. Acceptance of 0. Bacheler's proposal.-Object; the discovery of truth. Unpopular opinions most likely to be held in sincerity, Question stated. No evidence perceived on which to affirm or deny the existence of beings superior to man. If a God exist, it is not his will that we should know any thing about bim. He holds the power to reveal himself at any moment. Cannot be angry therefore that we should not know him. A being cannot be glorified by his inferior. The created being not reasonably accountable to the creator, but rather the contrary.

LETTER II.-PAGE 11. An insincere man, one who professes what he does not believe. All men and women in one sense atheists. The universe a proof of its own existence only. Attempt to supply a last link when we cannot discover one. No analogy between the maker of a chair and of a universe. The Highlander's ideas of a watch. If the mind of man indicates design, the mind of the creator must exhibit much more. The difficulty increased rather than diminished by the hypothesis.

LETTER III.- PAGE 20. Easy to trust and believe. Youth doubts and mistrusts slowly. Man apt to pretend to superhuman knowledge.. Socrates accused of atheism Iecause he confessed he knew nothing. A belief of wilful scepticism, common and fashionable. Design proves man's agency only in as far as we see and know it. Examination of the argument deduced from analogy. No idea to be formed of how God exists; experience, analogy, and conception, desert us. Difference consists in asserting less, not in denying more. Unreasonable demand of Christians. Mockery of language and of human reason. Dreams and imaginations of unseen existences, idle.

LETTER IV.-PAGE 33. Inconsistent mysteries, not the fear of judgment, the source of scepticism. Analogy a convenient guide upon earth, but cannot be stretched to heaven. Not to admit one mystery, because we cannot explain another. Some plain questions. Picture of human wretchedness and misery. Dilemma of the believer as knotty as it is old. Our senses must determine what is good, and what is evil. Misery in the world a sufficient proof of blindness and ig..orance,

LETTER V.- PAGE 52. Stories of sceptics renouncing scepticism unworthy of credit. Definition of attraction. Whole argument regarding design comprised within a nutshell; cxamination of it. We judge of others from what we fee and know of ourselves. The evidence of human intelligence no proof in the case of deity. Contrast betwer.n thein exhibited. Judgment suspended in def ult of evidence. Admission of premises, but objection to the conclusion. Sagacity of a clerical commentator. Necessity of consistency and fair dealing in an opponent Glaring outrage upon them. Plato's opinion of God and matter. Religionists atheists in the opinion of each other. Progressive improvement of the world. Much of happiness to be met with as it is. Man's errors and ignorance the chief impediments to greater enjoyments.

LETTER VI.- PAGE 65. Silence in those who have once spoken boldly construed into assent. Orthodox influence may starve a man Meaning of the terms cause and effect. Uniform precedence and uniform sequence constitute cause and effect. Illustration. Man's agency uniformly precedes artificial design; no such proof in relation to deity. Motion distinct from matter no existence. Strange idea of omnipotence. Almighty unable to improve the condition of man. Plato's doctrine more rational.

LETTER VII.- PAGE 76. Honesty dangerous, hypocrisy at a premium. Bearing of the discussion of cause and effect upon the subject. Theological somerset Optimisin advocated. Famine, pestilence, war, and blood shed, directed by wisdom too great for comprehension. The more horrible the brutality, the stronger the proof of wisdom. Insult to the common sense of mankind. Blasphemous puerility. Reversion dilemma. Exemption of ignorance from punishment, a proof of exalted virtue in God. Imaginary dialogue in another world. Ignorant pretensions to geological science. Dangerous subject for theologians. Population of ancient countries. Strange opinion of Montesquieu. Eternity of the universe not absurd. Conmon consent of mankind no proof of truth. Upsetting of pleasure boats on Sundays.

LETTER VIII.- PAGE 91. Defence of sceptics against groundless accusation. Tales of their con version often unfounded. Distinction without a difference. Man's misery and wretchedness God's glory. Duty of a parent to his child. Disavowal of deism. Compensating process.

Gross misconstruction of meaning. Bacon's recommendation. Evidences in theology not tangible. Life spring. ing from inanimate matter.

LETTER IX.-PAGE 102. Openness and candour to be appreciated before it is demanded. Persecuitio of public cpinion put down only by moral courage. Scepticism induced from thoughtlessness, sometimes abandoned Progress of orthodoxy ostentatiously announced. Novel argument in defence of a God. Vice necessary to the glory of God, that he may show his mercy in its purishment. 0. Bacheler and the caterpillars. Clashing of interests. Bare assertion opposed to matter-of-fact argument. The worid's insancy.

LETTER X.-PAGE 117. The world's approbation neither courted or contemned. Persecution of Christians by sceptics. Ignorance of Hume, Gibbou, and Voltaire. Heavenly autocrat. Eternal auto-da-fe. The ways, thoughts, and doings of God, nothing in common with ours. Acknowledgment of Chalmers that reason leads not to a knowledge of God. Opinion of Paley, Bishop Watson, and Arnobius. Atheism never perturbed states. Liberal sentiment of Dr. Chalmers.

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