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A HISTORY, CRITICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL, OF BRITISH
AND AMERICAN AUTHORS, WITH SPECIMENS

OF THEIR WRITINGS,

ORIGINALLY EDITED BY ROBERT CHAMBERS, LL. D.

THIRD EDITION,

REVISED BY ROBERT CARRUTHERS, LL.D.

IN EIGHT VOLUMES.

VOL. I.

NEW YORK:
AMERICAN BOOK EXCIIANGE,

TRIBUNE BUILDING.

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PREFACE,

3 present work, the first of its kind in Great Britain, was originally published in 43. It was designed and commenced by the late DR. ROBERT CHAMBERS-always zealous and indefatigable, as he was successful, in the promotion of literature and public improvement. The work was undertaken for the purpose of supplying what was cousidered a deficiency in the literature addressed at that time to the great body of the pop!e-namely, a chronological series of extracts from our national authors --a concentration of the best productions of English intellect, from Anglo-Saxon to recent times, set, as it were, in a popular biographical history of our literature. Great efforts had previonsly been made for the diffusion of useful knowledge, and for popalarizing scientific information ; but there was no work, at once cheap and comprehensive, which sought to bring the treasures of imaginative and historical l'terature within the reach of the busy mercantile and industrial classes of society. This CYCLOPÆDIA, which aimed at supplying the want, was received with great favour, both in this country and in America. Gratifying proofs of its usefulness have been received from various quarters and from numerous readers, who have &ckuowledged that their earliest love of literature, and their veneration for our great authors, from CHAUCER WO Wordswortu, were first called forth by the successive mouthiy parts of this work.

After the lapse of fifteen years, during which literature and literary information had greatly increased, a Second Edition of the CYCLOPÆDIA was issued, bringing it down to the year 1858. This edition also was highly successful.

A further interval of eighteen years having taken place, a Third Edition is now offered to the public, carefully revised, continuing the extracts and biographical notices to the present time.

It remains to be added that, for the revision of the second and third editions of the work, we have been indebted to ROBERT CARRUTIERS, LL.D., of Inverness, whose excellent literary kuowledge and taste are conspicuously observable in the present improved edition.

W. & R. C. EDINBURGH, March, 1876.

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FIRST PERIOD.

PAOZ.

Macheth and the Weird Sisters.... 63
FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO St. Serf and Satan.

53
1400 A. D.

John Fordun (died about 1385).
PAGE, Prose Literature,

54
English Language-The Gael and Cym- Sir Johu de Mandeville (circa 1300
ry..

1 1372)...
Anglo-Saxon Writers..

3

The Beginning of Mohammed. 55
Extracts from Beowulf and Judith 4 Lecture on Christian Vices..

55
Cadmon, the Monk of Whitby.. 4 John de Trevisa (translator, 1387). 56
Extracts from Cædmon's Crea- John Wycliffe (1324—1331).

50

tion".

5 Gospel of St. Mark, chap i.

57

Alfred the Great (with Extracts). 6 The Magnificat..

58
Alfric, Canute, The Saxon Chronicle. 7 The Mendicant Friars..

58

Ode on the Battle of Brunanburh.... 8

Anglo-Norman, or Semi-Saxon Writers 9

Wace, Layamon, &c. (with Extracts). 10

The Owl and the Nightingale.. 12

Song, "Summer is Coming in ”- SECOND PERIOD.

Squire of Low Degree

13

Early English Writers.

13 1400-1559 : HENRY IV. TO QUEEN

Thomas of Ercildoun-Ilavelok, The

ELIZABETH.

Dane...

14 | Thomas Occleve (circa 1310-—1451).... 60

Robert of Gloucester.

15 John Lydgate (1373-1460):

60

England and the Normans about Description of a Silvan Retreat. 61

1300...

16 The London Lyckpenny.

62

The Muster for the First Crusade.. 16 Alexander Barclay (died in 1552). 63

Robert de Brunne.

17 The Book Collector..

63

Interview of Vortigern with Rowen 18 Stephen Hawes (Poet, 1506).

Praise of Good Women..

18 The Temple of Mars..

61

Death of Edward I..

19 John Skelton (circa 1460-1529)

61

Lawrence Minot, Richard Rolle, Wil- A Satire on the Clergy.

65

liam Langland.

19 Cardinal Wolsey..

65

How Edward the King came to Bra- To Mrs. Margaret Hussey..

65

bant.

19 Earl of Surrey (circa 1517--1546)

66

What is in Heaven,

20 Sonnet on Geraldine...

67

Extracts from “Piers the Plow-

Prisoner at Windsor..

67

man"

21 How no Age is Content.

63

Geoffrey Chaucer (died in 1400). 23 The Means to attain a Happy Life.. 69

Opening of the Canterbury Tales” 28 Extract from Translation of " Vir-

The Knight, the Squire, the Prio-

69

ress.

29 Sir Thomas Wyatt (1503-1542)..

69

The Monk, Friar, Franklin, Wife of The Lover's Lute..

70

Bath, Poor Parson..

31 The Re-cured Lover exulteth.

71

Extracts from the Tales of the Pleasure is mixed with every Pain... 71

Knight, the Man of Law, the The Courtier's Life..

71

Franklin, and Wife of Bath..... 32 Of the Mean and Sure Estate.

71

Good Counsel of Chaucer.

42 Lord Vaux (circa 1510-1557) and oth-

On Gathering and Using Riches. 44

er Court Poets.

72

John Gower (circa 1325_1408)

On a Contented Mind.

73

Story of the Caskets..

47 Amantium Ira Amoris Redintegra-

Scottish Poets.

49

tio Est..

73

Oldest Fragment of Scottish Poetry.. 48 Song by William Hunnis.

73

John Barbour (circa 1317--1395) 49 Praise of his Lady, by G. Boleyn.... 74

Apostrophe to Freedom.

50 | Thomas Tusser (circa 1515--1580).

Bruce's Address to his Ariny... 50 Directions for cultivating a Hop-

Death of Sir Henry de Bohun. 51

garden

7

Battle of Bannockburn....
51 Housewifely Physic.

75
Audrew Wyntouu (died after 1420)... 52 Moral Reflections on the Wind..

76

gil."

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