out of the Navy-Office, for the Purposes of their Miffion. Upon this, Mr. Whifton applied to the Commiffioners of the Longitude for fuch a Share of the faid Money as might reimburse what he had expended over and above the forefaid Contribution, and moreover enable him to profecute his Scheme.


On the 28th of April 1741, he appeared before the faid Commiffioners at the Admiralty-Office, where they were met; and firft read over to them the Memorial which he had prefented them, November 24, 1739, as the Foundation on which he had proceeded ever fince. He then took Notice that the Objection made at that Time against his. Proposals, viz. That the Act for the Longitude had not made any direct Provifion for the Settlement of the Coafts, was now obviated by the new Act made on purpofe for that End. He then offered them the Obfervations that had been made, during the fix preceding Months, by Mr. Blifs at Oxford, by Mr. Lynn at Southwick, by Mr. Barker at Lyndon, together with those made on the Coafts by Mr. Renshaw and Mr. Birkbeck. And he informed them that the two laft were already gone to the Ifle of Portland, and were to go ftill farther in their Obfervations, till the beginning of June, when Jupiter would be too near: the Sun, which he would continue to be till the beginning of September. He withal took Notice, that as five things were neceffary for the right Settlement of the Coafts. viz (1) The Knowledge of the Time of each Obfervation at fome one certain Meridian at Land, as of that of the Obfervatory of Greenwich, to which thofe of Oxford, Southwick and Lyndon, are easily reduced. (2) The Knowledge of the like Time of each Obfervation on the Coafts. (3) The Determination of the Latitude of those Places on the Coafts where the Obfervations were made. (4) The Trigonometrical Survey of the en


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tire Coafts, with Maps of the fame. (5) The Quantity of the Variation of the magnetic Needle, to be there noted all along: Every one of these Particulars, he faid, were taken care of by his Agents in the prefent Undertaking; and for all which he had given them fpecial Directions in Writing: While only the firft could poffibly be performed by Mr. Harrison's Clock, how accurately foever it might go.

He then fignified to the Commiffioners, that he had already expended more than he had received from those Benefactors to him and the Public, already named; and defired he might now have a proper Sum out of the public Money towards repaying himself what he was out of Pocket, and for carrying on the Undertaking for the publick Benefit. Hereupon the Number of Votes prefent being fewer than five, which yet are neceffary in fuch a Cafe; and Dr. Smith, who was the only Mathematician of four that belonged to this Commiffion now prefent, defiring the further Confideration of this Matter might be deferred till the reft could be confulted, and pleading that his own Affairs would not permit him to attend himself till above three Months from that Time; it was agreed that the Secretary, Mr.Corbet, fhould write preffing Letters to thofe other Members, who were then abfent, and infift by all Means on their Attendance the next Day of Meeting, which was appointed to be on Tuesday, September 1.

[To be continued.]

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For FEBRUARY, 1742.

ARTICLE III. Continued.

HE written Memorial, which Mr.
Whifton delivered to the Board, at their
Meeting on the 28th of April,* was to

this Effect:


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Since Sir Ifaac Newton's Paper delivered to the Committee of the House of Commons about the Longitude; upon the Plan of which Paper the A&t about the Longitude was originally form'd, has thefe Words: "In the fourth way (by Signals) it " is easier to enable Seamen to know their Distance "and bearing from the Shore 40 or 60 or 80 Miles "off, than to cross the Seas: And fome Part of the "Reward may be given when the first is performed "on the Coaft of Great-Britain, for the Safety of "Ships coming home:" And fince the Law itfelf enacts exprefsly, that "one Moiety, or half Part "of its Reward or Sum fhall be due and paid when "the Commiffioners, or the major Part of them,

* See Page 77 of the foregoing Number.

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"do agree, that any Method for discovering the "Longitude at Sea extends to the Security of Ships "within 80 Geographical Miles of the Shores, "which are Places of the greatest Danger:" And fince it appears to be undeniable, that any Method by Balls of Fire or Light, to be thrown up on the most elevated Parts of the Shore, from no longer a Mortar than one of nine or ten Inches, will extend to the Security of Ships coming home, farther than 80 Geographical Miles off thofe Shores, as your Memorialift is ready to make appear upon any Tryal you fhall please to appoint: And fince withall the Degree of Determination, by fuch Signals of Safety, will always be a great way within those thirty Geographical Miles, which the Act limits for its greatest Reward of 20000l. Your Memorialist hereby puts in his Claim to fuch Moiety or half Part of that largest Reward; and humbly hopes you will allow of his Claim' accordingly.

How far the Commiffioners have been from allowing this Claim, will appear by and by; when we come to fee what little, in Comparison thereof, has been given Mr. Whifton, fince the prefenting the foregoing Memorial, either to reward his former Endeavours, or to defray the Expences neceffarily attending the further Profecution of his laudable Defign. But before we relate that, we will here infert fome Memorandums which he fets down in this Part of his Narrative.

1. If an eight Inch Mortar be efteemed fufficient for making the abovefaid Signals, every one of the 50 Headlands or Ports, where he propofes Obfervations to be made, as well in Europe as in the WestIndies, may have a Ball of Fire thrown up three Quarters of a Mile high, and vifible for above 60 Geographical Miles, once every Night, for 14. a Year apiece; amounting to little more than 500 7. a Year in the whole. If the Ball be thrown up at



only the one half, or one quarter of thofe Places, the Charges will be but one half, or one quarter of the former. Nor in that Cafe will any Ship that fails within 60 Miles of thofe Coafts, in tolerably clear Nights, be very long out of the Sight of one of those Signals.

2. If thefe Mortars be within fuch Distances whence, in clear Weather, Light-Houses are of Advantage to Seamen, the Sound, as well as the Fire or Light of the Signal, may be fome Direction to them, even when Fogs or Mifts hinder the Sight of the faid Light-Houfes alfo.

3. It is of fmall Confequence what the Sky is at the Place of each Mortar; fince thofe that are near it, do not want to know where they are by these Signals, which are intended for a Direction to thofe at a Distance at Sea only; and the Sky may be clear there, how cloudy or mifty foever it be at the Mortars; for the Balls of Fire, in mifty and cloudy Weather, pafs quite through fuch Mifts and Clouds, and return with the fame Degree of Light through them again to the very Ground; and fo may often be well feen at those remote Distances notwithstanding. However,

4. It will not be any great Inconvenience, if Ships, under Sufpicion of Danger, caft Anchor in mifty and cloudy Weather, and stay till a clear Night afford them better Satisfaction.

5. Since Shells thrown but a quarter of a Mile high may be feen half as far as thofe thrown a Mile high; fince fmall Quantities of Gunpowder will throw them much higher in Proportion than large ones, and fince therefore the Charges in fmall Mortars are much less than in large ones; it may deserve to be tried whether a Six-inch Mortar may not, upon the whole, be more useful in many Places, as they are certainly much more manageable than the other, especially in the Cafe of a LandSurvey. G 2



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