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been surreptitiously introduced. One, an account of a banquet said to have been given in the Apostolic palace by Cæsar Borgia, at which, both Lucretia Borgia and the Pope are stated to have been present, and to have witnessed scenes of disgusting immorality that have scarcely a parallel in the pages of the Memoirs of the Chevalier Faublas. This piece is entitled "De Convivio quinquaginta Meretricum cum Duce Valentiniensi," and occupies two pages and a half. And then follows another piece, a certain epistle, addressed to the Magnifico Domino Sylvio de Sabellis, at the court of the most serene King of the Romans, which letter in the Diary is said to have been printed in the times of which the author treats (October, 1500), and submitted to the Pope.

As in this letter is to be found the only passage in the Diary or any of its accompanying documents that charges Lucretia with incestuous crimes, it is to be observed, that Roscoe, who refers to it, likewise questions its authenticity, and is partly led so to do, because he finds difficulty in believing that a document so terribly reprehensive with respect to Alexander's character, could have been submitted to that vindictive Pontiff.

Burchard does not affirm of his own knowledge that this letter had been submitted to Alexander. He says it had been sent from Germany to some person in Rome, and having come into the hands of Cardinal Mutinensis, he, Burchard, had been informed that it had been read by the Pope.

"Superiorbus diebus impressa fuit et de Almania ad urbem missa quædam Epistula, quæ venit ad manus Reverendissimi Cardinalis Mutinensis et fuit ut intellexi Papæ lecta, tenoris subsequentis."

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This letter occupies five pages and a half. There is no signature to it. It is dated, "Ex Castris Regiis Tarenti," the 15th of November, 1499.

The letter begins by congratulating the person to whom it is addressed, that in the frightful state of things in Rome, he was so fortunate as to be then safe in Germany, and under the Imperial protection.

*Diarium, p. 80.

He says, "he is surprised at the credulity of those, who, by any representations they had made to the Pope with respect to the scandal brought on religion by his conduct, could imagine that such a man as Alexander, so destitute of all faith and probity, so debauched in all periods of his life, could be brought to any sense of justice except by terror or being constrained by force. It was in vain to hope for any peace for the Church while this monstrous head was connected with it. . . . . . Other means than persuasion must be had recourse to, to remove this common pest of the Church and of Christendom, &c. &c. &c.'

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I abstain from citing at length either this document, or the other description of the alleged banquet, as I have done in all other entries in the Diary which I judged of any importance to my subject, because, I think, there is no good evidence, either internal or external, to establish their authenticity.

They are inserted at the end of the Diary, and may have been appended to it, and I do not believe there are any sufficient grounds for attributing them to Burchard. The details, moreover, are unfit for publication.

No. II.

IN

REPORT OF THE CONGREGATION OF CARDINALS ON THE ABUSES CHURCH DISCIPLINE AND IN THE COURT OF ROME, REQUIRING TO BE REFORMED, AND ADDRESSED TO POPE PAUL THE THIRD, IN 1537, NOW FOR THE FIRST TIME RE-PUBLISHED IN EXTENSO SINCE 1538.

Concilium delectorum Cardinalium et aliorum Prælatorum de emendanda ecclesia, S.D.N.D. Paulo III. ipso jubente conscriptum, et exhibitum, anno MDXXXVIII.

"BEATISSIME Pater tantum abest ut verbis explicare possimus, quàm magnas gratias Respublica Christiana Deo Optimo Maximo agere debeat, quòd te Pontificem hisce temporibus ac pastorem Diarium, p. 80.

gregi suo præfecerit, eamque quam habes mentem dederit: ut minime speremus cogitatione eas quas Deo gratias debet consequi posse, nam spiritus ille Dei quo virtus cœlorum firmata est (ut ait propheta) labantem, imò fere collapsam, in præceps ecclesiam Christi per te restaurare, et huic ruinæ manum ut videmus supponere decrevit, eamque erigere ad pristinam sublimitatem decorique pristino restituere, certissimam divinæ hujus sententiæ conjecturam nos facere valemus, quibus sanctitas tua ad se vocatis mandavit, ut nullius aut commodi tui, aut cujuspiam alterius habita ratione, tibi significaremus abusus illos, gravissimos videlicet morbos, quibus jampridem ecclesia Dei laborat, ac præsertim hæc Romana curia, quibus effectum prope est, ut paulatim ac sensim ingravescentibus pestiferis his morbis magnam hanc ruinam traxerit, quam videmus. Et quoniam sanctitas tua spiritu Dei erudita: qui (ut inquit Augustinus, loquitur in cordibus nullo verborum strepitu) probe noverat principium horum malorum inde fuisse, quòd nonnulli Pontifices tui prædecessores prurientes auribus, ut inquit apostolus Paulus, coacervaverunt sibi magistros ad desideria sua, non ut ab eis discerent, quid facere deberent, sed ut eorum studio et calliditate inveniretur ratio, qua liceret id quod liberet. Inde effectum est, præterquam quòd principatum omnem sequitur adulatio,ut umbra corpus, difficilimusque semper fuit aditus veritatis ad aures principum, quòd confestim prodirent doctus qui docerent Pontificem esse dominum beneficiorum omnium ac ideo cum dominus jure vendat id, quod suum est, necessario sequi, in Pontificem non posse cadere simoniam. Ita quòd voluntas Pontificis qualiscunque ea fuerit, sit regula qua ejus operationes et actiones dirigantur : ex quo procul dubio effici, ut quicquid libeat, id etiam liceat. Ex hoc fonte, sancte pater, tanquam ex equo Trojano, irrupere in ecclesiam Dei tot abusus et tam gravissimi morbi, quibus nunc conspicimus eam ad desperationem fere salutis laborasse, et manasse harum rerum famam ad infideles usque. Credat sanctitas vestra scientibus, qui ob hanc præcipue causam christianam religionem derident, adeò, ut per nos, per nos inquimus, nomen Christi blasphemetur inter gentes. Tu vero sanctissime pater

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et vere sanctissime, edoctus à spiritu Dei, præter veterem illam tuam prudentiam, cum totus in hanc curam incubueris, ut san atis ægritudinibus, Christi ecclesia tuæ curæ commissa bonam valetudinem recuperaret, vidisti ac probe vidisti, inde incipiendam medicationem, unde primum ortus est morbus, secutusque doctrinam apostoli Pauli vis esse dispensa tor non dominus, et fidelis inveniri a domino: imitatus etiam servum illum, quem in evangelio dominus præfecit familiæ suæ, ut det illis in tempore tritici mensuram, ac propterea decrevisti nolle quod non liceat, nec vis posse quod non debes. Ideoque nos ad te accersivisti, imperitos quidem ac tam magno negotio impares, non parum tamen affectos cum honori et gloriæ sanctitatis tuæ, tum præcipue instaurationi ecclesiæ Christi, ac gravissimis verbis injunxisti, ut omnes hos abusus colligeremus tibique illos significaremus : obtestatus nos reddituros esse rationem hujus negotii nobis demandati Deo optimo, si negligenter ac infideliter ageremus. Atque ut omnia liberius inter nos tractari possent, tibique à nobis explicari, jure jurando nos destrinxisti, addita etiam excommunicationis poena, ne cuipiam aliquid hujus nostri muneris proderemus. Nos igitur tuo imperio parentes collegimus, quanto paucioribus fieri potuit, hos morbos eorumque remedia, ea inquam quæ pro tenuitate ingenii nostri excogitare potuimus. Tu vero pro tua bonitate ac sapientia omnia resarcies ac perficies, in quibus pro tenuitate nostra offenderimus. Verum ut omnia certis quibusdam finibus complectamur, in sanct. tua, et sit princeps provinciarum harum quæ subsunt ditioni ecclesiasticæ, ut sit Pontifex universalis ecclesiæ, sit etiam episcopus Romanus, nihil nobis dicendum sumpsimus de his, quæ pertinent ad hunc principatum ecclesiæ, quem tua prudentia optime regi videmus: tangemus tantum ea quæ pertinent ad officium universalis Pont. et nonnulla quæ sunt Romani episcopi. Illud vero ante omnia, beatissime pater, putamus statuendum esse, ut dicit Aristoteles in polit. sicut in unaquaque repub. ita et in hac ecclesiastica gubernatione ecclesiæ Christi hanc præ omnibus legem habendam, ut quantum fieri potest leges serventur. Nec putemus nobis licere dispensare in legibus nisi urgenti de

causa et necessaria. Nulla nanque perniciosior consuetudo in quavis repub. induci potest, quam hæc legum in observantia, quas sanctas majores nostri esse voluerunt earumque potestatem venerandam et divinam appellarunt. Scis tu hæc omnia opt. Pont. legisti jampridem apud philosophos et theologos: illud vero non tantum huic proximum, sed longe prius et potius superiore putamus, non licere Pont. et Christi vicario in usu potestatis, clavium potestatis inquimus, à Christo ei collatæ lucrum aliquod comparare. Hoc etenim est Christi mandatum: Gratis accepistis, gratis date. His primum statutis cum sanct. vestra ita gerat curam ecclesiæ Christi, ut ministros plurimos habeat, per quos hanc curam exerceat. Hi autem sunt clerici omnes, quibus mandatus est cultus Dei, presbyteri præsertim, et maxime curati, et præ omnibus episcopi. Idcirco si gubernatio hæc sit recte præcessura, primo danda est opera, ut hi ministri idonei sint muneri, quo fungi debent.

"1. Primus abusus in hac parte est ordinatio clericorum, et præsertim presbyterorum, in qua nulla adhibetur cura, nulla adhibetur diligentia: quod passim quicunque sint, imperitissimi sint, vilissimo genere orti, sint malis moribus ornati, sint adolescentes, admittantur ad ordines sacros, et maxime ad presbyteratum, ad characterem, inquam, Christum maxime exprimentem. Hinc innumera scandala, hinc contemptus ordinis ecclesiastici, hinc divini cultus veneratio non tantum diminuta, sed etiam prope jam extincta. Ideo putamus optimum fore, si sanctitas tua primo in hac urbe præficeret huic negotio duos aut tres prælatos viros doctos et probos, qui ordinationibus clericorum præessent. Injungeret etiam episcopis omnibus, adhibitis etiam pœnis censurarum, ut id curarent in suis diœcesibus. Nec permittat sanctitas vestra ut quispiam ordinetur, nisi ab episcopo suo, vel cum licentia deputatorum in urbe, aut episcopi sui: insuper ut in ecclesiis suis quisque ; episcopus magistrum habeat, à quo clerici minores et literis et moribus instruantur, ut jura præcipiunt.

"2. Abusus alius maximi ponderis est in collatione beneficiorum ecclesiasticorum, maxime curatorum, et præ omnibus epis

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