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climate will be favourable to its production. Posibly there may be. fome difficulty in the management of those plants which are intended for seed. But supposing this to be the case, feed would, we prefume, be easily imported at a very criling expence. We have, however, known the feed ripen to great perfection in our English gardens.

The rules which Mr. Carver lays down, though drawn only, as he informs us, from memory, seem to be both full and satisfactory a's * well for the cultivating as curing this important article of cominerce,

If Mr. Carver's representations be true, and there is no reason for suspecting they are otherwise, the cultivation of tobacco is actended with as few difficulties as that of the most common vegetable; and the method of curing it also seems to be equally easy and fimple. Besides the usual purposes to which it is applied, it may be used also as a substitute for oak-bark in tanning leather. As an ornamental plant, it may be admitted into the pleasure-garden, being when in flower both majestic and beautiful. There is a good print of it in Mr. Carver's book.

E A ST-INDIE S. Art. 62. Considerations on the East-India Bill now depending in

Parliament. 8vo. 6 d. Elmsly. 1779. Arraigns the justice of the bill, as a breach of public faith to the company associated unier a charter confirmed by subsequent acts of parliament, purchased for valuable considerations. But that bill having since passed into a law, the question is so far decided, as to supersede any farther debate on it, except perhaps among the parties affected.

RELIGIOUS. Art. 63. Earnest Advice, particularly to Persons who live in an

babitual Negleet of our Lord's Supper; considered as a commemora. tive Sacrifice iņseparable from Christianity, and as a Preservative against superstitious Fears, and the immoral Practices, which deface the Glory of our Country, and darken our Prospects of a Life to come. In forty-nine Letters. By Jonas Hanway, Esq. 12mo. 2 5. Dodsley, &c. 1778. Mr. Hanway, we see, continues his benevolent labours to promote the virtue and happiness of his countrymen. He formerly published a small volume called the Commemorative Sacrifice; great part, he fays, of the matter of that work is brought into this, but newly arranged; some of the letters are freih composition, but compre. heading the sense of different writers.—Moit of the letters are short, presuming that so many refling places will encourage those who read but little, or such as have but little time for reading. On the whole, he adds, I have endeavoured to diveít myself of that mysterious awe which gives the major part of the people falle impressions of that unworthiness alluded to by St. Paul; and so far dispel the clouds of ignorance and carelessness, which spread so deep a fhadow over the laod. Thus, I hope, my humble pen will bring some to the table of our Lord, who might otherwise live and die totally negligent of this sacred institution.'

In the dedication of this volume to the Countess Spencer, he observes, when speaking of the state of piety and virtue, · moralists,

as

as well as divines, in all ages, have complained: the present ära cannot be called wonderful, when we see the histories of mankind furnith such unnumbered infànces of the same causes producing the fame effects. Indeed we seem to be so far singular, that I will ven. ture to say there never was so free, learned, and ingenious a people in the same degree negligent with regard to the prime article of the religion of their country; and from this cause I apprehend we may fairly date the greatest part of the calamities which ihreaten us.

Impressed therefore by the truth and importance of christianity, and also by the obligation and usefulness of the peculiar institution which he here more professedly considers, be proceeds with earnest. nefs, and under a variety of views, to persuade Christians to comply, in this instance, with the request and precept of their Lord. His book contains much useful instruction and persuasive piety; but had it been brought into a yet narrower compass, it might perhaps have been more beneficial. His frequent use of the words altar, sacrifice, &c. tend, we think, to convey an idea of this ordinance somewhac different from that which the plain and short account given of it in the New Testament suggests or warrants. However, though we do not regard the work as entirely free from objections, it is certainly calculated to promote the best purposes, and we heartily with the views of the worthy Author may be answered, by rendering his seaders the better, and happier, for the perusal of his well-intended letters.

SE R M O N S. I. Christianity the true Foundation of Civil Liberty.- Preached at St. Mary's, Leicester, at the Afdzes held there Aug. 12, 1778, by John Cole Galloway, A. M. Vicar of Hinckley in that County. 8vo. is. H. Payne, &c.

Plain, serious, sensible, and well adapted to the occasion. II. Chriftian Fortitude particularly recommended in Times of Danger, at

the Chapel-Royal, St. James's, July 4, 1779. By S. Glaffe, D. D. F. RS. 8vo. od. Rivington.

Dr. Glasse shall, himself, review this pious and seasonable sermon. . It is the design of this discourse to encourage reflections of the most falutary kind; to draw the line, as carefully as may be, betwixt a dangerous self-confidence on the one hand, and a not less dangerous despair on the other; each leading by different paths to the same end, viz. to a fatal inactivity.' CORRE S P O N D E N C E.

A CAR D. DHILODOMUS presents his respectful compliments to the

I Monthly Reviewers, begs that they will acquaint him when Organs were first introduced into the Christian Church, and by whom: which will much oblige him, and some others of their con. stans Readers.

Cumberland, 12th July, 1779. *** Some of our Readers may, perhaps, be able to satisfy the curiosity of this Correspondent. Possibly the informarion he seeks. may be obtained by consulting Burney's History of Music, or Sir John Hawkins; or Anderson's History of Commerce.

. . THE MONTHLY REVIEW,

.: For AUGUST, 1779.

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Art. I. Johnson's Prefaces to the Works of the English Poets. Vou lume II. Vid. lait Monch's Review, Art. I.

MILTON. THE active part which Milton took in the public transaci tions of the times he lived in, will ever subject him to the misrepresentations of partiality or prejudice. In the biographical part of the preface before us, we have observed some palfages not totally free from the influence of one of these principles.

In the opening of the narrative, after mentioning some other particulars of his family, we are told that his father had two i fons, John the poet, and Christopher, who studied the law,

and adhered, as the law taught him, to the King's party. . After the accession of King James, he was knighted, and ( made a judge ; but, his constitution being too weak for busi• ness, he recired before any disreputable compliances became « necessary. Fenton says, “ by too easy a compliance with " the doctrines of the court, both religious and civil, he at“ tained to the dignity of being made a judge of the Common -- Pleas, of which he died divested not long after the Revolu** tion.” As he is said to have adhered to what the law taught him, we will hope, though there doth not seem much reason to believe, that he retired before any disreputable compliances became necessary. Yet, when the disposition of the times is considered, it is far from probable that he should have been advanced from the obscurity of chamber practice, which he followed, to sit as a judge in the court of Common Pleas, unless his readiness of compliance had been previously known. But, perhaps, as he adhered, as the law taught him, to King Charles's party, the biographer thought him entitled to some little indulgence, VOL, LXI. . . ; . G

Milton

Milton was first educated under a domestic tutor, and afterward sent to St. Paul's school; from whence, in the beginning of his fixteenth year, he was removed to Cambridge. We are told, there is reason to suspect that he was regarded in his college with no great fondness. That he obtained no fellowship is certain ; but the unkindness with which he was treated was not merely negative. I am ashamed,' continues the biographer, 's to relate what I fear is true, that Milton was the last student in either university, that suffered the public indignity of corporal correction.

• It was, in the violence of controversial hostility, objected to him, that he was expelled: this he steadily denies, and it was apparently not true; but it seems plain from his own verses to Diodati, that he had incurred Rufiication ; a temporary dismillion into the country, with perhaps the loss of a term :

Jam nec arundiferum mihi cura revisere Camum,

Nec dudum veriti me laris angit amor;
Nec duri libet usque minas perferre magiftri,

Cæteraque ingenio non fubeunda meo. • I cannot find any meaning but this, which even kindness and reverence can give to the term, vetiti laris, “ a habitation from which he is excluded ;" or how exile can be otherwise interpreted. He declares yet more, that he is weary of enduring the threats of a rigorous master, and something else, which a temper like his cannot undergo. What was more than threat was evidently punishment.' . If the evidence of Milton's suffering the public indignity of corporal correction rest only on the above quoted lines, there is certainly a construction put upon them which the sense by no means requires. By rendering cæteraque in the fingular number, the application which in the original is general, in the translation is made particular. There are many insults and indigni. ties which academical subordination might make him liable to, beside corporal correction, or the threats of rustication or expulsion, which a temper like Milton's might find a difficulty in submitting to. But supposing the conjecture to be true, shame would surely never suffer hiin even to allude to what he could not but think of with the utmost indignation, nor is it probable he would ever wilh to revisit scenes where he had suffered such public indignity. - When the biographer comes to that part of Milton's life when he returned from abroad, he tells us, that hearing of the differences between the King and parliament, he thought it proper to halten home, rather than pass his life in foreign ainusements while his countrymen were contending for their rights. At his return he hired a lodging at the house of one Ruffel a taylor, in St. Bride's Church-yard, and undertook the education of John and Edward Philips, his sister's fons. Find. ing his rooms too little, he took a house and garden in Alderf

gate

gate Atreet. Here he received more boys to be boarded and inItructed.' He then breaks off his narrative to. exclaim, Let not our veneration for Milton forbid us to look with some degree of merriment on great promises and small performance, on the man who hastens home, because his countrymen are contending for their liberty, and, when he reaches the scene of acrion, vapours away his patriotism in a private boarding school.'

What the Doctor finds to excite merriment we own ourselves ignorant of. Whatever might be Milton's patriotism, it was necessary he should live. To do this with competence and convenience, he undertook the education of youth. The neces. sity of this is acknowledged. His allowance was not ample, and he supplied its deficiencies by an honest and useful employment.' That he promised more than other men in the like situations may be doubted; that he performed less is what no man can have the hardiness to afiirm. He had not been above a year in England before he signalized himself, and affifted the cause which he espoused, by his treatise of Reformation, in iwo books. This work was soon followed by another, and that, in the year following, by a third. With what propriety, therefore, are we to look with merriment at his vapouring away his patriotism in a private boarding-school? In what follows we fully agree with our Author :

• This is the period of his life from which all his biographers seem inclined to thrink. They are unwilling that Milion Thould be dee graded to a school-manier ; but since it cannot be denied that he taught boys, one finds out that he caught for nothing, and another that his motive was only zeal for the propagation of learning and virtue; and all tell what they do not know to be crue, cnly to ex. cure an act which no wise man will consider as in itself disgraceful. His father was alive ; his allowance was not ample, and he supplied its deficiencics by an honest and useful employment.

• It is cold, continues this Writer, that in the art of education he performed wonders; and a form dable lift is given of the authors, Greek and Larin, that were read in Aldersgate-ftreet, by youth betwee'n ten and fifteen or sixteen years of age. Those who tell or re. ceive these stories, should consider that nobody can be taught faster than he can learn. The speed of the best horseman must be limited by the power of his horse. Every man, that has ever undertaken to inftruet others, can tell what now advances he has been able to make, and how much parience it requires to recal vagrant inatten. tion, to stimulate sluggish indifference, and to rectify absurd misapprehenfion.'

Notwithstanding we give full credit to the justness of these remarks, we cannot think it impossible but Milton might make many improvements upon the modes of education which at that time might prevail ; he certainly was capable of striking out new roads to learning that might possibly be shorter and easier than those that were usually travelled. For, though it be true G 2

that

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