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rity, than we have been fatisfied with his proofs. His attempts to refute. Montesquieu are not always successful: his observations on the arts, sciences, agriculture, religioti, and political osconomy of the Eastern nations, are curious, but do not juftify the conclufions he draws from them; and after ali bis attempts to set the Orientals free from the imputation of servitude, we fear their bonds are more ignominious and severe than he would have us to think.

Tbe ample notes that terminate this work, are replete with instruction, in respect to several points of oriental legidation, agriculture, &c. They contain among other things, a particular account of what the Mogul government drew from the riches and industry of the subjects of that empire under the reign of Akbar, who abolished a multitude of particular taxes, and supplied their place by a general one on lands and labour, with rettrictions that rendered it mild and humane.- We find also, in these notes, an explication of some passages of the Koran, a discourse of Minother, an ancient king of Persia, and the dissertation of Mr. Dow on the despotism of Indoftan, with the observations of our Author on the same subject.

Mr. ANQUETIL designs to publish another work, ftill more considerable, which, in all appearance, will contribute greatly to improve our knowledge of Indoftan; this is a translation of the Oupnekat, which is a treatise of Indian theology, containing extracts from the four Vedams. It was translated at Dehli, in the year 1656, from the Samscretan, or Hanscrit, into Perfian, by the order of Darab-Schako, eldeft fon of the Mogul Schab-Djehan. Mr. ANQUETIL proposes enriching his transJation with notes, relative to the antiquities and geography of Indoltan, He also promises the public, Dictionaries of the Malabar, Telongou, and Samscretan languages.

ART. XVI. Traité de l'Education des Femmes, &c.-A Treatise concerning the Edacation of the Female Sex. Vol. I. 400 pages. Paris. 1779.

books of this kind were ever seasonable, they seem to be peculiarly fo (be it said without offence!) at the present period of time, in the British ifles : and notwithstanding the number of treatises on education, with which our literature may be already enriched, we thould be glad to see the excellent work now before us in an Englifh dress, with such alterations as may be judged expedient. But we hould be forry if it were to fall into the hands of a hackney, or even an ordinary Translator ; because it requires judgment and skill to lop off what is exuberant, fupply what is deficient, and illustrate what is obscure. This volume is divided into three parts. The first relates to the care of the child from its birth to the age of seven. The fecond takes in the period from seven to fourteen; and the third is employed in forming the amiable woman, the mother of a family, and the useful member of civil society. The detail, into which the Author enters in these three stages of education, are strongly marked with the characters of fagacity and sentiment; and the whole, we think, breathes a spirit not only of elegance but of virtue: though we could with, that the ftyle and mode of expreffion were not sometimes chargeable with quaintness and obscurity.--We must observe, that this work is the production of a lady; and that it was undertaken at the request of her husband, who was desirous of communicating to others, the happiness with which a wife and virtuous confort has crowned his conjugal state. The volume before us is to be followed by two more. In the second, the Author proposes to treat of the senses; of health ; of the use of the bodily organs; of metaphysical notions, and experimental philosophy ;-and in the third, of those branches of historical knowledge that are most effentially required in female education.

relates

ART.

XVII. Can Plinii SECUNDI Historie Naturalis XXXVII. Libri, quos reo

cenfuit et Notis illustravit GABRIEL BROTIER. -Pliny's Natural History, with Emendations and explanatory Notes. By M. BROTIER, formerly a Member of the Company of Jesus (so called). 6 Vols. 12mo. Paris. Price bound 36 Livres (or 1 1. 14 s. Sterling). THIS truly learned and classical editor gave, fome time ago,

a specimen of his taste and critical merit, in the publica. tion of an excellent edition of Tacitus. The edition of Pliny, now before us, contains above 2000 corrections, which had cscaped the learned researches and fagacity of Father Hardouin ; it is printed in the same letter and size with the claffic Authors published by Barbou, and it has obtained the applause of all the connoiffeurs.

THIS

ART. XVIII. De la Religion, par ** Homme du Monde, l'on examine les differens

Systemes des Sages de notre Siecle, 8.-A Treatise concerning Religion, by a Man of the World, in which the Syftems of the Sages of our Times (the irreligious Philosophers in France) are examined, and the Connection of the Principles of Chriftianity, with the fundamental Maxims on which the public Tranquillity depends, it fully demonstrated. 8vo. 5 Vols, Paris. 1779. THIS excellent work deferves to be distinguished from the

multitude of publications in defence of Chriftianity, that issue daily from the French presses. We find in it fimplicity of style and manner, perspicuity of reasoning, an intimate

acquaintance

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acquaintance with the fubje&ts that are treated, a uniform tone of decency and candour, that is never interrupted by either farcasms or invectives against the enemies of religion, and a folidity of argument that seems to force conviction. The Author is a layman, nay, he represents himself as a sceptic, an impartial observer, who, having been for some time carried along with the torrent of the new philosophy, began to suspect the illusion, and therefore, going back to the principles of evidence, and the true source of knowledge, resolved to review his opinions, and to inquire seriously what notions we ought to entertain of our own existence, of that of the Deity, of the neceffity or advantages of a Divine Revelation, and of the celestial origin of the Christian religion. In the execution of this important plan, the judicious Author divides his work into four parts. The first contains inquiries concerning the origin and limits of human knowledge,-a defence of human liberty, and a refutation of the system of fatalism. The second and third treat of the Supreme Being,-of natural and moral evil,-of the contradiction that some have falsely supposed to exist between the divine attributes, -and of the immateriality and immortality. of the human soul. In the fourth and last part, our Author treats of the probability of a divine revelation, and then confiders the proofs of Christianity, together with its doctrines, inftitutions, and moral precepts.

ART. XIX. Eloges lus dans les Seances Publiques de l'Academie Franccife, &c.

Eulogies, road at the Public Meetings of the French Academy. By M. D'ALEMBERT, Perpetual Secretary of the said ncademy.

Paris. 1779. pp. 559 THIS elegant work, in which the philosophical pen of M.

12mo.

much earneftness and precision, forms an interesting continuation of the history of the French academy, begun by Messieurs Peliffon and D'Olivet. . This volume, which will be followed by feveral more, contains the eulogies of Mafillon, Boileau, the Abbé de St. Pierre, Boljilet, the Abbé De Dangeau, De Sacy, De la Motte, Fenelon, Thoiss, Deftouches, Flechier, Crebillon, and the Prefident Role. The varieties of character, genius, taste, and talent, that distinguish these eminent men, have furnished the learned and ingenious Panegyrist with an occasion of displaying all the powers of his pencil, and all the resources of his art, in giving to each object its proper attitude and aspect, and the colouring that more peculiarly suits it.-It is, however, to be wilhed, that this agreeable and instructive work were not here and there chargeable with quaint thoughts, far-fetched comparisons, and obfcure distinctions,

ΤΗ

ART.

XX. D. Gorteriana Vitalitate Miferiis Hominum reluctante, &c.-Psycolo

gico-Medical Propositions concerning Gorter's Doctrine, with respect to that Power of the Vital Principle, which struggles with the Evils of humanity. By M. P. IGNATIUS ZECCHINI, of the Institute of Bologna, and Profeffor of Physic in the Univerfily of Ferrara. 4to. Ferrara, 1779 HIS ingenious Author published, about fix years ago, a

treatise concerning the Laws of Vitality, in a healthy, and also in a disordered ftate, proceeding from an inflammatory principle. In the small work before us, he confiders the animal nature in a state of pain, and divides his subject into three parts. The first treats of this indispofition considered in itself, and, on this occasion, of the mutual influence which foul and body have upon each other. In the second, our Author examines the opinions of the ancients concerning the cause of pain, and finds them much less fatisfactory than those of the moderns. In the third, he mentions the most effectual methods which the art of healing furnishes for preventing the effects of pain, and even retarding, if not removing entirely its cause. M. Zec. CHINI seems to have formed an idea of the animal economy, which is truly philosophical. He has improved the system of Gorter; his end is to deliver humanity from a multitude of evils, both physical and moral; and the public, therefore, is, at least, obliged to him for his good intentions.

ART. XXI. MUSEI CAPITOLINI Antique Inscriptiones, à Francisco EUGENIO

Guasco, ejufdem Musei Curatore, nunc primum conjun&im Edile, Notisque illuftratæ. Tom. ll. The ancient Inscripcions in the Vatican Collection, &c. fol. Rome. 1778.

E formerly gave an account of the two preceding

volumes * of this learned work, and the plan on which it has been composed. This third volume concludes the public cation; which may be justly considered as a complete course of Lapidarian science, by the vast number of infcriptions it contains, and the extensive erudition which the ingenious and noble Author has displayed in throwing new light upon them, and correcting the errors of preceding antiquaries. This volume contains the seventh, and the succeeding chapters to the twelfth inclusive. The seventh contains the inscriptions that relate to parents, children, brothers, and sisters, and those that are relative to patrons, friends, faves, freed- men, &c. In the ninth, we have the explication of 126 Figulean inscriptions (Inscriptiones Figuline) which are kept in two contiguous chambers of the Mufæum Capitolinum. To this explication

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the Author has prefixed a curious dissertation concerning the origin of the art which the Latins called Ars Figulina, and the etymology of that term; which is derived from the name of a small town, in the Sabine territory, situated on the Via Nomentana (about twelve miles from Rome), whose ancient name was Figulea t, and whose inhabitants were chiefly employed in manufacturing earthen-ware. M. de Guasco, who, like the rest of the fraternity, is no where reprehensible for too much brevity, enlarges, very circumstantially, on the antiquity of this art, on its high repute among the Romans, and on the inscriptions often found on bricks, &c. The tenth and eleventh chapters exhibit a collection of Grecian and Chriftian inscriptions; and the twelfth is a kind of Supplement, which contains the omitted inscriptions that belong to the preceding volumes, or such as did not come to the Author's knowledge till after the publica, tion of thefe volumes. In this last chapter, we find the famous fragment of the Lex Regia, by which the fenate and the Roman people conferred the Imperial Dignity upon Vespasian. This fragment, engraven on brass, was discovered, under the pontificate of Clement VI. in the church of St. John de Lateran. This ancient monument was more or less neglected, until the reign of Pope Gregory XIII. who had it placed in the Campidoglio, from whence Clement XII. ordered it to be transported to the Musæum Capitolinum. From that time, many learned men have employed much labour in the explication of it ; but our Author has succeeded here much better than all who have gone before him.

+ It is now called St. Vafil, which is an earthen-ware saint, and an evident translation of Figulia.

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ART. XXII.
Scienza della Natura, &c.—The Science of Nature, general and

particular. By Father D. JOHN MARIA DELLA TORRE. Part III.
With Tables and Engravings. 4to. Naples. 1778.

HIS, and the two preceding volumes, contain the moft

complete course of natural history, and natural phildsophy, that is to be met with in Italian. It is a new edition of a work, published by this Author in 1749; but it appears with such additions and improvements, drawn from the modern difcoveries in natural philosophy, that it may be justly considered as a new work. The idea of uniting natural history with natural philosophy, is certainly a happy one; and our Author is the first Italian who has treated natural science on this plan. This thin part contains aftronomy, optics, air, found, and meteors.

ART.

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