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Prince Eugene of Savoy.—7thly, Two Treatises of the late M. GALAND, which are become exceedingly rare : the one entitled, REMARKABLE SAYINGS OF THE EASTERNS, and the other ORIENTAL MAXIMS.-It muft not be omitted, that this 4to edition of Herbelot has the peculiar advantage of being improved by the ADDITIONS of M. SCHULTENS, lately chosen profeflor of the oriental Languages at Leyden, in the place of his learned and worthy father; and who reflects new honour on the very respectable name he bears. This learned profeffor,
tafte is as elegant as his erudition is extensive, has furnished rticles to the work before us, and corrected some of the
be employed by a wise Practitioner in Medicine, to sender
should become a matter of moment to have more caps
The confequence is, that if medical science can give a ty to the generative faculty of male or female, it must be of determining the sex of their progeniture. Our Auks he has discovered a method of giving the medical art
this fingular influence; nay, the means prescribed are remark. able for their fimplicity. Those who delire information on this head, may consult the work itfelf, for which they must apply to the Author ; who acknowledges no copies to be genuine, that do not bear his signature. He lives at Paris, in the freet Richlieu-Sorbonne, in the College des Tresoriers.
ART. XIV. Obfervations fur la Formation des Montagnes et les Changemens arrives
au Globe, &c.—Observations on the Formation of Mountains, and the Changes and Revolutions which have taken place in our Globe; composed with a view to the Natural History of M. Buffon. By P. S. PALLAS, Member of the Academy of Perers. burg, in 12mo. pp. 90. Price 24 Livres. Printed at Paris. 1779. THIS laborious and intelligent Author, who by the order
travelled through her dominions in Europe and Asia, to examine the state of Nature in these vast regions, has communicated to the Public, in the small work now before us, a confiderable number of important observations. The origin and formation of mountains, is the object that has more particularly employed his attention in this work. He undertakes to refute, by un. doubted facts, the opinions, much in vogue, of certain Naturalists, who suppose, that the mountains arose out of the waters, and derived existence and formation from the ocean. His obfervations, repeated in different places, have convinced him that the great ridge or chain of primitive mountains, that binds together the various parts of the globe, as the beams do the masonry of a building, neither has been, nor could be, the production of the waters. This majestic chain, which he follows in an ample and interesting defcription, is all granite, with a basis of quartz, more or less mixed with spars, mica, and little portions of basaltes, scattered without order, and in irregular fragments. This ancient rocky substance, and the sand produced by its decompofition, form (according to M. Pallas) the bafis of all the continents. But this rocky granit is never found in Arata or beds; it is either in blocks, or at least in maffes, accumulated the one upon the other, and never exhibits the least mark of vestige of petrifaction, or of any organical impreffion whatever. Besides these primordial mountains, M. PALLAS maintains, that there are others of a more recent origin. There he calls fecondary and tertiary: the former, which are fchiftous, were produced at the sides of the primordial mountains by the decompofition of the granites; the latter arise from the wrecks and contents of the sea, raised and transported by volcanic eruptions and consequent inundations.
Here we have our Author's hypothesis. Having lived for ten years in the midst of these mountains, and studied their majestic beauties, which are as much adapted to suggest systems to the Naturalist, as numbers to the Poet, he comes after the Burnets, the Whistons, the Woodwards, the Mallets, the Scheuchzers, and the Buffons, and fays, -Gentlemen, with your leave, I also am a system-maker. Supposing then, says he, that the high granitic primordial mountains formed, from the origin of things, ifles at the surface of the ocean, and that the decomposition of the granite produced the first accumulations of quartzeous and sparis sand, and of a micacious mud, of which the grains and schistes of the ancient chains or ridges were composed, what then? why then the sea must have carried along with it, to the fides of the land, the light, ferrugineous, and phlogisticated matters, produced by the diffolution of those multitudes of vegetables and animals, which it contained, and by filtrating these principles into the strata, which it had deposited on the granite, must have formed those heaps of pyrites, the furnaces of the first volcanos, whose fucceflive eruptions were afterwards observed in different parts of the globe. These ancient volcanos, whose marks and veftiges have been loft in the lapse of ages, demolished the strata, which had become folid through time, and under which their explosions had been made : they changed and modified, in different manners, by fusing or calcinating them by the activity of fire, the substances of these strata, and thus they produced the first mountains of the schiftous band, which corresponds in part with the beds of clay, and of the land of the plains, and also formed chase calo careous mountains, whose vault is folid and without any appearances or vestiges of petrifications. It was then, that, in -the caverns and chinks, accumulations were made, and veins were formed of quartz, spars, minerals, phlogisticated substances, &c. : the sea, washing the lower parts of the mountains, deposited there marine productions, which imperceptibly formed banks of corals and shells: and new volcanos forcing the sea to retire, raised these banks and produced the huge calcareous Alps of Europe. But there must have happened a prodigious convulsion in our globe, and an inundation of a moft violeat and dreadful kind. Our Author could no longer doubt (says he) of the certainty of a general deluge, when he found in Siberia the remains of the huge animals of India, the bones of elephants, rhinoceroses, and monstrous buffaloes, sometimes dispersed here and there, sometimes accumulated in heaps, and in such quantities that they are become an important object of commerce for that province. What surprised him the most, was his finding in those frozen regions, that lie on the borders of the Vilozzi, the carcass of a rhinoceros, with its whole fkin, and the remains of tendons, ligaments, and cartilages. He has deposited the parts that were beft preserved, in the cabinet of the academy of Petersburg, and he wilhes that some zealous and accurate observer of Nature could arrive at those mountains, which lie between the rivers Indigiska and Kolyma, where the huntsmen affirm, that they have seen several carcaffes of elephants and other gigantic animals. These observations, and thofe made by Mr. Juffieu, upon the ferns and Indian plants, whose forms are visibly imprinted on the stegania or flates in the European quarries, prove evidently, according to M. PALLAS, that the inundation which brought them into our northern regions, cane from the South or the Indian Ocean. M. PALLAS attributes this terrible deluge to the violent eruptions of a quantity of volcanos, which he places in the Indian Archipelago. The fuft eruption, which raised the bottom of a very deep sea, and which, perhaps, at one shock, or several which followed each other closely, formed the isles of Sunda, the Moluccas, the Phillipines, and the Austral Sands, must have driven away, on all fides, such an enormous mass of water as surpasses imagination. This mars, impelled with violence against the strong barrier which the continued ridge of Afiatic and European mountains opposed to it on the North, and preffed ftill forward by new inundations, must have produced the most dreadful havoc and confusion, and the most enormous breaches in the lands of these continents : it must have carried along with it the banks of fand, thells, &c, that were formed before their coaits, as also the higher strata of the first lands; and, riling above, the less elevated parts of the chain, which forms the middle, the continent must have transported to, and deposited on, the opposite declivities all these wrecks and fragments, mixed with the substances which the eruption had already blended with the waters of the ocean; it must likewise have buried without order, the shattered remains of the trees and animals that were enveloped in this general ruin, and formed, by these fucceflive transportations (ile póts), the tertiary mountains, as our Author calls them, and the terrene aecefsions, or alluvions (atterisjemens), of Siberia. Finally, this enormous mass of water, let in motion by volcanic erruptions, directed its course towards the Pole, with the whole body of water that as yet covered the plains, and thus formed the inequalities, the valleys, the vestiges of rivers, the lakes, and great gulphs of the Northern acean, overturning, in its course, the most ancient Strata, and fill carrying along with it a fufficient quantity of heterogeneous subítances to fill up a part of deeps of that ocean, and to occasion the thelves, thallows, and land-banks, that are found near its coatts,
Such is the hypothesis of M. PALLAs; and it may have its day :--and why should it not? for it does not hang in the air, upon the tail of a comet, like the Epochas of Nature, and though it lies open to difficulties and objections, yet the theory it contains, with respect to the formation of the mountains, draws many lines of probability from Natural History, and an observation of the present state of the globe. Natural History is the indulgent parent of all the system-makers :- they all appeal to her; and the appears to bear testimony to them all: at least, they all say so.
ART. XV. Legislation Orientale.- Ouvrage dans lequel, &c.-Oriental LegiNation.– A Work, in which, by a Display of the Fundamental Principles of Government in the Turkish, Pe:lian, and Indian Dominions, it is proved,- First, That the Manner in which most Writers have hitherto represented Despotism, as if it were absolute in these three Empires, is entirely illusory, and groundless.--Secondly, That in Turkey, Persia, and Indoftan, there are Codes of written Law, which affect the Prince, as well as the Subject.-Thirdly, That in these three Empires, the Inhabitan:s are poffefsed of Property, both in moveable and immoveable Goods, which they enjoy with an ensire Liberty. By M. ANQUETIL DU PERRON, of the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres, and King's Interpreter for the Oriental Languages. 410. Paris and Amsterdam. 1779. THIS title exhibits the plan of our Author's work, and this
plan is executed in such a manner, as might be expected from the extensive erudition and capacity of the Writer. We found a certain propensity to adopt his opinion, even before we saw the arguments by which it is supported; for surely it is a great relief to humanity to find, that so considerable a part of our species are not such wretched slaves, as hath been so often said. The authorities on which he builds his system, are those very travellers who have misled the Public, by confounding arbitrary acts, and periods of violence and disorder, with the usual and permanent state of things. To the testimony of travellers he adds his collection of original papers and records, such as a Daily Gazette of the Mogul court, in which an account is publifhed of the affairs of the empire.-A circumstantial enumeration of the functions and departments of the different ministers, taken from a book called Akbar-namal, composed by Aboulfazel, secretary to Schah-Akbar,--and from the copy of a deed or contract of sale, in which the forms observed in transactions of that kind are accurately mentioned. We leave the reader to judge, by perusing this instructive work, how far the Author' has succeeded in proving his hypothesis. As for our part, we have been more entertained and instructed by his learning and dexte