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perbo, that no but the urder. Feateft de
their people happen to be out hunting, those northern Indians come into their towns well armed, and in such numbers that they are not able to resist them.
" I propose that a treaty of friend hip and peace be concluded first with the English, and then with the Cherokees, in such a manner as may render it durable. Some of your people have from smaller crimes proceeded to greater. First, they waylaid the Cherokees, and killed one of them in the midst of our settlements; then they came to Charlestown, where some Cherokees at the same time happened to be, and though I cautioned them, and they promised to do no mischief, yet the next day they assaulted and murdered several of them nigh the gares of this town. For these outrages I have sent for you, to demand satisfaction; and also for the murder committed in one of your towns, for which satisfaction was made by the death of another person, and not of the murderer. For the future, I acquaint you, that nothing will be deemed as satisfaction for the lives of our people, but the lives of those persons themselves who shall be guilty of the murder. The English never make treaties of friend thip but with the greatest deliberation, and when made observe them with the strictest punctuality. They are, at the same time, vigilant, and will not suffer other nations to infringe the smallest article of such treaties. It would tend to the happiness of your people, were you equally careful to watch against the beginnings of evil; for sometimes a small spark, if not attended to, may kindle a great fire; and a flight fore, if suffered to spread, may endanger the whole body. Therefore, I have sent for you to prevent farther mischief, and I hope you come dir, posed to give satisfaction for the outrages already committed, and to promise and agree to maintain peace and friendship with your neighbours for the future.”
This speech delivered to the Indians was interpreted by Lachlan M'Gilvray, an Indian trader, who understood their language. After which Malatchee, the king of the Lower Creek nation, stood forth, and with a solemnity and dignity of manner that astonished all present, in answer, addressed the Governor to the following effect : “ I never had the honour to see the great King George, nor to hear his talk-But you are, in his place I have heard yours, and I like it well-Your sentiments are agreeable to my own—The great King wisely judged, that the best way of maintaining friendship between white and red people was by trade and commerce :-He knew we are poor, and want many things, and that skins are all we have to give in exchange for what we want. I have ordered my people to bring you some as a present, and, in the name of our nation, I lay them at your Excellency's feet-You have sent for us- we are come to hear what you have to say - But I did not expect to hear our whole nation accused for the faults of a
Rev. Dec. 1779. ,
few private men-Our head-men neither knew nor approved of the mischief done-We imagined our young men had gone a-hunting as usual - When we heard what had happened at Charlestown, I knew you would send and demand satisfactionWhen your agent came and told me what satisfaction you required, 'I owned the juftice of it-But it was not adviseable for me alone to grant it-It was prudent to consult with our beloved men, and have their advice in a matter of such importanceWe met-we found that the behaviour of some of our people had been bad-We found that blood had been fpilt at your gates-We thought it just that satisfaction fhould be made-We turned our thoughts to find out the chief persons concerned ; (for a man will sometimes employ another to com. mit a crime he does not chuse to be guilty of himself)-We found the Acorn Whistler was the chief contriver and promoter of the mischief-We agreed that he was the man that ought to fuffer-Some of his relations, who are here present, then said he deserved death, and voted for it-Accordingly he was put to death-He was a very great warrior, and had many friends and relations in different parts of the country-We thought it prudent to conceal for some time the true reason of his death, which was known only to the head-men that concerted it-We did this for fear some of his friends in the heat of fury would take revenge on some of your traders--At a general meeting all matters were explained - The reasons of his death were made known-His relations approved of all that was done. - Satisfaction being made, I say no more about that matter-I hope our friendship with the English will continue as heretofore,
“ As to the injuries done to the Cherokees, which you spoke of, we are forry for them-We acknowledge our young men do many things they ought not to do, and very often act like mad. men-But it is well known I and the other head warriors did all we could to oblige them to make reftitution-I rode from town to town with Mr. Bosomworth'and his wife to affi At them in this matter—Most of the things taken have been restored When this was over, another accident happened which created fresh troubles-A Chickesaw who lived in our nation, in a drunken fit shot a white man-I knew you would demand fatisfaction-I thought it best to give it before it was asked - The murder was committed at a great diflance from me--I mounted my horse and rode through the towns with your agent-I took the head-men of every town along with me-We went to the place and demanded satisfaction - It was given-The blood of the Indian was fpilt for the blood of a white man-The uncle of the murderer purchased his life, and voluntarily killed him. self in his ttead-Now I have done-I am glad to see you face to face to settle these matters - It is good to renew treaties
of friendship - I shall always be glad to call you friends and brothers." .
· This speech throws no small light on the judicial proceedings of barbarous nations, and shews that human nature in its rudeft ftate poffeffes a strong sense of right and wrong. Although Indians have little property, yet here we behold their chief magistrate protecting what they have, and, in cases of robbery, acknowledging the necessity of making restitutioni. They indeed chiefly injure one another in their persons or reputations, and in all cases of murder the guilty are brought to trial and condemned to death by the general consent of the nation. Even the friends and relations of the murderer here voted for his death. But, what is more remarkable, they give us an instance of an atonement made, and justice satisfied, by the subftitution of an innocent man in place of the guilty. An uncle voluntarily, and generoully offers to die in the place of his nephew, the favages accept of the offer, and in consequence of his death declare that satisfaction is made. Next to personal defence, the Indian guards his character and reputation; for as it is only from the general opinion his nation entertains of his wisdom, justice, and valour, that he can expect to arrive at rank and distinction, he is exceedingly watchful against doing any thing for which he may incur public blame or disgrace. In this answer to Governor Glen, Malatchee discovers considerable talents as a public speaker, and appears to be insensible neither to his own dignity and freedom, nor to the honour and independence of his nation. Genius and liberty are the gifts of heaven ; the former is universal as that space over which it has scope to range; the latter inspires confidence, and gives a na. tural confidence to our words and actions.'
If this work, which brings down the History to the year 1766, meets with the approbation of the Public, the Author proposes to continue it from that period to the present time.
ART. XH. A Specimen of the Civil and Military Infitutes of Timour,
or Tamerlane : A Work written originally by that celebrated Conqueror, in the Mogul Language, and since translated into Persian. Now firit rendered from the Persian into English, from a MS. in the Poffeffion of William Hunter, M. D. F. R. S. Physician Extraordinary to the Queen. With other Pieces. By Joseph White, B. D. Fellow of Wadham College, Laudian Professor of Arabic, One of his Majesty's Preachers at Whitehall, and Editor and Translator of the Syriac Philoxenian Version of the Gospels.
Oxford. 4to. 1 s. 6 d. Elmlly, London. 1780. o f this History and Institutes of Tamerlane, Mr. Davy,
formerly Persian Secretary to the Commander in Chief of the forces in Bengal, says, in a letter to Mr. White,
G g 2
a works to the
" The History of Timour, written by himself, carries with it the strongest proofs that he wrote for posterity only; and that he could not, in' prudence, or, in policy, make his work public during his life : for it contains not only the same accurate detail of the facts and occurrences of his reign, as are found in other Authors, but it goes much farther. He gives you that which he only had the power to give, the secret springs and motives which influenced his conduct in the various political and military transactions of his life, the arts by which he governed, as well as the power by which he conquered. He acknowledges his weaknesses, honestly owns his errors, describes the difficulties in which he was occasionally involved by those errors, and the policy by which he surmounted and overcame those difficulties. In a word, it is a complete Index to his head and his heart; and though, take it all in all, it redounds to the honour of both the one and the other, yet it was a work by no means calculated for the perusal of his enemies, or even his subjects during his life ; fince it would have enabled those who chose it, to combat him with his own weapons, or, in other words, to have turned his arts and his policy againft himself. Hence it is reasonable to fuppofe, that the work in question was entirely unknown during his life; and its subsequent temporary obscurity may, I think, be plausibly accounted for, by the probability of one copy only existing at the time of his death, by the uncertainty into whose hands that copy fell, and by the divisions which followed in his family after the death of Shaabroch.'
The specimen which Mr. White has translated, gives us a strong delire to see the remainder of this very curious and interesting work.
The English version will be deserving of attention, not only as a faithful transcript of a very valuable original, but as a work of great beauty and elegance.
That our readers may be enabled to form some opinion of the specimen, already published, we shall infert an extract, containing some of the rules established by Tamerlane, for the support of bis glory and empire.
i With donations of money and of jewels I rejoiced the hearts of my officers and soldiers ; I permitted them to participate in the banquet; and in the field of blood they hazarded their lives in support of my power. I withheld not from them my gold nor my filver. I educated and trained them to arms; and to alleviate their sufferings, I myself shared in all their labours, and in all their hardships ; uncil, with the arm of fortitude and resolution, and with the unanimity of my chiefs, my generals, and my warriors, by the edge of the
Sword I obtained poffefion of the thrones of seven-and-twenty kings :
From the moment that I cloathed myself in the robe of empire, I shut my eyes to the soft repose which is found in the bed of ease, and to that health which follows tranquillity. From the twelfth year of my age I suffered distresses, combated diffculties, formed enterprizes, and vanquished armies :
"Those who had done me injuries, who had attacked my person in battle, and had counteracted my schemes and enterprizes, when they threw themselves on my mercy, I received them with kindness; conferred on them additional honours, drew the pen of oblivion over their evil actions, and treated them with such a degree of confidence, that if the least vestige of apprehension remained in their hearts, it was entire y eradicated,
• I ever acted on deliberation; and whatever enterprize I undertook, that' enterprize engaged my whole attention : nor did I ever relinquish it, will I had brought it to a conclufion. I adhered to my promises. I never dealt with severity towards any one, nor was I oppreilive in any of my actions : that God Almighty might not deal severely towards me, nor render my own actions oppressive unto me. I enquired of learned men into the laws and regulations of ancient princes, from the days of Adam to those of the Prophet, and from that time to the present period. I weighed their institutions, their manners, their actions, and their opinions, one by one ; I relected models for my own conduct from their excellent qualities and approved virtues.
"Whoever had been my enemy, and was ashamed thereof, and Aying to me for protection, humbled himself before me, I forgot his enmity; and by my liberality and courtesy became a bidder for his friendship. In such manner Share' Behraum, the Chief of a tribe, was in my service. He quiited me in the hour of action, united with the enemy, and fought against me. At length my salt, which he had eaten, overwhelmed him with remorse; he again threw himself on my mercy, and humbled himself before me. As he was a man of illustrious descent, of bravery and of experience, I covered my eyes from his faults; I raised him to a superior rank; and I pardoned his disloyalty in consideration of his valour,
Soldiers, whether associates or adversaries, I held in esteem; those who sell their permanent happiness to perishable honour, who rush into the field of battle and of slaughter, and hazard their lives in the hour of danger. The man, who preserving his fidelity to his master'untainted, drew his sword on the side of my enemy, and committed hostilities against me, him I highly honoured ; and when such a man offered me his ser