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Rome. Whether or not we are in like manner to congratulate him on his admillion into the brotherhood of Free-Masons, is a question which, at present, we are not prepared to answer. He appears, however, greatly satisfied, and highly pleased, with his new alliance, and continues in this sermon, as he had done in his late Charge to to proclaim the excellence of the renowned order of Free-Mafonry; an inttication which he places d'ext to Christianity. From Heb. x. 24, be deduces a laudable exhortation to the exercise of benevolence and charity. • Let us then, my brethren, says he, as we are exhorted by St. Paul, consider one another, to provoke unto love and to good works. Let us consider what we are, and what we ought to be. First, and principally, let us reflect that we are Chriftians; a cha. racter infinitely beyond any which may be acquired by a mere human institution. In the second place, let us consider that we are FreeMalons. Of the great importance of this, you cannot but be sentible. These are the two noblest characters we can enjoy. Having considered what we are, let us reflect on what we ought to be : true to our professions, faithful to our obligations. Natural and revealed religion are blended and interwoven with Free-Mafonry; we cannot therefore become good Masons, without being at the same time good men, and good Chriftians.'
Our Author introduces fome terms into his discourse, suitable, perhaps, to the character of a Mason, but not very suitable to the gravity and dignity of the pulpit; as when he tells us, that the good Mason is properly said to live on the level with all men, &z.'
The following short description of our myftic science, within the compass of prescribed bounds, &c.' Again, Laws to which the true Free Mafon ftrially adheres, and by which he invariably Squares his conduct ;' farther, · The general depravity and incapacity of mankind, have made it expedient to tyle, or conceal fecorely, our myileries, or sublime truths, by hieroglyphic and symbolical representations.'-The drift, however, of this discourfe, to recommend love and good works in all their extent, is certainly commendable and useful;--and this, we are told, is the intent of Free Masonry.
To the MONTHLY REVIEWERS. GENTLEMEN,
by your Correspondent in the close of your Review for September, to the use of organs in the church, is much too early; for we bave the express testimony of the celebrated Thomas Aquinas, who flourished in ihe middle of the thirteenth century, that, in his time, • the church did not use musical instruments, les se inculd seem to judaize," See Peirce's Vindication of the Dissenters, p. 3, c. 3; or p. 106, 107, Eng. ed. And the learned Bingham, a faunch church. man, in his Antiq. of the Christian Church, b: 8, c. 7, 9*14, or v. I, p. 314, fol. ed. says, “ 'Tis now generally agreed' by learned men, that the use of organs came into the church since the time of
+ See this Month's Review, p. 396.
Thomas Aquinas, anno 1250." He adds, “ that Marinus Sanctus, who lived about the year 1290, forft brought the use of them into churches. The use of the instrument was indeed much ancienter, but not in church service ; tbe not attending to which diftinction imposes upon many writers." I will just add, -that allowing the ora gan to be very ancient, there is no ground to think that the instru. ment we have rendered organ in the Old Teftament, bore any refemblance to the modern organ; as the Hebrew 277 * Gaugab, is very indeterminate, and only imports that it was a favourite or dele Etable inftrument; accordingly the Septuagint render it, in the four places in which it occurs, by three different Greek words.
I am, Gentlemen, your humble servant,
The Editor of COLUMELLA presents his compliments to the Gentlemen concerned in the Monthly Review. He takes entirely in good part their judicious Arictures on that trifling work. He is only forry to have his harmless raillery on Dr. Priestley's useful and aftonilhing discoveries in chemistry, censured as " an attempt to ridicule them." He has the highest regard and veneration for Dr. Prielley's uncommon abilities, as well as for his moral character. The only opinions of Dr. P.'s, which the Editor of Columella could with to fee exploded, whether by argument or ridicule, are his fyftem of materialism-as he thinks nothing less than a power of working miracles, or at least of demonftrating them inconteñibly, can warrant the publication of opinions of To fatal a tendency-For though truth, like gold in the crucible, can never suffer by the ftricteit scrutiny, yet the operation may raise fumes very pernicious to the by-ftanders.
Æ. icth Nov. 1779. Ht In your last Month's Review I, a catalogue of books, with a Mort character of them, by M. Denis of Vienna, was mentioned, and the Reviewers said it was the best thing of the kind they had seen. A constant Reader has long wilhed to see a work of this kind in Engiish, or, if that could not be bad, in Larin or French ; and would be much obliged if the Monthly Reviewers would recommend one in their next Number.
Y. Z. 7 We are of opinion that a translation of the work compiled by M Denis would be well received in this country; or, rather, perbaps, a new production on the same plan ;- to which the labours of the learned librarian might largely contribute.
Errat. in the Review for August; viz. In the account of Brown's Reports, p. 144, 1. penult. for model, r. mude.
Adamavit. Vide Stockii Clavim V. T. in vocem. # Vid. Art. II. of the Foreign Literature.
Τ Η Ε
For DECEMBER, 1779.
ART. I. PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS of the Royal Society of
London. Vol. LXVIII. For the Year 1778. Part 2. 4to. 10 s. 6 d. sewed. Davis. 1779.
Papers relating to ELECTRICITY. Article 37. Experiments on Electricity, being an Attempt to show
the Advantage of elevated pointed Conductors. By Mr. Edward Nairne, F. R. S.
E are sorry, that we cannot give a very particular ac
count of these ingenious and well imagined experiments; in consequence of the want of the plates by which they are illustrated. They are well adapted to prove, so far as the question seems capable of being proved by our artificial electrical apparatus, that elevated and pointed conductors are preferable to those which do not rise above the building, and which terminate in balls.
Among other particulars, they shew that a pointed conductor was not struck, nor an explosion produced, when it was exposed to an artificial cloud (or prime conductor electrified), at any distance whatever beyond a twentieth of an inch; when the electric fire ran to it in a very small stream :--that, beyond that distance, the point only appeared luminous, and continued so, till it was removed to the distance of six feet:that this power of the point to prevent an explosion, depended on its having a perfect or uninterrupted metallic communication with the earth; for that an explofion to the point would ensue, if any discontinuity, or interruptions, were made in the substance of the pointed conductor.
From fome other of these experiments, it appears that, though an artificial cloud, 1, hanging over a pointed conductor, and which receives a charge, or fpark, from time to time, from another artificial cloud, B, placed near it, will in YOL. LXI,
fact strike into the point, immediately on receiving successive sparks from the cloud, B, if the artificial cloud, A, be fixed: yet, if the latter be moveable (as is the case in real clouds, which are not fixed but Roating bodies), though the distance continue the same, the artificial cloud, 1, recedes from the point, and does not strike it. From subsequent experiments, it appears, that when the pointed conductor had a swift motion given to it, under the charged prime conductor, it was struck; but a small ball, moving as (wiftly, was struck at a greater distance; and a large ball at a distance still greater. - We shall have occasion to reconsider these experiments in the succeeding article.
A singular appearance presented itself in some of the Author's experiments. A ball of one inch diameter, communicating with the earth, being presented near the end of a large prime conductor, strongly charged; sparks appeared till the ball was gradually removed to the distance of two inches. The sparks ceased, and were succeeded by a luminous appearance on the ball, attended with a hisfing noise, while the ball was gradually removed to the distance of ten inches. The noise then ceased, and the light disappeared ; and the sparks again began to strike the ball, and continued to do so till the distance was about fifteen or fixteen inches. Article 36. Reasons for dissenting from the Report of the Committee
appointed to consider of Mr. Wilson's Experiments ; including Remarks on some Experiments exhibited by Mr. Nairne. By Dr. Musgrave, F. R. S.
In this paper, which should have succeeded the preceding, Dr. Musgrave attempts to invalidate the conclusions drawn by Mr. Nairne, from the foregoing set of experiments; and to reconcile some of the appearances presented in them, with those exhibited in the trials of Mr. Wilson at the Pantheon. The most material observations relate to the different circumstances which enable pointed conductors to prevent an explosion in one case, and to receive it in another.
• Before I attempt,' says the Author,' to specify the particular cases in which the sharp and the blunt 'terminations are respectively more liable to electrical explosion; it may be of ufe to fhew (what many gentlemen seem not to be thoroughly aware of) that sharp points having the most perfect communication with the earth, are not wholly exempt from receiving them.' — My first authority,' he adds, ' shall be Dr. Franklin himself;' --and he then gives the following paffage from his letters, in proof of his assertion.
is Let a person,” says he, p. 60. “ standing on the floor, present the point of a needle at twelve or more inches from it, (the prime conductor) and while the needle is to presente, the conductor cannot be charged; the point drawing off the fire as
fast as it is thrown on by the electrical globe. Let it be charged, and then present the point at the same distance, and it will suddenly be discharged.”
-- The word suddenly means, ' I suppose,' adds the Author, that it will receive an explosion; that being the most natural and obvious proof of the suddenness of the discharge.'
Surely Dr. Musgrave, cn reconsidering this passage, must be sensible of the unfairness of the conclufion, which he has drawn from this quotation from Dr. Franklin ; and of this misre; resentation of his meaning, obviously founded on a mere ambiguity of expression, if indeed it may be so called. The Author, nevertheless, afterwards avails himself of this forced interpretation of the word “ suddenly;"—and says, it has been al
ready shewn, from the acknowledgment of Dr. Franklin-that electricity, accumulated to a certain degree, will explode upon a point.'
Dr. Franklin's meaning, in the preceding quotation, is obvi. ous enough, even without confidering the context. that the prime conductor, on presenting a point to it, will be suddenly, or rapidly, but, at the same time, silently discharged, and without explosion. In the very lines immediately preceding this quotation, the prime conductor mentioned in it, is represented as being of such a size and power, as to strike the knuckle at near two incbes distance; and his principal object is to shew, that a point presented to it would not be struck at any distance, but would quickly rob it of its electricity. Dr. Mula grave surely cannot be serious when he presses Dr. Franklin, the great discoverer of the power of points, into the service of his party; and extorts from him a declaration, that this very prime conductor would produce an explosion, at the distance even of twelve inches, on presenting the point of a needle to it; when it would not give an explosion, or a spark, to the knuckle or a blunt conductor, at a greater distance than two or three inches !
The question respecting the most advantageous method of terminating conductors may, in our opinion, be thus most clearly, or, at least, briefly stated. It is agreed, we believe, on all hands, nay, it is certain, that pointed conductors draw off the matter of lightning from a cloud, as it gradually approaches the zenith of the conductor; and, by thus diminishing the quantity, may, in many cases, prevent an explofion, which might have taken place, had a blunt or rounded conductor been presented to it; which no one pretends to poffefs any power of that kind. But another case exists, or may exist; in which the superiority of the pointed over the blunt conductor may not appear quite so manifeft, or, at least, fo confiderable. Dd 2