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general account of the undertaking, contained in the following passage.
Nimirum tam gravis argumenti tractationem univerfam in ordinem redegimus ; etiam disiendi subsidia ubique comparavimus; prætermissa exprimendo ; explicanda ea quæ anguste ponebantur, & ubique commonendo lectorem, quo intuens, a verâ Newtoni fententia minùs aberret.Eo denique consilio omnia concinnavimus, ut in pofterum nusquam aliâs confugiant, qui fublimioris geometriæ elementa penitus compleeti fecum flatuerint?
At the end of the volume Dr. Horsley has subjoined two pieces written by himself. The first is a short paper, under the title of Logistica Infinitorum, containing formula adapted to facilitate the computation, and particularly the multiplication and division, of series. The other, intitled 'De Geometria Fluxionam, is intended as an addition to Newton's Tract on prime and ultimate Ratios. Having thus paved the way for the Principia, the Editor proposes next to attend to that immortal work.
ART. VI. A Treatise on the Malignant Aagina, or putrid and ulcerous
Sore Throat ; to which are added some Remarks on the Angina Trachealis. By J. Johnstone, M. D. Phyfician at Worcester. švo.
T , ,
HE principal part of this treatise, we are told, was pubfavourably received. It exhibits a well digested historical and systematical, as well as practical, view of the disease of which it treats. In discussing the method of cure, the Author very juftly reprobates evacuations, and particularly bleeding, which had been much used by the ancients, and recommended by every writer on the subject, till the publication of Dr. Fothers gill's ingenious treatise. He takes notice of Huxham's pernicious concession in favour of this evacuation, as well as of Dr. Russel's approbation of this injurious practice; the evil tendency of which the Author had had particular occafion to observe; having been born in a situation where, from the very great frequency of the disease, it was known in the neighbouring country, by the name of the Kidderminster sore throat.• So long as the prepoffeffion in favour of bleeding prevailed there, it was one of the most fatal of diseases; but since the lancet has been laid aside, and the antiseptic method only depended upon, it has proved one of the most certain and easy to be cured.'
The Author takes notice likewise of the bad effects resulting from the exhibition of Emetic tartar, and James's powder, in this disease; which fome practitioners had been induced to adminifter, on account of the advantages derived from the use of antimonials in other fevers. The consequences,' he observesa were generally very bad; large evacuations by stool commonly followed their use, to the certain destruction of some, and the great injury of others.'
The bark is the remedy which is most to be depended upon in this as well as in other putrid and malignant diseases.- Its efficacy in this disease,' says the Author, has surpafled the healing powers experienced from it in every other instance. Those who have tried it most in this complaint best know how absolutely it subdues the disease, which is more certainly cured by the early application of this remedy than any disease of equal consequence by any means whatever. This is the language of all those physicians who have, from long experience, had the best opportunities of learning the true nature of the disorder, and observing the good effects of the bark; a medicine upon which great dependance has for many years been placed in this country.'-- In short, the Author observes that, in his neighbourhood, where the malignity of the disease had' indeed been much abated for some years past, the management of it was become so familiar in many places, that the good women themselves cured it by means of the bark and antileptic steams.
On the whole, this treatise contains a very judicious and well digested account of the disease; both as described by preceding writers, and as observed by the Author himself. The principal purpose of it, to use the Author's own words, is to record the disease as it has appeared in this country (Worceiter), and to recommend to the public a method of treatment which has long been successful, and is now adopted by all the physicians in this city and county.
Some observations are added on the putrid or malignant Angina Trachealis, as distinguished froin the infiammatory and spalinodic kinds. Here too he has collected into one view the accounts given of this disease by preceding writers, under the different titles of the Croup, Acute Ajihma, Hives, &c.; and briefly lays down the method of cure.
ART. VII. Guardian of Health. Vol. l. In Three Parts.
Description of the Human Body, Anatomical and Phyfiological. 2. Of the Animal Economy, &c. 3. OF Regimen, Diet, and Rules of preserving Health. By N. D. Falck, M. D. 12me. 3s, bound. Law. 1778. HIS Writer has pretty frequently fallen under our ob
fervation, on a variety of topics. At present, we know not whether we might not content ourselves with suffering him to be his ocun Reviewer, by transcribing the last paragraph of his preface, and leaving the reader to form his own judgment.Ex pede Herculem.
• It is not my place to set forth the merit of this little work; the benefit which it promises to society must be determined by the philanthropic, the judicious, the true fons of Æsculapius To them I appeal; they will, I know, view it with an eye of candour, and amend its defects with kindness—I plead my best endeavours to fulfil the important duties of my life.'
If we may be allowed to assume these flattering titles and attributes to ourselves, we fear that, with all our philanthropy, judgment, medical knowledge, candour, and even kindness, we cannot, with any degree of justice, fulfil the important duties of our critical office, by recommending these theets to the public, as well adapted to answer the Author's avowed defiga in this publication. This is nothing less than the preventing those unspeakable mischiefs in the community,' which arise, according to him, from mankind's remaining unacquainted with the wonderful fabric of the human structure, and continuing ignorant of the rationale on which depend the principles of preservation of health :--in short, the awakening mankind from this lethargy, and the inviting their attention to a subject so immediately concerning their welfare.'
In a work wriiten to inform the rational mind' on this undoubtedly interesting subject; plainness, and perspicuity of diction, are essential requisites.---But what information, to give only one example, can a common scader, or indeed any reader, receive from the Author's chapter on constitutions ? -The choleric temperament for instance:
“The choleric exceeds the fanguineous temperament in irritability and fenfibility; to which is added a tenseness and rigia dity of the solids : and hence the blood lefluns, and becomes rich to excess. The circulation is full, hard, and quick; and the arteries upon an equilibrium with the veins : hence the system hot, the perceptions and passions ftrong, quick, and conftant; a love of pleasure prevails, but with a proneness to vice, satire, and the irascible passions.'
We take no pleasure in pointing out 'defects ;' and we hope we sufficiently conform to the Author's intimation to us, above quoted, to amend them with kindness,' when we content ourselves with quoting, and only slightly animadverting on the new advices with which he furnishes his physiological Catechumen, on the subject of Vijron.
Speaking of the eye, he tells him— It is the general received opinion, from the doctrine of Sir Ifaac Newton, that objects are inverted in the representation on the retina of the eye : this is, I presume, an error which, I hope, in another work, to prove in a full and satisfactory manner.'
Dr. Falck has, however, been anticipated in this curious opinion by a former luckiess inquirer on this subject, whom out
of tenderness we shall not name; as we hope we have long ago convinced him of his error.— With respect indeed to medical opinions and fashions—“ Nous avons changé tout cela" (as the Doctor in Moliere says) may pass very well for a reason: but the rays of light, we apprehend, have kept a constant course ever fince light was created, and are not readily to be joftled out of it by Dr. Falck. Out of pure philanthropy,' therefore, we advise him to allow what he is pleased to call the doctrine of Sir Isaac Newton' to remain undisturbed; and to suffer the rays of light to follow their long accustomed habits of turning the species of objects topsy turvy, in passing through the eye, and other dense media terminated by convex surfaces. This is the second time that Dr. Falck has thus threatened to subvert the first and plainest principles of optics. We expoftulated with him before on this very subject (Vol li. August 1774, page 160.); but, as it now appears, without effect.
Art. VIII. Materialism philosophically examined, or the Immateriality
of the Soul afërted and proved on philosophical Principles; in Answer to Dr. Priesley's Disquisitions on Matter and Spirit. By John Whitehead, Author of an Estay on Liberty and Necessity. ovo. 2 s. 6 d. Boards. Phillips. 1778. HOUGH Mr. Whitehead was, we believe, one of the
those who undertook to refute the doctrines contained in Priestley's Disquisitions, particularly with respect to the nature of matter, and of the sentient principle in man; his performance has, through accident, remained hitherto unnoticed by us. He not only confiders that work as containing doctrines • subversive of our common faith, and destructive of future happiness ;' but he plainly enough, we know not on what grounds, infinuates that the Author was not altogether unapprised of the destructive and fatal consequences that result, or may be drawn from them. He charges him too with “indirectly belpattering the sacred penmen with dirt ;' intimates a fufpicion that he owes them no very good will ;' and declares that he should not wonder to hear this learned Gentleman, armed cap-a-pee with logic and philosophy, represent his Lord and Saviour as a greater deceiver than Mahomet.
These and other similar passages, as well as some gross mistakes of Dr. Priestley's meaning, have been very properly noticed by him, in a letter addressed to the present Author, and printed in the volume containing Dr. Priestley's Correspondence with Dr. Price.- Verily these charges and insinuations are by no means agreeable to the genius of that religion which this Examinant undertakes to defend; or with the meek spirit of that particular religious community to which, from the style used in his dedication, he appears to belong.-Into his argumentation we shall not undertake to enter, for various reasons.
Árt. IX. Immaterialism delineated; or, a View of the firf Principles
of Things. By Joseph Berington. Svo. 5 5. Robinson, &c. 1779. THE anonymous Author of the Letters on Materialism, and
on Hartley's Theory of the Human Mind,' addressed to Dr. Priestley, and of which our Readers will find an account in our 56th volume (February, 1777, page 81), has here chosen to make himself known as the Author of that performance. As he still thinks that the promulgation of the doctrine of Materialism may prove detrimental to mafiy; though he conceives that it may be approved of by a pbilosopher, without any practic cal detriment: he here again enters the lists, after having before, as he says, fingly provoked contest with an enemy, too powerful and too well versed in the wily arts of controversy.' He considers bimself (in his Preface, dated May 1778) as having imprudently engaged with such an antagonist; and as having the misfortune itill to see himself quite alone, and unsupported. He enhances the perils of his situation, by exhibiting the following sketch of the literary and philosophical character of his opponent.
• The character of the man, who now stands forth the stree nuous advocate for Materialism, is of a magnitude in the literary world, fufficient to stamp a dignity on any subject. Dr. Priestley, from the multiplicity, the ingenuity, the importance of his researches and publications, has justly acquired a reputation, which every lover of science must look up to with gratia tude and respect. The surprising versatility of his genius, justly levelled and proportioned almost to every literary pursuit, at once evinces his vast application, and is in my eye a practical tefutation of the system he now offers to support. It can never be, that the powers of matter may rise to the display of such a mental phenomenon ! But my admiration is not blind; I see er tors in his reasoning, which I have and will endeavour to exa pore-To err is the common lot of humanity-Nor will I hefitate to repeat that, as a Christian philosopher, I highly condemn many parts of his writings, and his too free deviations from the religious tenets of mankind.'
The Author professes himself, and seemingly exults in being a member * of the Roman Catholic Church ; which he represents as being, in these latter times, by no means intolerant, or averse to freedom of inquiry, as it has been generally represented, and as it might have been in former times, and as it may even now be with respect to some individuals. Though he thus approves of this freedom of inquiry; our Philosopher declares his unhesitating allent to the mysterious doctrines, which he is taught to
* Mr. B. is said to be of the priethood, Rev. July, 1779.