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The ARRANGEMENT, 1777.
WHEAT. Time af Sowing.
Quantity of Seed, 29-9 to 30-10. 24 Acres in L 1, 2. 491 Bushels of Mt.
181 24-9 to 7-il.
of S 2.
25-2 to 1-3.
PEA BEANS. 10 Acres of M. 3, 4, 43 Bush. of Maz. Beans
of L; and Marlborough Pease: half-and-half.
* The time of sowiog L 1 and 2 was from the 29th of the Ninth month (September) to the 30th of the Tenth month (October) 1776.
+ Of Wheat which grew in the division M.
PAS T U R E. 10 Acres in H i and 2.
5 Acres in K 2. I 2 I 1 and 2.
I 8 N 5 and 6.
R 1, 5, and 6. 151 O i and 2.
MIXGRASS-LEY. nį Acres in A 1, 2, and 3. 6
B i and 2. 52
C i and 2.
F A L L O W.
for Oats and Clov.
M 4 and 6.
and 7. P 2.
T 2 and 3.
or LETT OFF.
ME AD O W. 3? Acres in D 2 and 3. 1.]
Siray Lands. 29. Acres.
R 3 and 4 .
T 1, 4:
269 Acres in all, excluding hedge, ditch, &c.
of hedge, ditch, roads, &c. 291 including waste. * Thus every rod of the Farm is arranged under the head to which it immediately appertained in the Year 1777. By this mode of Arrangement, every patch and every corner is brought into view; no part, be it ever so minute, can escape notice; no ftraggling acre of fallow can be left anstirred; no ley forgot to be rolled; nor corn omitted to be disweeded : the eye, at one glance, takes in the whole economy of that year's management.
• In Harvest,-he opens an Account, or Head, for every particular crop, or vegetable, to be harvested. And as the hay or corn is carried, he registers, in the evening, the number of loads which have been carried during the course of the day; mentioning in one line, the month and day, the field, the number of Harveft-loads ; and, of Hay, the eitimated number of Sale-loads ; and guesses at the number of Quarters the Corn crops will yield. When the whole of any particular crop is carried, he adds up the real number of harvelt jags, and the supposed number of fale-loads of hay, and quarters of corn ; and thus ascertains the gross Produce of that crop.
• These Crop Accounts, or Accounts of Produce, he either keeps miscellaneously, and afterwards digests them agreeable to the repofitories, whether barns or stacks, to which the loads have been carried; or, which is more expeditious, he subdivides the heads according to the stacks he means to make, or the barns he intends to 6ll, with the respective crops, and carries with his pen the number of loads immediately to the Barn or Stack to which she Hay or Corn had been carried by the waggons. But useful as these accounts of Produce are in the Barn and Farm-yard Management, they do not give a distinct idea of the produce of each field; he therefore're classes them, só as to ascertain, precisely, the number of loads produced by each field or divifion; in order to form a comparative judgment of the various species of management which have attended the different departments of the Farm ; and from thence to draw Lessons OF FUTURE MANAGEMENT.'
After having given this table of the general arrangement of his farm, he proceeds, in the following part of the work, to review every article in detail. The fcantiness of our limits forbid us to enter into this detail--but we shall give an abridged specimen of the article Wheat, from which some idea of the whole may be obtained.
W HE A T. 1777.
25. P. 181
45 431 Acres.
1064 Harvest Jags. 123 Quarters t.
SOIL. • L, clayey Loam, with a retentive Subfoil. "S, sandy Loam, with a retentive Subsoil. “P, gravelly Loam, with an absorbent Subsoil.
• The stiff land produced the best Crop; but it was best-silled and best-manured: there was very good Wheat on some of the lighter Soils; especially on the sandy Loam, which was in high Tilth and good heart. And
• Perhaps ;-Wheat affeets almost every Species of Soil.'
After this general division, he proceeds to take notice of such remarks as have been suggested by the experiments relating to Wheat under the articles ----Soil-Manure-Seed-Weather. Succeffion-Soil Process-Manure Process-Seed Process
or busbels an acre.
• Began Reaping the 12th of August, and finished the ad of September : Began Carrying the 26th of August, and finished the 8th of September.'
+? Low as this estimate may feem, it proved to be above the Truth; the whole Yield being only go3 Bushels of Head, and 60 Bushels of Tail; amounting together to 120 Quarters and 3 Bushels. Where the Crop was large and much lodged, I laid it at a Quarter each Jag ; but I apprehend it did not yield so much : whereas in a yielding Year, a Jag of equal size to those alluded to will afford from two Quarters to twenty Bushels of Wheat. Such is the pernicious effect of a cold, wet Summer"
Vegetating Vegetating Process—Vegetable Process—the Crop-Quondale. We select what occurs under the head Seed Process as a specimen of this department:
SE ED-PROCES s.
Time of. Sowing Began fowing the 29th of September, and finished the 7th of November.
• One side of Li. was fown, from three weeks to a month, before the other side.
• The early fown was much the largest, rankelt Crop ; but it was almost wholly ledged, and the Grain very light in the ear : Whereas ibe late fown, in general, food; the ears were large and well filled ; and, although the Crop in the Field was not more than two-thirds so bulky as that of the early forwn, I am of opinion that in the Barn the late-fuwn will prove the best Crop.
« This equality, however, is merely a casualty of the weather, Had the Summer proved moderately dry, the early Jown would have been considerably the belt Crop; its plants in the Spring were far more numerous and healthy than those of the late-fown: and indeed, generally, the Time of Sowing is one of those mysteries of Agriculiure, which being in some degree dependant on Chance, cannot be nicely regulated by human foresight. There may, nevertheless, be one GENERAL RULE FOR THE TIME OF Sowing; which, taken in a general Sense, may, perhaps, be applicable to every Crop, and to every Country,
• Perhaps ;-Sow poor Land early; rich Land late.
• For if the Summer prove wet, a field which is out of heart runs no risque of being injured by Rankness, and the field which is full of Manure will be prevented from lodging.
! If Summer prove dry, a field which is poor, and which does not get its furface Maded before the drought set in, is in danger of being finted, or wholly burnt up; while a field (of Wheat at least) which is in heart, will force its way, in defiance of the dryness of the weather.
• Early and late, however, when applied to the Time of Sowing, may each of them have a diftin&t meaning in different countries. And indeed not only every country, but every county, nay, every diftrict, may have, with firie propriety, its peculiar time of yowing. However, as a general regulation of the above maxim, we may ventore.to say,
• Perhaps ;--Begin with the Soil which is poor, and FINISH with that which is in heart.
Preparation of the Seed. • Part of it was prepared by steeping it in strong Lime-water, falted fufficiently to bear an egg ; and afterwards limed.
• Part was sown without Preparation.
• By Experiment, No. 5; - Pickling the Seed seemed to be disadvantageous to the Crop.
By Experiments, No. 7 and 19;~There was not the leasi advantage arose this year from Brining Wheat.
* This is the second year I have made Experiments on pickling Wheat, without one instance in its favour. It has always happened, however, that the entire Pieces on which the Experiments have been made, were wholly free from Smut (the disease intended to be guarded againft); and consequently no comparison could be made. More Experiments are therefore necessary to a final decision.
Mode of Sowing.
• Part, over the sale Plit, fluted. ' By Experiment, No. 9;—2Bushels of Wheat fown over. plit, gave a better Crop, and a cleaner Quondal, than the same quantity of Seed fown under-plit.
It must be observed, however, that this Experiment was made in L 1. a clayey Loam : on a light sandy Loam, the result might have been different; perhaps the reverse. With respect to a stiff, cold fcil, however, this is a very decisive Experiment: the part rown under-plit had not half the number of plants as had the past sowa over-plit : and, generally,
• Perhaps ;-On cold wet Land, two Bushels of Wheat fown over the fresh Plit, is an equivalent to three Bushels plowed in.
* By Experiment, No. 10;-It was immaterial whether the Soil was harrowed, or left rough, after fowing under-plit.
• (This Experiment, however, is not iufficiently decisive.)
• A comparative Experiment was made between the fresh Plit rough, and the fresh Plit Auted; but the whole was so lodged and so ravelled, the result was dubious.
· The ftale Plit fluted was plowed when the Surface was covered two or three inches thick with the third Crop of Clover; the fress Plit fluted was plowed when the Surface was quite bare, the After.. grafs having been paftured off very close.
"-By Experiment, No. 13;- It is better to flute the stale Plit plowed clovery, than the fresh Plit paftured.
• The Experiment on fluting the sale Plit plowed clovery was repeated in two or three different places, and the results were uniformly in its favour.
Quantity of Seed. • Various: On a par, about 2 ; Bushels an Acre; and the Crop in general too rank: but the Seed was principally fown over the fresh Plit, or fresh Flutes; and,
• Perhaps ;-Two Bushels of Wheat fown over a fresh Surface, is equal to two and half Bushels fown on a stale Plit.
A tenacious Soil is here more particularly spoken of; the fare, face of which, when newly plowed, abounds with cells and fissures, wbich readily receive the Seed ; but which are shut or filled up by the first shower of Rain, or even by the Dews and the mouldering of the Soil; and when once these Seed cells
, are closed, and the Surface has acquired a Varnish,-a glazen Crus, it becomes difficult to cover the Seed effectually.