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The time of fowing L 1 and 2 was from the 29th of the Ninth month (September) to the 30th of the Tenth month (October) 1776. + Of Wheat which grew in the division M.

CLOVER.

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D 5.
M 4 and 6.
N 5 and 7.
P 2.
T 2 and 3.

26
217

546

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61

22 Acres.

Acres in K 2.

10

14

138 Acres.

FALLO W.

Acre in F 1. for Barl. and Clov.
K 4. for Oats and Clov.
S 4. for Cabbage.
S 5. for Turnips.

K 3.
R 1, 5, and 6.

GIVEN UP, or LETT OFF.

Acres in E.

4

294 Acres.

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N 1, 2, 3, and 4.

R 2.
Stray Lands.

Acres in all, excluding hedge, ditch, &c.
of hedge, ditch, roads, &c.

291 including waste.

Thus every rod of the Farm is arranged under the head to which it immediately appertained in the Year 1777. By this mode of Arrangement, every patch and every corner is brought into view; no part, be it ever fo minute, can efcape notice; no traggling acre of fallow can be left unflirred; no ley forgot to be rolled; nor corn omitted to be difweeded: the eye, at one glance, takes in the whole œconomy of that year's management.

In HARVEST, he opens an Account, or Head, for every particular crop, or vegetable, to be harvested. And as the hay or corn is carried, he registers, in the evening, the number of loads which have been carried during the courfe of the day; mentioning in one line, the month and day, the field, the number of Harvest loads ; and, of Hay, the estimated number of Sale-loads; and guesses at the number of Quarters the Corn crops will yield. When the whole of any particular crop is carried, he adds up the real number of harvet jags, and the fuppofed number of fale-loads of hay, and quarters of corn; and thus afcertains the grofs Produce of that crop.

Thele Crop Accounts, or Accounts of Produce, he either keeps mifcellaneously, and afterwards digefts them agreeable to the repofito

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ries, whether barns or stacks, to which the loads have been carried; or, which is more expeditious, he fubdivides the heads according to the stacks he means to make, or the barns he intends to fill, with the refpective crops, and carries with his pen the number of loads immediately to the Barn or Stack to which the Hay or Corn had been carried by the waggons. But ufeful as thefe accounts of Produce are in the Barn and Farm-yard Management, they do not givé a distinct idea of the produce of each field; he therefore re claffes them, fo as to afcertain, precifely, the number of loads produced by each field or divifion; in order to form a comparative judgment of the various fpecies of management which have attended the different departments of the Farm; and from thence to draw LESSONS OF FU TURE MANAGEMENT.'

After having given this table of the general arrangement of his farm, he proceeds, in the following part of the work, to review every article in detail. The fcantinefs of our limits forbid us to enter into this detail-but we shall give an abridged fpecimen of the article Wheat, from which fome idea of the whole may be obtained.

L.

S.

P.

24 Acres

1

181

43 Acres.

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106 Harvest Jags. 123 Quarters t.

SOIL.

L, clayey Loam, with a retentive Subfoil.
S, fandy Loam, with a retentive Subfoil.

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P, gravelly Loam, with an absorbent Subfoil.

The ftiff land produced the best Crop; but it was best-tilled and beft-manured: there was very good Wheat on fome of the lighter Soils; efpecially on the fandy Loam, which was in high Tilth and good heart. And

Perhaps ;-Wheat affects almost every Species of Soil?

After this general divifion, he proceeds to take notice of fuch remarks as have been fuggefted by the experiments relating to Wheat under the articles-Soil-Manure-Seed-Weather. Succeffion-Soil Procefs-Manure Procefs-Seed Procefs

* Began Reaping the 12th of Auguft, and finished the 2d of September: Began Carrying the 26th of August, and finished the 8th of September.'

+Low as this eflimate may feem, it proved to be above the Truth; the whole Yield being only 903 Bushels of Head, and 60 Bushels of Tail; amounting together to 120 Quarters and 3 Bufhels. Where the Crop was large and much lodged, I laid it at a Quarter each Jag; but I apprehend it did not yield fo much: whereas in a yielding Year, a Jag of equal fize to thofe alluded to will afford from two Quarters to twenty Bushels of Wheat. Such is the pernicious effect of a cold, wet Summer!"

Vegetating

Vegetating Procefs-Vegetable Procefs-the Crop-Quöndals. We felect what occurs under the head Seed Procefs as a fpecimen of this department:

SEED-PROCESS.
Time of Sowing.

Began fowing the 29th of September, and finished the 7th of November.

One fide of L 1. was fown, from three weeks to a month, before the other fide.

The early fown was much the largeft, rankeft Crop; but it was almost wholly lodged, and the Grain very light in the ear: Whereas the late fown, in general, flood; the ears were large and well filled; and, although the Crop in the Field was not more than two-thirds fo bulky as that of the early fown, I am of opinion that in the Barn the late-fown will prove the best Crop.

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This equality, however, is merely a cafualty of the weather. Had the Summer proved moderately dry, the early fown would have been confiderably the best Crop; its plants in the Spring were far more numerous and healthy than those of the late-fown: and indeed, generally, the Time of Serving is one of thofe myfteries of Agriculture, which being in fome degree dependant on Chance, cannot be nicely regulated by human forefight. There may, nevertheless, be one GENERAL RULE FOR THE TIME OF SOWING; which, taken in a general Senfe, may, perhaps, be applicable to every Crop, and to every Country.

Perhaps ;-Sow poor Land early; rich Land late.

For if the Summer prove wet, a field which is out of heart runs no rifque of being injured by Ranknefs, and the field which is full of Manure will be prevented from lodging.

If the Summer prove dry, a field which is poor, and which does not get its furface fhaded before the drought fet in, is in danger of being flinted, or wholly burnt up; while a field (of Wheat at leaft) which is in heart, will force its way, in defiance of the dryness of the weather.

Early and late, however, when applied to the Time of Sowing, may each of them have a diftin&t meaning in different countries. And indeed not only every country, but every county, nay, every diftrict, may have, with firict propriety, its peculiar time of forwing. However, as a general regulation of the above maxim, we may venture to say,

Perhaps ;-BEGIN with the Soil which is poor, and FINISH with that which is in heart.

Preparation of the Seed.

Part of it was prepared by steeping it in ftrong Lime-water, falted fufficiently to bear an egg; and afterwards limed.

Part was fown without Preparation.

By Experiment, No. 5-Pickling the Seed feemed to be difadvantageous to the Crop.

By Experiments, No. 7 and 19;-There was not the leaft advantage arafe this year from Brining Wheat.

This

This is the fecond year I have made Experiments on pickling Wheat, without one inftance in its favour. It has always happened, however, that the entire Pieces on which the Experiments have been made, were wholly free from Smut (the difeafe intended to be guarded against); and confequently no comparison could be made. More Experiments are therefore neceffary to a final decifion. Mode of Sowing.

'Part was fown under plit.
Part, over the fresh Plit, rough.

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By Experiment, No. 9;-23 Bushels of Wheat fown overplit, gave a better Crop, and a cleaner Quondal, than the fame quantity of Seed fown under-plit.

It must be obferved, however, that this Experiment was made in L 1. a clayey Loam: on a light fandy Loam, the refult might have been different; perhaps the reverse. With refpect to a tiff, cold fcil, however, this is a very decifive Experiment: the part fown under-plit had not half the number of plants as had the part fown over-plit: and, generally,

Perhaps ;-On cold wet Land, two Bushels of Wheat fown over the fresh Plit, is an equivalent to three Bushels plowed in.

By Experiment, No. 10;-It was immaterial whether the Soil was harrowed, or left rough, after fowing under-plit.

(This Experiment, however, is not fufficiently decifive.)

A comparative Experiment was made between the fresh Plit rough, and the fresh Plit fluted; but the whole was fo lodged and fo ravelled, the refult was dubious.

3

The ftale Plit fluted was plowed when the Surface was covered two or three inches thick with the third Crop of Clover; the fresh Plit fluted was plowed when the Surface was quite bare, the Aftergrafs having been pastured off very close.

By Experiment, No. 13;-It is better to flute the ftale Plit plowed clovery, than the fresh Plit pastured.

The Experiment on fluting the ftale Plit plowed clovery was repeated in two or three different places, and the refults were uniformly in its favour.

Quantity of Seed.

Various: On a par, about 2 Bushels an Acre; and the Crop in general too rank: but the Seed was principally fown over the fresh Plit, or freb Flutes; and,

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Perhaps ;-Two Bushels of Wheat sown over a fresh Surface, is equal to two and half Bufhels fewn on a ftale Plit.

A tenacious Soil is here more particularly spoken of; the fur face of which, when newly plowed, abounds with cells and fiffures, which readily receive the Seed; but which are shut or filled up by the first shower of Rain, or even by the Dews and the mouldering of the Soil; and when once thefe Seed cells, are closed, and the Surface has acquired a Varnish,—a glazen Cruft, it becomes difficult to cover the Seed effectually.

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