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Lands among the Romans from the Beginning of the Republic to the Time of Julius Cæfar, in which their Commerce, as far as it related to their own Productions, is incidentally treated, and also the little influence that agriculture bad on their manners and morals is fully proved. By the Author of the Theory of Luxury. 8vo. 528 pages. Paris. 1779.-This author is M. DUMONT, and the work here announced obtained the prize proposed by the Royal Academy of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres for 1776. It is a very learned and instructive publication, and throws light upon some objects, of which hitherto confused, vague, and imperfect ideas have been generally entertained, and, among others, upon the state of agriculture among the Romans in the different periods of the republic. The work is divided into three parts. In the first the Author treats of territorial property and poflellions, and of the laws, customs and settlements relative to that object : in the second he treats of the labours of the field, of all the forms and branches of rural ceconomy; the third contains an account of the commerce founded on the produce of lands, and of internal circulation ; and concludes with an inquiry into the influence of agriculture on the manners of the Romans.
III. . Nouveau Systeme de Mineralogie, ou Esai d'une nouvelle Exposition du Regne Mineral, &c. i. e. A new System of Mineralogy, or an Attempt towards a new Explanation of the Mineral Kingdom: To which is added, A Supplement to the Treatise concerning the Diffolution of Metals, and Remarks upon the Dictionary of Chemistry. By M. Monnet, Inspector General of the Mines in France, &c. 12mo. pag. 605. Paris. 1779. The ingenious Author fets out with an instructive summary of the progress which the science of mineralogy has made in France, and with appreciating the respective merit of the writers who have contributed to its improvement, so far down as the year 1772. This is followed by a definition of mineralogy, and a compen. dious account of the situation and characters of minerals, of the primitive and effential principles of bodies, and of the primitive and fundamental earths, with their distinctive properties. He then divides mineral subftances into four classes. In the first he places earths and stones_uniting these two objects, because the former is, for the most part, derived from the ruins of the latter. This class contains 21 genera and 112 species. In the fecond he places metals and femi-metals under 13 genera and 78 fpecies. In the third, falts under 4 genera and 15 species. In the fourth, inflammable substances in 4 genera and 9 fpecies. These four classes are treated in a very masterly manner by M.
include tenures, laws, customs, &c, as well as the cultivation of landed property.
Monnet, who has not only struck out a new method of claffification and arrangement, but has moreover ascertained the nature and composition of several bodies, hitherto unknown, or known but imperfectly. The part of this work that relates to the knowledge of the state and properties of mineral substances, will be farther elucidated in a work which M. Monnet proposes to publish foon, under the following title, The Foundation or Principle of Mineralogy—or, Researches concerning the Nature and Qualities of Minerals.
In the remarks on Macquer's Chymical Dictionary, which terminate this work, our Author defends himself with spirit and dexterity against the attacks that had been made upon him in feveral parts of that Dictionary; and his defence is, at least, ingenious and instructive.
IV. Nouvelles Observations sur l'Angleterre: i. e. New Obfervations upon England. By a Traveller. 8vo. Paris. 1779. This traveller is the sensible, judicious Abbé Cover; and these Observations do honour to his penetration, discernment, and candour. It is not posible to conceive any thing more oppofate to the national spirit, genius, and manners of the French, than what the Abbé observes with respect to the English. · V. Discours prononcé dans l'Academie Françoise, &c. i. e. A Discourse delivered in the French Academy on the third of March, 1779. By M. Ducis, at his Reception as a Member of that Academy. Paris. 1779. The design of this society, which is rather adapted to improve founds than sense, seems to be abundantly answered by such compositions as the frothy and fulsome heap of quaint wit, far-fetched ornaments, and disgusting adulation, that forms the windy substance of this Discourse of M. Ducis, in honour of Voltaire.— The Exordium alone, will enable us to judge of the merit of the piece. This part of an oration is usually designed to give us, by its modesty and fimplicity, the pleasure of ascending gradually into the clouds with the subject, instead of being coffed up to them abruptly, as it were, in a blanket, by the author. But M. Ducis has attempted the latier: observe how he begins- The day on which that famous conqueror died, whose presence ftruck the earth with silence, all thrones appeared vacant by the decease of one man, and the universe was for a moment without a master.—Thus Voltaire, after having governed, until the age of eighty, the universal monarchy of talents, left, at his death, the same confusion in the empire of letters, and the throne of genius became vacant. No man dared to step forth, or lay an audacious hand on this immense inheritance of complicated honours and glory, which Europe, for a whole century, had been accustomed to behold with respect, united in him alone. The splendour of his name, which cast a deep obscurity on all other names, eclipses them ftill; and those, whose temerity and am: bition would prompt them to aspire after the glory of fucceeding him, would deserve to hear the following fentence applied to them :
Soldats fous Alexander et Rois apres sa mort.' Is not this enough, gentle Reader? VI. Les Anciens Mineralogistes du Royaume de France, avec des Notes: i. e. (literally translated) The Ancient Mineralogists of the Kingdom of France, with Notes, by M. GOBET. 2 vols. 8vo. Paris. 1779. Price 9 livres 12s. The mineralogists, here mentioned, are not (as one would imagine at first fight) authors who treat of that branch of natural history relative to minerals and foflils; but the French writers, ancient and modern, who have treated the subject of mines, their produce, situation, and the manner of working them. It seems, that the present king of France turns his views, with peculiar ardor, to the encouragement of this important object, and never, indeed, was there a period of time in which such an object was more adapted to attract all the attention of the Most Christian King than the present.
The silver mine, that was discovered at Chitry in Nivernois, near three centuries ago, was particularly described in a treatise, published by Fr. Garrault in 1579, and is here republished at the head of this collection. This mine yielded, in certain years, eleven hundred marks of silver, and a vast quantity of lead. The defcriptions given by De Malus, and his son, of the mines in the Pyrenean Mountains, which were discovered in the year 1600, are, indeed, worthy of their place in this work ; as also the researches of Savot, concerning the Metallurgy of the ancients, which abound with a solid and valuable erudition : but we cannot conceive how M. Gobet came to disgrace his collection with the filly reveries and fictions of Martine de Bertereau, baroness of Beau-Soleil, whose brain was really turned with the visions of the Alchymists, and whose productions were treated with contempt, even in the middle of the last century. The account given in 1667, by Cæfar d'Arcons, of the advantages that might be derived from the mines of Languedoc, are curious; but the most interesting part of this collection, is that which contains the observations and inquiries relative to the fubject under consideration, that have been made in the present century by Reaumur, Hellot, lars, Le Monnier, Desmarest, de Jussica, count d'Herouville, Genlane, Courtepeé, Monnet, Sage, and many other naturalists of great merit, who have related their excursions, and published their remarks on the greatest part of the mines discovered in the kingdom of France, and mingled with these accounts several curious observations on piher interesting points of natural history. As the same time, the Pre
ed Per Helios, that have benquiries
faces' and Notes, with which M. GOBÉT has enriched this cola lection, render its perusal both agreeable and instructive.
VII. Elai für la Jurisprudence Universelle, où l'on examine quel eft le premier Principe de la Justice and le Fondement de l'Obligation Morale, &c. i. e. An Esay concerning Universal Jurisprudence, in which an Inquiry is made into the first Principles of Justice and the Foundation of Moral Obligation. "By Father THOMAS JACOB, Prior of the Jacobines at Paris. 12mo. Paris. 1779. We are glad to see Monks writing on such subjects as these, when their productions do not smell of the convent. This Essay, which is a warm attack upon the Encyclopedists of Paris, as enemies not only of Revealed, but also of Natural Religion, would be read with more pleasure and profit, if the Author had treated his subject with more precision. He establishes, on folid foundations, the existence of a law of nature. --He thews that Christianity is not only its best interpreter, but also the dispensation that finishes its consistence, iis obligation and perfection; but he has not carried the fagacity of the true analytic spirit into his researches concerning the principles of moral obligation.—He is far behind the British writers on this subject.
VIII. Esai sur l'Histoire Generale des Tribunaux des Peuples tant Anciens que Modernes, ou Dictionaire Historique et Judiciaire, contenant des Anecdotes piquantes & les Jugernens fameux des Tribunaux, &c. i. e. An Historical Essay concerning the Tribunals of ancient and modern Nations, or, An Historical and Juridical Dictio. nary, containing interesting Anecdotes, and the most remarkable 71diciary Sentences of Public Tribunals in all Times and Nations. By M. Des Essarts, Advocate, and Member of several Acades mies. Vol. III. 8vo. Paris. 1779. Price 4 Livres. In this, and the two preceding volumes, we have an history of the passions and crimes of men, at least in their effects and punishment; and as the penal laws, employed by different na. tions for the discovery and chastisement of offenders, have a connection with the manners and government of each people, and are, generally speaking, no bad prognostic of the national spi. sit and character, a work of the nature of that before us, when well executed, must be curious and instructive; and such is the work of M. Des ESSARTS.It is, indeed, likely to be volun minous; for this third volume goes no farther than the first articles of letter H.
G E R M A NY IX. De Angyna Polyposa five Membranacea: i. e. Concerning 'the Membranous Quinzy, or that which is called the Angina Polypola. By M, MICHAELIS, M. D. 8vo. Gottingen. 1778. The Author of this work is physician to the Hessian troops in the service of Great Britain ; a situation favourable to the ad
vancement of medical knowledge by observation and experience. It is frorn these two guides, rather than from the perutal of the writings of his predecessors and contemporaries in the art of healing (with which, nevertheless, , he seems perfectly well acquainted), that he has derived his knowledge of the disease here treated, and his opinion with respect to its nature and cause. It is from having opened the bodies of many persons, who died of this disease, chat he deems the membranous quinzy lymphatic in its principle, instead of proceeding from phlegm, as many have supposed; for he found the membranes, in the persons he diffected, of the fame nature with the polypus of the heart and the large blood vessels, and much softer and sooner corrups tible than phlegm, which contracts a certain aridity and hard. ness. With respect to the manner of treating this disorder, Dr. MICHAELIS distinguishes the quinzies into different classes, according to their different circumstances and symptoms, prefcribes what is requisite in each case, and considers, with peculiar attention, those cases where bronchotomy, or the opening the wind-pipe, may be useful. His history of the disorder is curious, though chargeable with some omiffions : we must not, however, confider as such, his making little or no mention of the authors, who have written concerning inflammatory quino zies, or other branches of that disease distinct from that here treated of. · X. Lobfchrift auf Winkelman, &c. i. e. The Eulogy of the late Abbé Winkelman. By CHR. GOTTL. Heine. This excellent piece, which is in every respect worthy of its subject, on whore tomb the arts and the graces will long weep, was crowned by the Academy of Antiquities at Heffe Caflel. In it the learned and judicious Author, so famous for his merits in classical liteFature, not only examines the writings of the celebrated Abbé. with taste, judgment, and impartiality, but also points out the qualities that constitute the true Antiquary, and the improve, ments that have been hitherto made ; as also those that are yet required in that line of science. * XI. The New Edition of the Abbé DICQUEMARE's Aftronomy, which has lately appeared, with important Additions and Improvements, deserves particular notice. Its new title is, Connoissance de l'Afronomie, rendu aiseé & mise à la porteé de tout Le Monde : i. e. The Knowledge of Astronomy made easy and propora tioned to every Capacity. 8vo. With Cuts. Paris. 1170. The additions, which diftinguish this edition, consist in several observations; in some articles entirely new, and in instructive notes, relative to the solar atmosphere, the apparent motions of the fixed stars, those of the planets, the parallax, &c, all which objects are illustrated by two new plates. Among the tables, we find one of the annual equation of the sun's mean motion, which