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nature of the troops under them. Without these precautions, he would never think that he could act upon certain grounds: he knows, he may venture a motion with some troops, which he would not dare to attempt with others that are equally brave. One nation is vehement, fiery, and formidable, in the first onset; another is not so hasty, but of more perseverance : with the former, a fingle instant determines success; with the latter, the action is not so rapid, but the event is less doubtful..

No man is born a general, though he brings into the world with him the feeds of those virtues, which make a great man, Cæsar, Spinola, Turenne, the great Condé, Eugene, Marlborough, Wolfe, and some others, showed, even in their earliest years, such qualities as ranked them above other men : they carried with them the principles of those great virtues which they drew forth to action by profound study, and wbich they brought to perfection by the help of practice ; those who came after them, with perhaps fewer natural talents, have by ftudy rendered themselves worthy of being compared to them, Cæsar, and all conquerors, had this advantage, that they were able to make their own opportunities, and always acted by their own choice. A man may be a good general without being a Turenne, such geniuses are scarcely seen once in an age; but the more they are raised above the rest of mankind, the more they should excite emulation. It is by endeavouring to surpass the intellects of the second rate--it is by striving to surpass, or at least to equal, the most sublime, that the imitation of them is to be attained. This passion in a soldier is neither pride nor, presumption; it is virtue ; and it is by this only, that he can hope to be serviceable to the state, and add to the glory of his King.

How much foever the honour of commanding armięs may be sought after, it degrades hiun who is not worthy of it: this rank, lo much desired, borders on the two extremes of glory and ignominy. A military man, who labours to make himself capable of commanding, is not to be blamed ; his ambition is noble: by studying the art of commanding, he learns that of obeying, and of executing,

The critical reader will, no doubt, observe some flight inaccuracies in the language of these extracts; but this circumstance is pardonable in a professional man, writing on a professional subject. People of every profesion bave terms and phrases of their own, and even a manner, if we may lo express it, which seems perhaps uncouth to a person who is an utter stranger to them, but which, nevertheless, may render the book more valuable amongst themselves. These extracts thew, at least, that Captain Smith has studied his profession, and of course, that he is not an improper person to undertake a con; pileinent of the kind now

under under confideration. The work is very copious, and though we have turned it over with due attention, we cannot say, that any term of consequence, which relates to the art of war, occurred to us, as being omitted...

The full.merit of a literary compilation, can never be gathered from extracts out of it: a compiler may select judiciously in one instance, and injudiciously in another; and there are examples of each kind in the work before us. Of the latter class, we have particularly in our eye, the long extract from Dr. Hamilton's Dissertation on the Mechanic Powers ; where, without any reason, that gentleman's objections to Sir Ifaac Newton's 2d Cor, to the 3d law of motion, are introduced, notwithstanding they are obviously ill founded.

But, although works of this kind are always understood to be compilations from other authors, in the choice of which the compiler's judgment is chiefly shewn, Captain Smith's work is not destitute of original, and even curious matter; a's a proof of which, we shall give the following extract:

English ARTILLERY, in the reign of Edward VI. that is, about the year 1548, consisted in the following establishment; viz.

Fee per Day, Per Angum.

So do ls, d. Master of Artillery, - Sir Philip Hoby,

151 1 8 Lieutenant, - - Sir Francis Fleming, Surveyor, - - Anthony Anthony,

36 10 o S Fee,

1 2 3 4 Clerk, John Rogers, 3 unugers, . In the room of a servant,

1 2 3 4 Yeoman, Thomass Fee, -

9 2 6 Sheventon, 2 In the room of a servant, Mafter Gunner, Chriftian Gold, Gunstock maker, Symond Turner,

S John Owen, Gun-founders,

Thomas Owen, Gan-smith, John Anthony Engineer,

John Padney, - - 0.4 : 6 Matter Carpenter, John Johnson, 15 at

- 10 273 J 12 at 103 Ganners,

146 oo 80 at

730 00 il 2 at

o 4

12 34 Total charges of the artillery for one year - - 1547 92 But in the 109 gunners above mentioned, there are included tees ty the following perf»ns, viz.

John Rogers, Clerk, at 8d.)
I The Mailer Gunder, at 12 d.

Yeomen,

I John Owen, Gun-founder, at 12 d. J So that only 105 effective gunners remain.

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The establishment of artillery in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, in the year 1997, may be gathered from the following: • Allowances to officers within one quarter, ending the lart of March 1597.

. s. d. To Sir George Carew, knight, lieutenant of her Majesty's ordnance, for his allowances XVIII 0 0 one quarter,

To William Parkeringe, surveyor of her 2 Majesty's ordnance, for his like quarter's al-> lowance,

To Stephen Riddlesden, clerk of her Majesty's ordoance, for bis like quarter's al.

his like quarter's al. XVI XII O lowance,

To John Lee, keeper of her Majesty's ? flores, ditto,

- - To George Hogge, and John Linewrayce, /

I clerks of the deliveries, ditro,

XI IIII
To William Cudner, clerk to Sir George 1
Carew, knight, ditto, -
Clerks daily attending in the said office:
Richard Palfreyman,

VI. ?
Edward Parkeringe

Vl.
William Scott,

VI.
Richard Haynes, - vi. } XXXV 0
Thomas Lemmon

VI. 1
John Squire, -

Vl.
Richaid Lental, - - vl. j

k. VXVIII XVII VI That is 5181.' 17 s. 6 d. for one quarter's salary.' . .

These two accounts, we are informed, were taken from a manuscript of the late Reverend William Goftling, and communicated by Captain William Goftling of the Royal Artillery. There appears to be some mistake in the latter, as the several sums, when added together, do not amount to any thing like the sum total put down, either in numerals or in the note following them. They form a striking contrast with the present ftate and pay of the same department.

On the whole, we think Captain Smith's book will prove acceptable and useful to every military officer who studies his profellion, and wishes to make himself master of it.

ART. VIII. A successful Method of treating the Gout by Bliftering. With
an Introduction, consisting of Miscellaneous Maiter. By William
Stevenson, Phyfician at Wells. 8vo. 2 s.' Bath, printed by
Cruciwell, for Dilly, London. 1779.
T HE miscellaneous introduction, mentioned in the title-

I page, is a very desultory comment on the trite adage vita brevis, ars longa. It is sufficiently stored with' abuse of the

Author's

Author's brethren of the faculty; which, though tolerably smart and lively, might, we think, as well have been omitted. To depreciate the honesty, sense, and knowledge of all others in the trade, is a project rather too hackneyed to be used with success at this day; and charges of this fort, if injudiciously made, are very apt to recoil upon the assailant. Thus, it will only be imputed to an unacquaintance with the writings and practice of modern physicians, that they are charged with blindly adopting the tenets of their forefathers; when, alas ! the real state of the case is, that fashion, and fondness for novelty, have left scarcely any thing stable and fixed in the whole medical science. Equally unfortunate may be an attempt at puffing one's self, when made without due consideration of what others have done before us. Our Author's two Irish cases, of the cure of nervous fevers by large doses of wine, which he selects as instances of methods of treating disorders not upon medical record,' will only shew him to be little conversant in the writings of Huxham, Pringle, Lind, Cleghorn, and a multiplicity of others, of equal repute.

Not to dwell any longer, however, on introductory matter, we proceed to the more direct subject of the piece, The Avihor gives us two chapters; one on the nature; the other, on the cause, of the gout. We shall not pretend to follow him in all, his rambling excursions about and about the field of argument; it will be fully sufficient to mention some of his leading apinions on the subject. He entirely agrees with Dr. Cadogan (whose manner of writing and thinking he very much adopts) in denying any hereditary propensity to this disorder. He represents all distinction between the gout and rheumatilmas merely arbitrary and hypothetical ; supposing, that both of them equally proceed from the accumulation of acrid matter, in consequence of taking in more aliment than the body, when full grown, can expend. How far this notion will agree with the history of the rheumatism, and the time of its appearance, we leave our readers to determine.

The gout, then, according to him, " is the simplest disorder in the world. It is an attempt of the constitution to make a fore.' As Me is unable to do this herself, art steps in, and with her infallible blister-plaster, accomplishes the great purpose. What, then, is the disorder cured by this simple process ? It is, says the Doctor, boldly. After the termination of a perfect fit, thus managed, the constitution is as free of gout as if it never had it. Notwithstanding this direct assertion, we cannot think our fanguine Doctor means quite so much as he seems to lay; for a little awkward explanation follows, which appears to admit, that this foul, acrid, sore-making stuff, still subsists in the constitution, though it cannot be called gout, till it

actually

The world is unabloplafter, cured by me

actually brings on another fit of that disease. For, whó krows whether it may not rather chufe to fnew itself next time in the form of erysipelas, scurvy, bæmorrhoirls, or the like? We agree with him, however, that it is a point of moment gained, if the violence of a gouty paroxysm be, almost totally, carried off by blistering; and we think him right, in recommending this spirited method of treating the foe, rather than any attempts to fubdue him by loads of nauseous drugs, which will more probably destroy all remains of a good constitution. But there, again, our Author, by the warmth of indiscriminate cenfurt, has been led to expose himself: for, in proof of this propensity to overload arthritic patients with the contents of an apothecary's shop, he cites, not the practice or writings of the most eminent physicians of the present time (whom we may venture to call as enlightened and unprejudiced as himself), but the obsolete systems of Shaw and Ball. • The efficacy of the blistering-practice is supported by two cases, which are subjoined to the treatise. One of them is the Writer's own, from which we learn, that he indulges himfelf in such a daily quantity of liquor as elevates, without intoxicate ing; holding the comfortable doctrine, that “ liquors, if old and found, are the inward cloathing of the body, in our foggy damp atmosphere.' That, with such a principle, he should have no great faith in medical water-drinking, is not surprising; but, that he should so warmly dispute the efficacy of the Bach waters, in producing a fit of the gout, is surely rather to be imputed to prejudice than impartial observation."

The language of this piece is more diftinguished by its spirit than its accuracy. ART. IX. Le&tures on the Catechism of the Churrb of England. By William Gilpin, M. A. Vicar of Boldre, near Lymington. 12 mo. 2 Vols. 6 s. sewed. Blamire, &c. 1779. THESE Lectures are addressed by Mr. Gilpin to the young

I gentlemen who were educated by him at Cheam school, and they are well calculated to impress their minds with just views of their most important interests,-to make them happy in themselves, and useful members of society. His chief endea. vour is to engage the attention of youth to the evidencés of religion, and the great doctrines of Christianity; observing, very justly, that if the mind be deeply impressed with these leading truths, it requires only a slighter lesson on rnorals; and that he who seriously believes the gospel cannot well fail of being a good Christian.

In the course of his Lectures, he endeavours to fhew, that scarce any of the great truths of the gospel were so wholly new, but that some notices of them, or at least resemblances, may

be

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