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Art. 39. Dialogues of the Dead with the Living. 8vo. 48.
· Boards. Conant, &c. 1779.. . In these Dialogues, Lord Herbert is conjured up from the valty deep,' to read his own recantation of his errors, and to persuade David Hume to do the same-Shakespeare' revisits che glimpses of the moon,' to give Garrick an opportunity of saying, “ Angels and ministers of grace defend us," to praise his merits and reprove his faults, and co censure him for making his favourite poet 'the god of his idolatry' in the S:rarford jubilee.-Fielding pays his compli. ments to Mr. Courtney Melmoth, to whisper in his ear, that he por. fesses an everflowing vivacity, and a fund of genuine wit, which only require that they should be chaltened by religion, and curbed by judgment, to render him a most agreeable writer : that his heart is good, his wit fowing, his language elegantly expresive ; his.paint. ing the work of a master, and his powers in the pathetic, such as to make every fibre of the finer affections vibrate ; that his Pupil of Pleafure is in its delign great and good, and merits the warmelt thanks of the friends of virtue-[Oh fie, Mr. Ghost! surely not!) and that he bids fair to be one of the first wrirers of the age (O tema pora!]-Sherlock leaves the mansions of the blessed to upbraid Jenyns with insincerity, and to accuse him of arguing weakly with design, of treating Christianity with coldness and levity, and of throwing out in anuations unfriendly to the Christian cause.—Cowley lays alide his feraphic lyre to reprove Dr. Hurd for publishing a mutilated edi. tion of his works – Mr. Addifon feals into the closet of Dr. Fobnson, to give him a gentle rebuke, for rambling into the thorny paths of party, and to hint to him, that his writings would be more pleasing, if he would • alter the uncouth dress of his expresions, and polith the rugged severity of his thoughts.'— The venerable Langton fteroly reproaches the courtly Gibbon with having represented the Church as unfriendly to the righưs of the people, and unjustly depreciated the Christian religion ; and to assure him that in the world of spirits, all believe.' And lastly, Cicely, Duchess of York, does penance for her pride and ambition, by presenting herself before Lady S. to give an unwilling testimony to her uncommon merit...
In all this, there is neither argument enough to carry much con. viction, nor wit enough to afford much entertainment.-Let this short outline of these Dialogues then suffice.
MEDICA L. Art. 40. A Review of Dr. Lettfom's Observations on Baron Dim
dale's Remarks respecting Dr. Lettfom's Letter on General Inoculation. By the Hon. Baron T. Dimsdale. Svo Pamphlet. Owen, &c. 1779.
We took the liberty of declaring, with respect to the piece to which this is an answer, that the disagreeable dispute between these ingenious doctors being now become entirely personal, we looked upon ourselves as exculed from entering at all into its merits. On this account, we only notify the publication of the present reply, for the information of those of our Readers who may be inclined to examine both sides of the question.
s 'E' R'M Ö N. Preached in the Parish Church of St. Marthew, Bethnal Green, No.
vember 22, 1778. For the Benefit of the Charity Children of the faid Parith. By Samuel Beazville, A. B. Minister of the French Church in St. John Street in the said Parish. 8vo. Fry, &c.
It is imposible to read this plain and well-adapred sermon without heartily withing that the design of its publication may be fully an. fwered. There are some inaccuracies in it, with respect to tyle, but there are well compensated by the pious, grateful, and benevo. lent spirit of the Preacher.
CO R Ř E S.P O N D E N C E.
To the R E VIEWERS. IN the year 1775 came out a publication, entiiled,-“ Advice from I a Facher 10, a Son, just entered into the Army, and about to go abroad into A&tion; in Seven Letters," I do not remember to have seen it raken noiice of by you; and as they have great mering boch for the advice they inculcate, and the manner in which they are written, you would greatly oblige one of your Readers if you
could inform him who was their Author, and whether they were · written from a sacher to a fon in the circumstances therein mentioned.
OXONIENSIS. . Oxonienfis will find an accoant of the tract which he speaks of, in our Catalogue for October, 1776, Art, 28. We commended the performance, but of the Writer we are entirely ignorant.
A very sensible Correspondent, who figns D. D. has. favoured us with a friendly admonition, on account of what he deems an illiberal and uncandid reflection on the courts of France and Spain : vid. our lait Appendix, p. 5:6, 557. The Author of that Article, (one of our Foreign Correspondents) not being in England, has no immediare opportunity of replying to what D. D. bas obje&ted against the passage in question ; nor do we pretend to justify even the smallest appearance of local prejudice or vulgar attachment.-- But it is difficult for a “ True-born Englishman" to confine himself within the bounds of politeness, when the machinations of those who are the avowed enemies of his country, are presented to his observation.-If this apology is not deemed sufficient, we must submit to the censure of the candid Public.
tet. Some just remarks of this Correspondent on National Perfidy, &c. will, probably, be, hereafter, adverted 10: chey are too good to be luit.
We are much obliged by the letter figncd L. 2; but it came to hand too late for more particular acknowledgement in this Month's Review. It will, however, furnish a paragraph for the laft page of our next Number.
The Canadian Freeholder, Vol. II, the Conclusion of our account of Dr. Priestley's Experiments and Objervations, and The Modern History of Europe, will be inserted in our next.
T H £ . MONTHLY REVIEW,
For SEPTEMBER, 1779..
ఈ000 నుంచి 2000
Art. I. Experiments and Obfervations relating to various Branches
of Natural Philosophy, &c. By Joseph Priestley, LL.D. F.R.S. [Concluded from our Review for June last, pag. 441,] THE discoveries and new observations relating to dephlogif
ticated air, contained in this volume, are too numerous and important not to require particular consideration. We shall accordingly, in this concluding Article, almost wholly confine our attention to this interesting subject.
In our account of the Author's second volume of Observations en Air [See Monthly Review, February, 1776, p. 108] wę related, pretty much at large, the steps by which Dr. Priestley was led to this memorable discovery. From that account it apo pears that he obtained dephlogisticated air from mercurius, calcinatus, and red lead, by mere heat, and which they must have attracted from the atmosphere during their calcination. He af, terwards found that dephlogifticated air was producible from combinations of the nitrous acid with any kind of earth whatever. The trials which he had then made with the vitriolic and marine acids, under similar circumstances, not having been attended with the production of this kind of air, he was natua rally led to conclude that the nitrous acid was an essential or necessary ingredient in the process.
At the time of the Author's last philosophical publication, he did not, nor could he reasonably, suspect that substances buried in the bowels of the earth, where no nitrous acid ja known, or even fufpected, to exist, and which cannot be supposed, in that situation, to have attracted air from the atmofphere, should nevertheless furnish dephlogisticated air, merely by the assistance of heat, or without the addition of nitrous acid. In a course of experiments, however, made only with a view to discover what kind of air, and in what proportion, certain mineral substances would yield, on being exposed to a red heats ... Vol. LXI.
he had the following results, on subjecting the mineral fub. stance called Manganese to this new mode of analysis.
On putting an ounce of this substance into a small retort with a very long and narrow neck, and expofing it to a red sand heat, forty ounce measures of air were expelled from it in different portions. Part of this air, in every portion, was fixed air, and at first almost wholly so: but four-fifths of the last produce was the purest dephlogisticated air. He was naturally much surprised at this result; as the case does not appear reducible to either of those recited at the beginning of this Article : for here no nitrous acid had been employed; nor had the substance, till it was dug out of the bowels of the earth, been exposed to the influence of the atmosphere :-unless indeed we recur to some unknown and very diftant æra, in which it may possibly have had a communication with the external air, and have acquired its dephlogisticated air, in a manner similar to that in which the precipitate per se, and red lead, at present acquire their pure air, during the act of calcination, in our l'aboratories. According to this idea, we may say that manganese (the nature of which is very little known) may probably be a metallic calx, which has undergone a calcination in volcanos, long since extinct; but which may formerly have had a communication with the atmosphere. We scarce need to add, that on re-calcining this calcined manganese, moistened with the nitrous acid, more fixed air, and pure or dephlogisticated air, were produced.
The Author subjected likewise an ounce of lapis calaminaris to a red heat, without addition; and expelled from it about 316 ounce measures of air, the whole of which, however, was fixed air, except four ounce measures, which appeared to be nearly as good as common air.
In the course of these experiments, and afterwards, in conformity with a communication from Signor Landriani, the Author found that the presence of nitrous acid, qua nitrous acid, was not neceffary to the production of dephlogisticated air from combinations of metallic earths with mineral acids. While he was pursuing this train of experiments, he found this kind of air produced from green vitriol, and likewise from the blue and white vitriols. Suspecting however the purity of the vitriols of the shops, which might have acquired some mixture of spirit of nitre, he prepared some green vitriol himself, by dissolving clean iron filings in oil of vitriol diluted with water. Distilling the matter in a retort, he had the same results as in his preceding experiments : the dephlogisticated air which came over last being very turbid, and exceedingly pure.
He now suspected the purity of his oil of vitriol, which, at present, is generally procured from fulphur with the addition of nitre. He therefore next employed the vitriolic acid prepared
in Newmann's manner, in which no nitre is used : but dephlogisticated air was still produced from the combination of iron filings with this purcr acid. And left the mixture of these two fubstances might be suspected to have attracted pure air, in consequence of their exposure to the atmosphere, during their combination, he conducted the experiment in the following scrupulous rnanner :
He diffolved five pennyweights one grain of iron in a sufficient quantity of pure oil of vitriol, which had been carefully prepared for this purpose by Mr.Winch, so as to be free from any admixture of the nitrous acid. The distillation was performed in the very same retort in which the solution had been made, and in the continuation of the same process ; so that all communication with the external air was most effectually precluded.
Conducting the process, with these attentions, and distilling the solution to dryness, in a long necked retort, the succeeding products were, first, the common air a little phlogisticated, and then a little fixed air, and much vitriolic acid air; and lastly 18 ounce measures of dephlogisticated air. The residuum, or ochre, fill weighed more than the iron filings originally em-, ployed; so that it probably retained a quantity of the oil of vi. triol, and had the heat been increased, more air might yet have
Adding fresh oil of vitriol to this refiduum, and treating it as before, but in a gun-barrel, a ftill larger quantity of dephlogisticated air was produced : so that the oil of vitriol appeared capable of generating dephlogisticated air, on its admixture with iron, toties quoties, as well as the nitrous acid with red lead and other substances, in the Author's former experiments. In fact, it now appears that he had formerly produced dephlogisticated air from compounds containing the vitriolic acid, particularly blue vitriol and alum, in a very early stage of his trials : though at that time he was totally ignorant of its nature. [See his first volume of Observations, page 155, and Vol. II. page 86.]
A combination of the vitriolic acid with mercury likewise furnished the Author with a notable quantity of dephlogisticated air. For on distilling, in a groen glass retort, an ounce of pure quicksilver diffolved in vitriolic acid ; though some of the matter was lost, by the breaking of the retort, yet on exposing it, in a fresh retort, to a red heat, he got from it, after the expulsion of a great quantity of vitriolic acid air, and fixed air, about go ounce measures of dephlogisticated air. More dephlogisticated air was afterwards procured, on exposing to the heat a second time the white matter which had sublimed into the neck and sides of the retort.