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" ARM. Warble, child; make passionate my sense of hearing.
“ Sole imperator and great general Motu sings.
of trotting paritors. — Act III., Scene 1. Concolipel ”
Act III., Scene 1.
An apparator, or paritor, is an officer of the Bishop's court, who
carries out citations. In the old comedies, the songs are frequently omitted. On this occasion, the stage-direction is generally, “ Here they sing," or “Cantant.” Probably the performer was left to choose his own ditty, and
“ And I to be a corporal of his field, therefore it could not with propriety be exhibited as part of a new
And wear his colors like a tumbler's hoop!” performance. Sometimes yet more was left to the discretion of the
Act III., Scene 1. ancient comedians, as I learn from the following circumstance in
It appears from Lord Stafford's Letters, that a corporal of the field KING EDWARD IV., Part 2 (1619), “Jockey is led whipping over the
was employed as an aide-de-camp is now," in taking and carrying to stage, speaking some words, but of no importance.” Again, in Deck
and fro the directions of the general, or other bigher officers of the er's “ Honest WHORE” (1635), “ He places all things in order, sing
field.” From other sources, however, it seems that the functions of ing with the ends of old ballads as he does it.” — STEEVENS.
this officer were of a diversified nature.
A tumbler's hoop was usually dressed out with colored ribbons. To “ Master, will you win your love with a French brawl ?"
wear love's colors, means to wear his badge or cognomen, or to be his Act III., Scene 1.
servant or retainer The brawl was a stately species of dance, formerly much in vogue. It appears that several persons united hands in a circle, and gave each
“ A woman, that is like a German clock, other continual shakes, the steps changing with the tune. Gray has
Still a repairing ; ever out of frame." a pleasant allusion to this courtly exercitation (which was sometimes
Act III., Scene 1. performed by the highest and gravest characters), in his “ Long Story," in which he so graphically describes the ancient seat of the
Clock-making is supposed to have had its beginning in Germany, Hattons:
and clocks were no doubt, for a long period, clumsy pieces of mar
cbinery. The clock at Hampton Court, which was set up io 1540, is “ Full oft, within the spacious walls,
said to have been the first fabricated in England.
The seals and maces danced before him.
“ The magnanimous and most illustrate king, Cophelua set eye upon Moved the stout heart of England's Queen,
the pernicious and indubitate beggar Zenelophon.” — Act IV., Scene 1. Though Pope and Spaniard could not trouble it.”
The ballad of King Cophetua may be seen in Percy's " RELIQUES,"
rol 1. The beggar's name, however, is there given Penelophon. “ Your hands in your pocke, like a man after the old painting. Shakspeare on several other occasions alludes to this popular produc
Act III., Scene 1. tion. It was a common trick among some of the most indolent of the ancient masters, to place the hands in the bosom or the pockets, or con
“ This Armado is a Spaniard that keeps here in court; ceal them in some other part of the drapery, to avoid the labor of
A phantasm, a Monarcho." - Act IV., Scene 1. representing them, or to disguise their own want of skill to employ Monarcho, or the Monarch, was a term applied to an insane Ital. them with grace and propriety.- STEEVENS.
ian, who is meutioned by various authors of the period. His mag.
nificent delusion consisted in thinking himself monarch of the world. “ ARM. But O! but 0!
“ Popular applause (says Meres) doth nourish some, neither do they Mota. — the hobby-horse is forgot.”
er anything but vain praise and glory: as in our age, Peter Act III., Scene 1.
Shakerlye of Pauls, and Monarcho that lived about the court." In the celebration of May-day, besides the sports now used of hanging a pole with garlands, and dancing round it, formerly a boy was
“ BOYET. Who is the suitor ! who is the suitor / dressed up representing Maid Marian; another like a friar; and an
Ros. Shall I teach you to know ! other rode on a hobby horse, with bells jingling, and painted stream
BOYET. Ay, my continent of beauty. ers. After the Reformation took place, and precisians multiplied,
Ros. Why she that bears the bow." — Act IV., Scene 1. these latter rites were looked upon to savor of paganism; and then It appears, from various instances cited by the commentators, that Maid Marian, the friar, and the poor hobby-horse, were turned out of the word suitor was in Elizabeth's time pronounced with an h, as we the games. Some who were not so wisely precise, but regretted the
now pronounce the words sure and sugar. Hence the equivoque in disuse of the hobby-borse, no doubt satirised this suspicion of idola.
the text. Malone observes, on this point, “In Ireland, where I be try, and archly wrote the epitaph above alluded to. Now Moth, hear lieve much of the pronunciation of Queen Elizabeth's age is yet re ing Arınado groan ridiculously, and cry out" But 0! but 0!” tained, the word suitor is at this time pronounced as if it were spelt humorously pieces out his exclamation with the sequel of this epitaph. I shooter.” - THEOBALD.
There is a similar allusion to the hobby-horse in "HAMLET ” (act “ Enter HOLOFERNES, SIR NATHANIEL, and Dull." — Act IV., Scene 2. iii., scene 2). See the note on the passage.
The character of Ilolofernes is supposed to have had particular ref
erence to Florio, the author of a small Italian dictionary, publisbed “ Some enigma, some ridicule ; come thy l'envoy."
in 1598, called " A World of Words," but the point is altogether uncerAct III., Scene 1.
tain. L'envoy is an old French term for concluding verses, which served either to convey the moral, or to address the poem to some person.
“ But, sir, I assure ye, it was a buck of the first head."
Act IV., Scene 2 " Then the boy's fat l'envoy, the goose that you bought,
In the “RETURN FROM PARNASSUS" (1606) there is an account of And he ended the market." - Act III., Scene 1.
the different appellations of deer, at their different ages:- "Now, This is, probably, an allusion to the ungallant Italian proverb, sir, a buck is the first year, a fawn; the second year, & pricket; the * Three women and a goose make a market."
I third year, a sorrel; the fourth year, a soare; the fifth, a buck of the first head; the sixth year, a complete buck. Likewise, your hart is most probable interpretation appears to be, “Whenever Loto speaks, the first year, a calf; the second year, a brocket; the third year, a all the gods join their voices with his in harmonious concert." sprde; the fourth year, a stag; the sixth year, a hart. A roebuck is the first year, a kid; the second year, a gird; the third year, a hemuse. And these are your special beasts for chase. Sir Nathaniel and Dull differ as to the age of the animal.
“ Your reasons at dinner have been sharp and sententious." “Give you good morrow, master person." — Act IV., Scene 2.
Act V., Scene 1. The word which we now call parson was formerly written person. I know not well what degree of respect Shakspeare intends to ob Blackstone thus accounts for the origin of the term :-"A parson, tain for this vicar, but he has here put into his mouth a finished reppersona coclesiæ, is one that hath full possession of all the rights of a resentation of colloquial excellence. It is very diffi parochial church. IIe is called parson, persona, because by his per anything to this character of the schoolmaster's table talk; and person, the church, which is an invisible body, is represented. - COMMEN haps all the precepts of Castiglione will scarcely be found to compre TARIES, b. i.
hend a rule for conversation so justly delineated, so widely dilated,
and so nicely limited. - JOANSON. - "Ah, good old Mantuan !
Reason, in the text, and in many other places, signifies discourse; I may speak of thee as the traveler doth of Venice.”
audacious is used in a good sense, for spirited, animated, confident; Act IV., Scene 2.
opinion is equivalent to obstinacy, or the French opiniatrete. The allusion here is to Mantuanus, a Carmelite, whose Eclogues
“ This is abhominable (which he would call abominable)." were translated before the time of Shakspeare, and the Latin printed
Act V., Scene 1. on the opposite side of the page. In 1567, they were also versified by Turberville. The first Eclogue commences with the passage quoted
The word in question is, according to Steevens, always spelt with by Holofernes in the text, “ Fauste, precor, gelida,” &c.
an h in the old Moralites and other antiquated books.
Why, he comes in like a perjure, wearing papers.”
“Thou art easier swallowed than a flap-dragon." — Act V., Scene 1. Act IV., Scene 3. i
A flap-dragon was some small combustible body, set on fire and put When perjurers were exposed on the pillory, they wore on the afloat in a glass of liquor. It was an act of dexterity in the toper to breast papers expressive of their crime.
swallow it without burning his mouth.
“0, rhymes are guards on wanton Cupid's hose:
“ Ware pencils!” — Act V., Scene 2. Disfigure not his slop." — Act IV., Scene 3.
Rosaline bere advises Katharine to beware of drawing liknesses, Guards gignify the edges or hems of garments. Slops are the large lest she should retaliate. wide-kneed breeches of the period.
“O, that I knew he were but in by the week !" - Act T., Scene 2. “ My eyes are then no eyes, nor I Biron." - Act IV., Scene 3.
This is probably an expression taken from biring servants; meanHere, and indeed throughout the play, the name of Biron is accent- ing, “I wish I was sure of his service for any time limited, as if I had al on the second syllable. In the first quarto (1598), and the folio | hired him.” The phrase is common in old plays. (1623), he is always called Berowne. From the line before us, it aps that in our author's time the name was pronounced Biroon.
- "And are apparated thus,MALONE.
Like Muscovites or Russians.” - Act V., Scene 2. Mr. Boswell has remarked that this was the mode in which words of this termination were pronounced in English. Mr. Fox always
It appears that a masque of Muscovites was not an unusual court said Touloon, when speaking of Toulon, in the IIouse of Commons.
recreation. Hall the Chronicler states that, in the first year of Henry
VIII., at a banquet made for the foreign ambassadors in the parlia" And beauty's crest becomes the heavens well." - Act IV., Scene 3.
ment chamber at Westminster, “came the Lord Henry Earle of
Wiltsbire and the lord Fitzwater, in two long gowns of yellow satin, That is, the very top, the height of beauty, or the utmost degree of traversed with white satin, and in every bend of white was a bend of fairness, becomes the heavens. In heraldry, a crest is a device placed
crimson satin, after the fashion of Russia or Russland, with furred above a coat of arms. In "KING JOHN," there is a similar figurative hats of grey on their heads, either of them having a hatchet in their use of the word :
hands, and boots with pikes turned up."
“ AU hail, the richest beauties on the earth!
BOYET. Beauties no richer than rich laffela." - Act V., Scene 2. " For valor, is not love a Hercules,
The allusion in the last line is to the taffeta masks that the ladies Still climbing trees in the Hesperides !”
wore to conceal themselves. Boyet sneers at the absurdity of compliAct IV., Scene 3.
menting them on those charms which were masked. The Hesperides were the daughters of IIesperus, and the fabled possessors of the golden apples carried away by Hercules. In the
“ Veal, quoth the Dutchman;- is not veal a calf ?" text, the term is used as though it were the name of the garden it
Act V., Scene 2. self. Several of the poet's classical contemporaries have fallen into
By veal is probably meant well, sounded as foreigners usually prothe same error.
nounce that word, and introduced merely for the sake of the subse
quent question. In the play of “DR. DODDYPOOL," the same joke oou And when love speaks, the voice of all the gods
curs: Makes heaven drowsy with the harmony."
| “Doctor. Hans, my very special friend, fait and trot me be right Act IV., Scene 3.
glad for see you veale. Many efforts have been made to explain this difficult passage. The Hans. What do you make a calf of me, master doctor?”
“ Well, better wits have worn plain statute caps."
we must let the whole play stand as it is, and we shall hardly venture Act V., Scene 2. to " set a mark of reprobation on it." Still we bave some objections
to the style, which we think savors more of the pedantic spirit of In the 13th of Elizabeth (1571), an act was passed “For the contin
Shakspeare's time, than of his own genius,-more of controversial diuance of making and wearing woollen caps, in behalf of the trade of
vinity, and the logic of Peter Lombard, than of the inspiration of the cappers," providing that all above the age of six years (except the
muse. It transports us quite as much to the manners of the court, nobility and some others) should, on Sabbath-days and holidays,
and the quirks of courts of law, as to the scenes of nature, or the wear caps of wool, knit, thicked, and dressed in England, upon pen
fairy land of his own imagination. alty of ten groats. These were probably the “statute-caps" alluded
Shakspeare has set bimself to imitate the tone of polite conversato; and the meaning of the passage in the text is, -- " Better wits may
tion then prevailing among the fair, the witty, and the learned; and be found among the plain citizens." In Marstou's “ DUTCH COURTE
he has imitated it but too faithfully. It is as if the hand of Titian BAN,” Mrs. Mulligrub says — “Though my husband be a citizen, and
had been employed to give graee to the curls of a full-bottomed perihis cap's made of wool, yet I have wit.”
wig, or Raphael had attempted to give expression to the tapestry fig.
ured in the House of Lords. Shakspeare has put an excellent de “ Write, 'Lord have mercy on us' on those three,
scription of this fashionable jargon into the mouth of the critical They are infected, in their heart it lies."
Holofernes, “as too picked, too spruce, too affected, too odd, too pereAct V., Scene 2.
grinate, as I may call it;" and nothing can be more marked than This inscription was put upon the door of the houses infected with the difference when he breaks loose from the trammels he had the plague; to which Biron compares the love of himself and bis com- imposed on himself," as light as bird from brake," and speaks in his panions; and pursuing the metaphor, finds the tokens likewise on the own person. - HAZLITT. ladies.
“ Your oath once broke, you force not to forswear."
Act V., Scene 2. “You force not” is the same with “you make no difficulty.” This is a very just observation. The crime which has been once commit ted is committed again with less reluctance. - Jouxson.
In this play, which all the editors have concurred to censure, and some have rejected as unworthy of our poet, it must be confessed that there are many passages mean, childish and vulgar; and some which ought not to have been exhibited, as we are told they were, to a maidon queen. But these are scattered through the whole many sparks of geisius; por is there any play that has more evident marks of the hand of Shakspeare.-- JOHNSON.
The pedant, the braggart, the hedge-priest, the fool, and the boy: -
Act V., Scene 2 Novum was a game at dice, properly called novum quinque, from the principal throws bing nine and five.
This is one of Shakspeare's early plays, and the author's youth is certainly perceivable, not only in the style and manner of the versifi
cation, but in the lavish superfluity displayed in tho execution : the If we were to part with any of the author's comedies, it should be uninterrupted succession of quibbles, equivoques, and sallies of every this. Yet we should be loth to part with Don Adriano de Armado, description. “The sparks of wit fly about in such profusion that they that mighty potentate of nonsense; or his page, that handful of wit; form complete fireworks, and the dialogue for the most part resem. with Nathaniel the curate, or Holofernes the schoolmaster, and their bles the bustling collision and banter of passing masks at a carnival." dispute after dinner, on the “golden cadences of poetry;" with Cos -(Schlegel.) The scene in which the king and his companions de tard, the clown, or Dull the constable. Biron is too accomplished a tect each other's breach of their mutual vow, is capitally contrived. character to be lost to the world, and yet he could not appear without The discovery of Biron's love-letter while rallying his friends, and the his fellow courtiers and the King; and if we were to leave out the la- manner in which he extricates himself by ridiculing the folly of the dies, tho gentlemen would have no mistresses. So that we believe | vow, are admirable. -(SINGER.)