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about a month ; for about three weeks after I came first to sea, I perspired abundantly, chiefly my head, and my body broke out in pimples, and my legs and feet swelled extremely, so that my stockings and slippers could not be drawn on without difficulty and great pain. Suddenly the sweating ceascd, so that when I came into the hot climate, where others perspired most freely, I could not perspire at all; but my flesh was hot, dry, and burning; and that which before broke out in pimples, struck in again to my stomach and heart, so that I was very ill, and weak beyond expression. Thus I continued during the rest of the voyage, which was about a month; for we were above seven weeks at sea.
On the third of the eighth month, early in the morning, we discovered the island of BARBADOES, but it was between nine and ten at night ere we came to anchor in CARLISLE-Bay. We got on shore as soon as we could, and I, with some others, walked to a Friend's house, a merchant, whose name was Richard Forstall, above a quarter of a mile from the bridge. But being very ill and weak, I was so tired with that little walk, that I was in a manner spent by the time I got thither. There I abode very ill for several days, and though they several times gave me things to make me perspire, they could not effect it. But what they gave me did rather parch and dry up my body, and made me probably worse than otherwise I might have been. Thus I continued about three weeks after I landed, having much pain in my bones, joints, and whole body, so that I could hardly get any rest; yet I was pretty cheerful, and my spirit kept above it all. Neither did my illness take me off from the service of truth, but both while I was at sea, and after I came to Barbadoes, before I was able to travel about, I gave forth several papers (having a Friend to write for me), some of which I sent by the first conveyance for England to be printed.
After I had rested three or four days at Richard Torstall's, where many Friends came to visit me, John Rous* having borrowed a coach of Colonel Chamberlain, came to fetch me to his father, Thomas Rous's house. * But it was late ere we could get thither, and little or no rest could I take that night. A few days after, Colonel Chamberlain, who had so kindly lent his coach, paid me a visit, and was very courteous towards me.
Soon after I came into the island, I was informed of a remarkable
* Thomas Rous was a wealthy sugar-planter of Barbadoes. John Rous was his son, and son-in-law to George Fox, having married his wife's eldest daughter. John Rous visited New England as a gospel minister when a young man, and suffered whipping and imprisonment there. After his release from Boston jail in 1658, except a visit which he paid to the island of Nevis towards the close of that year, we lose all trace of him until his marriage with Margaret, eldest daughter of Judge Fell, at Swarthmore Hall, in 1662. After his marriage he settled in London, in which, and in its vicinity, he appears to have resided during the remainder of his life. But few particulars respecting him are preserved, except a visit to the county of Kent in 1670, accompanied by Alexander Parker and George Whitehead; and to Barbadoes the following year with George Fox, as related in this Journal. Besides this, and a visit to the counties of York and Durham in 1689, we know nothing of his gospel labours after he settled in England. In his will, dated from Kingston in Surrey in 1692, he describes himself as a merchant, and his property, which, it appears was considerable, lay chiefly in Barbadoes. It is singular no record of his death has been found, but as his will was proved in 1695, it probably took place in that year,
passage, * wherein the justice of God did eminently appear; it was thus: There was a young man of Barbadoes, whose name was John Drakcs (a person of some note in the world's account, but a common swearer and wicked man), who, when in London, had a mind to marry a Friend's daughter, left by her mother very young, and with a considerable portion, to the care and government of several Friends, whereof I was one. He made application to me, that he might have my consent to marry this young maid. I told him, “I was one of her overseers appointed by her mother, who was a widow, to take care of her ; that if her mother had intended her for a match to any man of another profession, she would have disposed of her accordingly; but she committed her to us, that she might be trained up in the fear of the Lord, and therefore I should betray the trust reposed in me, if I shonld consent that he who was out of the fear of God, should marry her; which I would not do.” When he saw that he could not obtain his desire, he returned to Barbadoes with great offence of mind against me, but without just cause. Afterwards, when he heard I was coming to Barbadoes, he swore desperately, and threatened, that “if he could possibly procure it, he would have me burned to death when I came there.” Which a Friend hearing, asked him, “what I had done to him, that he was so violent against me?" He would not answer, but said again, “I'll have him burned.” Whereupon the Friend replied, “Do not march on too furiously, lest thou come too soon to thy journey's end." About ten days after, he was struck with a violent burning fever, of which he died; and by which his body was so scorched, that the people said, “it was as black as a coal.” Three days before I landed, his body was laid in the dust. This was taken notice of as a sad example.
While I continued so weak, that I could not go abroad to meetings, the other Friends that came over with me, bestirred themselves in the Lord's work. The day but one after we landed, they had a great meeting at the bridge, and after that several others in different parts of the island; which alarmed the people of all sorts, so that many came to our meetings, and some of the chief rank. For they had got my name, understanding I was come upon the island, and expected to see me at those meetings, not knowing that I was unable to go abroad. And indeed, my weakness continued the longer on me, by reason that my spirit was much pressed down at first with the filth and dirt and unrighteousness of the people, which lay as a beavy weight and load upon me. But after I had been above a month upon the island, my spirit became somewhat easier, and I began to recover in some mcasure my health and strength, and to get abroad among Friends. In the meantime, having opportunity to send to England, I wrote to Friends there, to let them know how it was with me, as follows :
"DEAR FRIENDS, "I have been very weak these seven weeks past, and not able to write myself. My desire is to you and for you all, that ye may live in the fear
* The words "passage” and “passages” occur frequently in the journals and other writings of the early Friends. In this instance it signifies a remarkable occurrence, bat is generally applied to gospel services, travels, &c.
of God, and in love one unto another, and be subject one to another in the fear of God. I have been weaker in my body than ever I was in my life that I remember, yea, my pains have been such as I cannot-express; yet my heart and spirit is strong. I have hardly perspired these seven weeks past, though I am come into a very hot climate, where hardly any but are vell nigh continually perspiring; but as for me, my old bruises, colds, numbness, and pains, struck inwardly, even to my very heart. So that I Jiave taken little rest, and the chief things that were comfortable to my stomach, were a little water and powdered ginger; but now I begin to drink a little beer as well as water, and sometimes a little wine and water mixed. Great pains and travails I have felt, and in measure am under; but it is well, my life is over all. This island was to me as all on a fire ere I came to it, but now it is somewhat quenched and abated. I came in weakness amongst those that are strong, and have so continued; but now I am got a little cheery, and over it. Many Friends, and some considerable persons of the world, have been with me. I tired out my body much when amongst you in England; it is the Lord's power that helps me; therefore I desire you all to prize the power of the Lord and his truth. I was but weak in body when I left you, after I had been in my great travail amongst you; but after that, it struck all back again into my body, which was not well settled after so sore travails in England. Then I was so tired at sea, that I could not rest, and have had little or no stomach a long time. Since I came into this island, my life hath been very much burthened; but I hope, if the Lord give me strength to manage his work, I shall work thoroughly, and bring things that have been out of course, into better order. So, dear Friends, live all in the peaceable truth, and in the love of it, serving the Lord in newness of life; for glorious things and precious truths have been manifested among you plentifully, and to you the riches of the kingdom have been handed. I have been almost a month in this island, but have not been able to go abroad or ride out; only very lately I rode out twice, a quarter of a mile at a time, which wearied me much. My love in the truth is to you all.”.
Because I was not well able to travel, the Friends of the island concluded to have their men's and women's meeting for the service of the church at Thomas Rous's, where I lay; by which means I was present at each of their meetings, and had very good service for the Lord in both. For they had need of information in many things, divers disorders having crept in for want of care and watchfulness. I exhorted them, more especially at the men's meeting, “ to be watchful and careful with respect to marriages, to prevent Friends marrying in near kindreds, and also to prevent over-hasty proceedings towards second marriages, after the death of a former husband or wife; advising that a decent regard might be had in such cases to the memory of the deceased husband or wife. As to Friends' children marrying too young, as at thirteen or fourteen years of age, I showed them the unfitness thereof, and the inconveniences and hurts that attend such childish marriages. I admonished them to purge the floor thoroughly, to sweep their houses very clean, that nothing might remaiu
that would defile, and to take care that nothing be spoken, out of their meetings, to the blemishing or defaming one of another. Concerning the registering of marriages, births, and burials, I advised them to keep exact records of each in distinct books for that only use; and also to record in a book for that purpose, the condemnations of such as went out from truth into disorderly practices, and the repentance and restoration of such of them as returned again. I recommended to their care the providing of convenient burying-places for Friends, which in some parts were yet wanting. Some directions also I gave them concerning wills, and the ordering of legacies left by Friends for public uses, and other things relating to the affairs of the church. Then as to their blacks or negroes, I desired them to endeavour to train them up in the fear of God, those that were bought, and those born in their families, that all might come to the knowledge of the Lord ; that so, with Joshua, every master of a family might say, “As for me and my house, we will serve the Lord. I desired them also that they would cause their overseers to deal mildly and gently with their negroes, and not use cruelty towards them, as the manner of some hath been and is; and that after certain years of servitude, they would make them free."* Many sweet and precious things were opened in these meetings by the Spirit, and in the power of the Lord, to the edifying, confirming, and building up of Friends, both in the faith and holy order of the gospel.
After these meetings, the vessel bound for England not being gone, I was moved to write another epistle to Friends there, as follows:
“DEAR Friends and brethren, to whom is my love in that which
* The interest of Friends in behalf of the Negro may be dated from the rise of the Society, at least from the time of their acquaintance with them at the above date. In proportion as intercourse was more frequently maintained with the distant colonies, and the abominations of Slavery were more generally known, Friends were more decided in their opposition to it. In 1727 the whole Society, at their Yearly Meeting in London, passed a general resolution : “That the importing of Negroes from their native country is not a commendable or allowable practice, and is therefore censured by this meeting.” At several subsequent meetings, through a series of years, minutes were passed to the same effect, but gradually increasing in strength. In 1758, the practice was declared to be in direct violation of the gospel rule, and Friends were warned carefully to avoid being in any way concerned in reaping the unrighteous profits arising from so iniquitous a practice. In 1761 all were disowned who persisted in a practice so repugnant to Christianity, and so reproachful to a Christian profession.
Clarkson, in alluding to this subject, observes, “I must beg leave to stop here for a moment, just to pay the Quakers a due tribute of respect for the proper estimation in which they have uniformnly held these miserable outcasts of society. What a contrast does it afford to the sentiments of many others concerning them! How have we been compelled to prove, by a long chain of evidence, that Negroes have the same feelings and capacities as ourselves ! How many, professing themselves enlightened, even now view them as of a different species. But by the Friends we have seen them uniformly represented, as persons ransomed by one and the same Saviour,' as visited by one and the same light for salvation,' and 'as made equally for immortality as others. These practical views of mankind, as they are highly honourable to the members of this Society, so they afford a proof both of the reality and of the consistency of their religion.”
See Clarkson's History of the Abolition of the Slave Trade, and Copley's History of Slavery.
never changeth, but remains in glory, which is over all, the top and cornerstone. In this all have peace and life, as ye dwell in the blessed Seed, wherein all is blessed over that which brought the curse; where all shortness and narrowness of spirit, brittleness and peevishness are. Therefore keep the holy order of the gospel. Keep in this blessed Seed, where all may be preserved in temperance, patience, love, meekness, righteousness, holiness, and peace, in which the Lord may be seen amongst you, and no ways dishonoured, but glorified by you all. In all your meetings, in cities, towns, and countries, let righteousness flow among you, and the holy truth be uppermost; the pure Spirit your guide and leader, and the holy wisdom from above your orderer, which is gentle, and easy to be entreated. Keep in the religion that preserves from the spots of the world, which is pure and undefiled in God's sight. Keep in the pure and holy worship, in which the pure and holy God is worshipped, to wit, in the Spirit and in the truth, which the devil is out of, who is the author of all unholiness and of that which dishonours God Be tender of God's glory, of his honour, and of his blessed and holy name, in which ye are gathered. All who profess the truth, see that ye walk in it, in righteousness, godliness, and holiness; for
holiness becomes the house of God, the household of faith. And that which becomes God's house, God loves; for he loves righteousness—the ornament which becomes his house, and all his family. Therefore see that righteousness run down in all your assemblies, that it flow, to drive away all unrighteousness. This preserves your peace with God; for in rightcousness, ye have all peace with the righteous God of Peace, and one with another.
“Every one that bears the name of the Anointed, that high title of being a Christian, named after the Heavenly Man, see that ye be in the divine nature, made conformable unto his image, even the image of the Heavenly Divine Man, who was before that image which Adam and Eve got from Satan in the fall; so that in none of you that fallen image may appear, but his image, and you made conformable unto him. Here translation is showed forth in life and conversation, not in words only; yea, and conversion and repentance, which is a change of the nature of the mind and of the heart, of the spirit and affections, which have been below, and "come to be set above; and so receive the things that are from above, and have your conversation in heaven, not that conversation which is according to the power of the prince of the air, that now rules in the disobedient. So be faithful; this is the word of the Lord God unto you all. See that godliness and holiness, righteousness and truth, virtue, and the fruits of the good Spirit, flow over the bad and its fruits, that ye may answer that which is of God in all; for your heavenly Father is glorified in that you bring forth much fruit. Therefore ye, who are plants of his planting, and his trees of righteousness, see that every tree be full of fruit. Keep in true humility, and in the true love of God, which doth edify his body; that the true nourishment from the head, the refreshings, and springs, and rivers of water, and bread of life, may be plenteously known and felt amongst you; that so praises may ascend unto God. Be faithful to the Lord God, and just and true in all your dealings and doings with men.