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CONTENTS OF VOLUME VII.
STATES-SYSTEM IN NORTH AND EAST.
SECTION 1.-WARS OF DENMARK, SWEDEN AND
BRANDENBURG (A. D. 1599-1679).
DURING the sixty years reign of Christian IV., A. D. 1588-1648, Christian
of Denmark was prosperous, notwithstanding her disastrous wars. The
Denmark, Danish monarchy embraced all of Denmark and Norway, with the A. D.
1588seven southern provinces of Sweden ; while Iceland and Greenland were
1648. among its foreign possessions. In 1611 Christian IV. began a foolish and useless war with the King of Sweden; but this war was ended by His Wars the Peace of Siorod in 1613, through the mediation of England. The
Sweden. part which Christian IV. took in the Thirty Years' War as an ally of the German Protestants, which ended in his defeat and which was closed by the Peace of Lübeck in 1629, has already been alluded to; as has also his disastrous war with Sweden in 1644, which was ended by the Peace of Brömsebro, in August, 1645. Upon the death of Christian IV., in 1648, his son FREDERICK III. Frederick
of became King of Denmark and Norway. In 1657 Frederick III. be
Denmark, came involved in a war with Charles X. of Sweden, which was ended by the Peace of Roskild in 1658. A second war with Charles X. of
1670. Sweden, begun in 1658, was ended by the Peace of Copenhagen in 1660. In 1660 Frederick III. accomplished a peaceful revolution by His Wars which he changed the constitution of Denmark, thus converting his
Sweden, kingdom from an elective and limited monarchy into an absolute and hereditary one. Thus the Danish nobility were deprived of their great privileges and revenues by the Royal Law, which conferred unlimited
Royal power upon the king. The nobles thus lost their former power and
Law. independent position, and were bound very closely to the throne by titles and orders.
Frederick III. died in 1670, and was succeeded on the Danish throne Christian by his son CHRISTIAN V., who engaged in a war with Charles XI. of V., A. D.
1670Sweden in 1675, which was ended in 1679 through the intervention of 1699. Louis XIV. of France. Upon the death of Christian V., in 1699, his
Frederickson FREDERICK IV. became King of Denmark and Norway. He IV., A. D. 1699
reigned until his death in 1730. 1730. CHARLES IX. of Sweden was engaged during part of his reign of Charles twelve years, A. D. 1599–1611, in a war with his nephew and preIX. of
decessor, King Sigismund III. of Poland, who still claimed the Swedish Sweden, A. D. crown after his deposition by the Swedish Diet. A few months before 1599- his death, in 1611, Charles IX. became involved in a war with Chris
tian IV. of Denmark. Among the causes of complaint of the two His Wars. kings was one that each bore upon his shield three crowns symbolizing
the three Scandinavian kingdoms. Gustavus
Upon the death of Charles IX., in the fall of 1611, his son, the phus, illustrious GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS—“the Lion of the North”—became
" A. D.
King of Sweden at the age of sixteen. He chose for his Prime Minister 1632.
the famous Axel Oxenstiern, a man of profound wisdom and good judgAxel Ox- ment, a model statesman and diplomatist, and the prime mover in enstiern.
Swedish affairs for a long series of years. Gustavus Gustavus Adolphus had served his apprenticeship in the art of war Adolphus
in the struggle with Christian IV. of Denmark, and he was destined Warrior. to become not only one of the most famous of military heroes, but also
the founder of a new system of warfare and army organization, which in the course of time superseded the closely-serried ranks of the Swiss
pikemen and the Spanish lancers. His Wars Through the mediation of England, the war with Christian IV. of with
Denmark was ended in two years by the Peace of Siorod, in January, Denmark
and 1613; but a war with Russia had already begun. The male line of Russia.
Rurik having become extinct, a party in Russia desired to place a brother of Gustavus Adolphus on the Russian throne. The Swedes gained some advantages in this war, but the greater part of the Rus
sian nation succeeded in maintaining the right of Michael Romanoff to Peace of the Russian crown. By the Peace of Stolbova, in 1617, Russia ceded Stolbova. considerable territory to Sweden, including the site of the present city
of St. Petersburg. His war
In 1620 Gustavus Adolphus became involved in a war of nine years Poland.
with his cousin, King Sigismund III. of Poland, caused by the latter's
pretensions to the Swedish crown. This war was ended in 1629, by Truce of the six years' Truce of Altmark, through the mediation of France, Altmark.
whose illustrious Prime Minister, Cardinal Richelieu, was anxious to allow Gustavus Adolphus liberty to engage in the great Thirty Years' War in Germany. By this war with Poland, Sweden acquired Livonia and part of Prussia ; but far more valuable were the discipline and experience which enabled Gustavus Adolphus to assume his place as the great leader and champion of the Protestant hosts in the Thirty Years' War.