spontaneously, and without the least view of inte-Artax. rest, whatever he thought might be of advantage to Longim. the commonwealth.

Besides a great number of other excellent qualities, Cimon had the finest sense, extraordinary prudence, and a profound knowledge of the genius and characters of men. The allies, besides the sums of money in which each of them was taxed, were to furnish a certain number of men and ships. Several among them, who, from the retreat of Xerxes, were studious of nothing but their ease, and applied themselves entirely to tilling and cultivating their lands, to free themselves from the toils and dangers of war, chose to furnish their quota in money rather than in men, and left the Athenians the care of manning with soldiers and rowers, the ships they were obliged to furnish. The other generals, who had no forecast and penetration for the future, gave such people some uneasiness at first, and were for obliging them to observe the treaty literally. But Cimon, when in power, acted in a quite different manner, and suffered them to enjoy the tranquility they chose; plainly perceiving that the allies, from being warlike in the field, would insensibly lose their martial spirit, and be fit for nothing but husbandry and trade; whilst the Athenians, by exercising the oar perpetually, would be more and more inured to hardships, and daily increase in power. What Cimon had foreseen happened; this very people purchased themselves masters at their own expence ; so that they who before had been companions and allies, became in some measure the subjects and tributaries of the Athenians.

P No Grecian general ever gave so great a blow to the pride and haughtiness of the Persian monarch as Cimon. After the Barbarians had been driven out of Greece, he did not give them time to take

P Plut. in Cim. p, 485-487, Thucyd. 1. i. p. 66. Diod. 1. xi. p. 45-47.

Artax. breath; but sailed immediately after them with a Longim, fleet of upwards of two hundred ships, took their strongest cities, and brought over all their allies; so that the king of Persia had not one soldier left in Asia, from lonia to Pamphylia. Still pursuing his point, he bravely attacked the enemy's fleet, though much stronger than his own. It lay near the mouth of the river Eurymedon, and consisted of three hundred and fifty sail of ships supported by the land a my on the coast. It was soon put to flight; and two hundred sail were taken, besides those that were sunk. A great number of the Persians had left their ships and leapt into the sea, in order to join their land army, which lay on the shore. It was very ha zardous to attempt a descent in sight of the enemy; and to lead on troops, which were already fatigued by their late battle, against fresh forces much superior in number. However Cimon, finding that the whole army was eager to engage the Barbarians, thought proper to take advantage of the ardour of the soldiers, who were greatly animated with their first success. Accordingly he landed, and marched them directly against the Barbarians, who waited resolutely for their coming up, and sustained the first onset with prodigious valour; however, being at last obliged to give way, they broke and fled. A great slaughter ensued, and an infinite number of prisoners, and immensely rich spoils, were taken. Cimon having, in one day, gained two victories which almost equalled those of Salamin and Platæa ; to crown all, sailed out to meet a reinforcement of eighty-four Phoenician ships, which were come from Cyprus, to join the Persian fleet, and knew nothing of what had passed. They were all either taken or sunk, and most of the soldiers were killed of drowned.

We don't find that the ancients made use of long-boats in making descents; the reason of which perhaps was, that as their gallies were flat-bottomed, they were brought to shore without any difficulty.

Cimon having atchieved such glorious exploits, Artax. returned in triumph to Athens; and employed part Longim. of the spoils in fortifying the harbour, and in beautifying the city. The riches which a general amasses in the field, are applied to the noblest uses when they are disposed of in this manner; and must reflect infinitely greater honour upon him, than if he expended them in building magnificent palaces for himself, which must one time or other devolve to strangers; whereas works, built for public use, are his property in some measure for ever, and transmit his name to the latest posterity. 9 It is well known that such embellishments in a city give infinite pleasure to the people, who are always struck with works of this kind; and this, as Plutarch observes in the life of Cimon, is one of the surest, and, at the same time, the most lawful method of acquiring their friendship and esteem.

The year following, this general sailed towards the Hellespont; and having driven the Persians out of the Thracian Chersonesus, of which they had possessed themselves, he conquered it in the name of the Athenians, though he himself had more right to it, as Miltiades his father had been its sovereign. He afterwards attacked the people of the island of Thasus, who had revolted from the Athenians, and defeated their fleet. These maintained their revolt with an almost unparalleled obstinacy and fury.

As if they had been in arms against the most cruel and barbarous enemies, from whom they had the worst of evils to fear, they made a law, that the first man who should only mention the concluding a treaty with the Athenians, should be put to death. The siege was carried on three years, during which the inhabitants suffered all the calamities of war with the same obstinacy. The women were no less in

Plut. de gerend. rep. p. $18.
Thucyd. 1. i. p. 66, 67. Diod. 1. xi, p. 53,
Polyan. 1. viii.

Plut. in Cim. P. 487.


Polyæn, Str. 1. i

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Artax. flexible than the men; for the besieged wanting Longim. ropes for their military engines, all the women cut off their hair in a seeming transport; and when the city was in the utmost distress by famine, which swept away a great number of the inhabitants, Hegetorides the Thasian, deeply afflicted with seeing such multitudes of his fellow-citizens perish, resolutely determined to sacrifice his life for the preservation of his country. Accordingly he put a halter round his neck, and presenting himself to the assembly,"Countrymen," says he, " do with me as you please, and don't spare me if you judge pro per; but let my death save the rest of the people, " and prevail with you to abolish the cruel law you "have enacted, so contrary to your welfare." The Thasians, struck with these words, abolished the law, but would not suffer it to cost so generous a citizen his life; for they surrendered themselves to the Athenians, who spared their lives, and only dismantled their city.



After Cimon had landed his troops on the shore opposite to Thrace, he seized on all the gold mines of those coasts, and subdued every part of that country as far as Macedonia. He might have attempted the conquest of that kingdom; and, in all probability, could have easily possessed himself of part of it, had he improved the occasion. And indeed, for his neglect in this point, at his return to Athens, he was prosecuted, as having been bribed by the money of the Macedonians and of Alexander their king. But Cimon had a soul superior to all temptations of that kind, and proved his innocence in the clearest light.

A. M.

"The conquests of Cimon and the power of the 3538. Athenians, which encreased every day, gave ArtaxAnt. J.C.erxes great uneasiness. To prevent the consequences 466. of it, he resolved to send Themistocles into Attica, with a great army, and accordingly proposed it to him.

Thucyd. 1. i. p. 92. Plut. in Themist. P. 127.

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Themistocles was in great perplexity on this oc Artax. casion. On one side, the remembrance of the fa- Longim, vours the king had heaped upon him; the positive assurances he had given that monarch, to serve him with the utmost zeal on all occasions; the instances. of the king who claimed his promise; all these considerations would not permit him to refuse the commission. On the other side, the love of his country, which the injustice and ill treatment of his fellow-citizens could not banish from his mind; his strong reluctance to sully the glory of his former laurels and mighty atchievements by so ignominious a step; perhaps too, the fear of being unsuccessful in a war, in which he should be opposed by excellent generals, and particularly Cimon, who seemed to be as successful as valiant; these different reflections would not suffer him to declare against his country, in an enterprize, which, whether successful or not, would reflect shame on himself.

To rid himself at once of all these inward strug gles, he resolved to put an end to his life, as the only method for him not to be wanting in the duty he owed his country, nor to the promises he had made that prince. He therefore prepared a solemn sacrifice, to which he invited all his friends; when, after embracing them all, and taking a last farewel of them, he drank bull's blood, or, according to others, swallowed a dose of poison, and died in this inanner at Magnesia, aged threescore and five years, the greatest part of which he had spent either in the government of the republick, or the command of the armies. * When the king was told the cause and manner of his death, he esteemed and admired him still more, and continued his favour to his friends and domesticks. But the unexpected death of Themistocles proved an obstacle to the design he medi

* Cic. de Senec. n. 72.

The wisest heathens did not think that a man was allowed to lay violent hands on himself.

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