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and vocative, are like in both numbers, and in the plural end always in a.
The ablative is englished with these signs, in, with, of, for, from, by, and such like, as de libro of or from the book, pro libro for the book; and the ablative plural is always like the dative.
Note, that some nouns have but one ending through. out all cases, as frugi, nequam, nihil ; and all words of number from three to a hundred, as quatuor four, quinque five, &c.
Some have but one, some two, fome three cases only, in the fingular or plural, as use will best teach.
Of a Noun. A Noun is the name of a thing, as manus a hand, domus a house, bonus good, pulcher fair. Nouns be substantives or adjectives.
A noun fubftantive is understood by itself, as homo a man, domus a house.
An adjective, to be well understood, requireth a fubftantive to be joined with it, as bonus good, parvus little, which cannot be well understood unless fomething good or little be either named, as bonus vir, a good man, parvus puer a little boy; or by use understood, as hones. tum an honest thing, boni good men.
The Declining of Substantives. Nouns substantives have five declensions or forms of ending their cases, chiefly distinguished by the different ending of their genitive singular.
in æ, &C., Singular.
The first Declenhon. The first is when the genitive and dative singular end in æ, &c., as in the example following.
Dat. Abl. musis
Nom. Voc. mula
or filia, endeth the genitive in as, as pater familias, but fometimes familiæ. Dea, mula, equa, liberta, make the dative and ablative plural in abus; filia and nata in is or abus.
The first declension endeth always in a, unless in fome words derived of the Greek: and is always of the feminine gender, except in names attributed to men, according to the general rule, or to stars, as comieta, planeta.
Nouns, and especially proper names derived of the Greek, have here three endings, as, es, e, and are declined in some of their cases after the Greek form. Æneas, acc, Ænean, voc. Ænca; Anchifes, acc. Anchisen, voc. Anchise, or Anchisa, abl. Anchise. Penelope, Penelopes, Penelopen, voc. abl. Penelope. Sometimes following the Latin, as Marsya, Philocteta, for as and es; Philoctetam, Eriphylam, for an and en. Cic. .
The second Declension
Dat. Abl. libris
Acc. libros. Note, that when the nominative endeth in us, the rocative Thall end in e, as dominus ò domine, except deus ô deus. And these following, agnus, lucus, vulgus, populus, chorus, fluvius, e or us.
When the nominative endeth in ius, if it be the proper name ofaman, the vocative shall end ini, as Georgius O Georgi; hereto add filius ô fili, and genius o geni. • All nouns of the second declension are of the mafculine or neuter gender; of the masculine, such as end in er, or, or us, except fome few, humus, domus, alvus, and others derived of the Greek, as methodus, antidotus, and the like, which are of the feminine, and some of them sometimes also masculine, as atomus, phaselus; to which add ficus the name of a disease, grossus, pampinus, and rubus.
Those Those of the neuter, except virus, pelagus, and vulgus (which last is sometimes masculine) end all in um, and are declined as followeth: Sing.
Dat. Abl. fiudio. Dat. Abl. ftudiis. Some nouns in this declension are of the first example singular, of the second plural, as Pergamus the city Troy, plur. hæc Pergama; and fome names of hills, as Mæna. jus, Ilmarus, hæc lfmara; so also Tartarus, and the lake Avernus; others are of both, as sibilus, joçus, locus, hi loci, or hæc loca. Some are of the second example fins gular, of the first plural, as Argos, cælum, plur. hi cæli; others of both, as rastrum, capistrum, filum, frænum; plur. fræni or fræna. Nundinum, & epulum, are of the first declension plural, nundinæ, epulie; balneum of both, balneü or balnea.
Greek proper names have here three endings, os, on, and us long from a Greek diphthong. Hæc Delos, hanc Delon. Hoc lion. The rest regular, Hic Panthus, ô Panthu, Virg.
The third Declenson. The third is when the genitive singular endeth in is, the dative in i, the accusative in em, the ablative in e, and sometimes in i; the Nom. Acc. Voc. plural in es, the genitive in un, and sometimes in ium, &c. Sing.
Dat. Abl. panibus.
Dat. Abl. parentibus.
genders, best known by dividing all nouns hereto belonging into such as either increase one syllable long or short in the genitive, or increase not at all. :
Such as increase not in the genitive are generally feminine, as nubes nubis, caro carnis.
Except such as end in er, as hic venter ventris, and these in is following, natalis, aqualis, lienis, orbis, callis, caulis, collis, follis, menfis, ensis, fuftis, funis, panis, penis, crinis, ignis, cassis, fascis, torris, piscis, unguis, vermis, vectis, poftis, axis, and the compounds of assis, as centuslis. · But canalis, finis, clunis, reftis, sentis, amnis, corbis, linter, torquis, anguis, hic or hæc: to these add vepres.
Such as end in e are neuters, as mare, rete, and two Greek in es, as hippomanes, cacoëthes.
Nouns increasing long. Nouns increasing one syllable long in the genitive are generally feminine, as hæc pietas pietatis, virtus virtutis.
Except such as end in ans masculine, as dodrans, quadrans, fextans; in ens, as oriens; torrens, bidens, a pickaxe.
In or, moft commonly derived of verbs, as pallor, clamor; in o, not thence derived, as ternio, fenio, fermo, temo, and the like. . And these ofone syllable, sal, fol, ren, fplen, as, bes, pes, mos, flos, ros, dens, mons, pons, fons, grex.
And words derived from the Greek in en, as lichen; in er, as crater; in as, as adamas; in es, as lebes; to these, hydrops, thorax, phenix.
But fcrobs, rudens, ftirps, the body or root of a tree, and calx a heel, hic or hæc..
Neuter, these of one syllable, mel, fel, lac, far, ver, cor, æs, vas vasis, os ossis, os oris, rus, thus, jus, crus, pus. And of more syllables in al and ar, as capital, laquear, but halec học or hæc.
Nouns increahng short. Nouns increasing short in the genitive are generally masculine, as hic fianguis fanguinis, lapis lapidis.
Except, feminine all words of many fyllables ending in do or go, as dulcedo, compago; arbor, hyems, cuspis, pecus pecudis : These in ex, forfex, carex, tomex, supellex: In ix, appendix, histrix, coxendix, filix; Greek nouns, in as and is, as lampas, iaspis : To these add chlamys, bacchar, findon, icon.
But margo, cinis, pulvis, adeps, forceps, pumex, ramex, imbrex, obex, filex, cortex, onyx, and: fardonyx, hic or hæc.
Neuters are all ending in a, as problema ; in en, except bic pecten; in ar, as jubar ; in er these, verber, iter, uber, cadaver, zinziber, laser, cicer, fiser, piper, papaver, sometimes in ur, except hic furfur, in us, as onus, in ut, as caput; to these marmor, æquor, ador.
Greek proper names here end in as, an, is, and ens, and may be declined some wholly after the Greek form, as Pallas, Pallados, Palladi, Pallada; others in some cases, as Atlas, acc. Atlanta, voc. Atla. Garamas, plur. Garamantes, acc. Garamantas. Pan, Panos, Pana. Phyllis, Phyllidos, voc. Phylli, plur. Phyllides, acc. Phyllidas, Tethys, Tethyos, acc. Tethyn, voc. Tethy. Neapolis Neapolios, acc. Neapolin. Paris, Paridos or Parios, acc. Parida, or Parin. Orpheus, Orpheos, Orphei, Orphea, Orpheu. But names in eus borrow fometimes their genitive of the second declenfion, as Erechtheus, Erechthei. Cic. Achilles or Achilleus, Achillei; and fometimes their accusative in on or um, as Orpheus Orpheon, Theseus Theseum, Perseus Perseum, which fometimes is formed after Greek words of the first declension ; Latin, Perseus or Perses, Perfæ Perfæ Persen Perfæ Persa.
in ibile dative is when
The fourth Declension. The fourth is when the genitive singular endeth in us, the dative singular in ui, and sometimes in u, plural in ibus, and sometimes in ubus. Sing.
Dat. Abl. fenfibus,