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experience, that in fo many ages as are gone over the world, there has been but here and there a man found, who has been able worthily to recount the actions of great heroes, and potent states; can any man have fo good an opinion of his own talents, as to think himself capable to reach these glorious and wonderful works of Almighty God, by any language, by any style of his ? Which enterprise, though some of the most eminent perfons in our commonwealth have prevailed upon me by their authority to undertake, and would have it be my business to vindicate with my pen against envy and calumny (which are proof against arms) those glorious performances of theirs, (whole opinion of me I take as a very great honour that they should pitch upon me before others to be serviccable in this kind to those most valiant deliverers of my native country; and true it is, that from my very youth, I have been bent extremely upon such fort of studies, as inclined me, if not to do great things myself, at least to celebrate those that did) yet as having no confidence in any fuch advantages, I have recourse to the divine assistance; and invoke the great and holy God, the giver of all good gifts, that I may as fubftantially, and as truly, discourse and refute the fauciness and lies of this foreign declamator, as our noble generals piously and successfully by force of arms broke the king's pride, and his unruly domineering, and afterwards put an end to both by inflicting a memorable punithment upon himself, and as thoroughly as a fingle perfon did with ease but of late confute and confound the king himself rifing as it were from the grave, and recommending himself to the people in a book published after his death, with new artifices and allurements of words and expressions. Which antagonist of mine, though he be a foreigner, and, though he deny it a thousand times over, but a poor grammarian; yet not contented with the salary due to him in that capacity, chose to turn a pragmatical coxcomb, and not only to intrude in stateaffairs, but into the affairs of a foreign state : though he brings along with him neither modesty, nor understanding, nor any other qualification requisite in fo great an arbitrator, but fauciness, and a little grammar only. Indeea

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if he had published here, and in English, the same things as he has now wrote in Latin, such as it is, I ..

think no man would have thought it worth while to return · an answer to them, but would partly despise them as

common, and exploded over and over already, and partly abhor them as fordid and tyrannical maxims, not to be endured even by the most abject of slaves : nay, men that have fided with the king, would have had these thoughts of his book. But since he has swoln it to a considerable bulk, and dispersed it amongst foreigners, who are altogether ignorant of our affairs and constitution; it is fit that they who mistake them, should be better informed ; and that he, who is so very forward to speak ill of others, should be treated in his own kind. If it be asked, why we did not then attack him sooner, why we suffered him to triumph so long, and pride himself in our filence ? For others I am not to answer; for myself I can boldly say, that I had neither words nor arguments long to seek for the defence of so good a cause, if I had enjoyed such a measure of health, as would have endured the fatigue of writing. And being but weak in body, I am forced to write by piecemeal, and break off almost every hour, though the subje&t be such as requires an unintermitted study and intenseness of mind. But though this bodily indisposition may be a hindrance to me in set ting forth the just praises of my most worthy countrymen, who have been the saviours of their native country, and whose exploits, worthy of immortality, are already famous all the world over; yet I hope it will be no difficult matter for me to defend them from the infolence of this Silly little scholar, and from that faucy tongue of hiš, at leaft. Nature and laws would be in an ill case, if Navery should find what to fay for itself, and liberty be mute : and if tyrants should find men to plead for them, and they that can master and vanquish tyrants, should not be able to find advocates. And it were a deplorable thing indeed, if the reason mankind is endued withal, and which is the gift of God, should not furnish more arguments for men's preservation, for their deliverance, and, as much as the nature of the thing will bear, for making them equal to one another, than for their op

pression,

pression, and for their uttter ruin under the domineering power of one single person. Let me therefore enter upon this noble cause with a cheerfulness, grounded upon this affurance, that my adversary's caufe is maintained by nothing but fraud, fallacy, ignorance and barbarity; whereas mine has light, truth, reason, the practice and the learning of the best ages of the world, of its fide. } • But now, having faid enough for an introduction, since we have to elo with critics; let us in the first place consider the title of this choice piece : “ Defenfio Regia pro Car. Primo, ad Car. Secundum: a Royal Defence (or the king's defence) for Charles the First, to Charles the Second.” You undertake a wonderful piece of work, whoever you are; to plead the father's cause before his own fon : a hundred to one but you carry it. But I summon you, Salmasius, who heretofore fculked under a wrong name, and now go by no name at all, to appear before another tribunal, and before other judges, where perhaps you may not hear those little applautes, which you use to be fo fond of in your school. But why this royal defence dedicated to the king's own fon? We need not put him to the torture; he confeffes why. “At the king's charge,” says he. O mercenary and chargeable advocate! could you not afford to write a defence for Charles the father, whom you pretend to have been the best of kings, to Charles the son, the most indigent of all kings, but it must be at the poor king's own charge? But though you are a knave, you would not make yourfelf ridiculous, in calling it the king's defence; for you having fold it, it is no longer yours, but the king's indeed : who bought it at the price of a hạndred jacobufles, a great fum for a poor king to disburse. I know very well what I say: and it is well enough known who brought the gold, and the purse wrought with beads : we know who saw you reach out greedy fists, under pretence of embracing the king's chaplain, who brought the present, but indeed to embrace the present itself, and by accepting it to exhaust almost all the king's treasury. . But now the man comes himself, the door creaks; the actor comes upon the stage.

In filence now, and with attention wait.
That ye may learn what th' Eunuch has to prate.

Terent. For whatever the matter is with him, he blufters more than ordinary. A horrible meffage had lately struck our ears, but our minds more, with a heinous wound concerning a parricide committed in England in the perfon of a king, by a wicked conspiracy of facrilegious men.” Indeed that horrible message must either have had a much longer sword than that which Peter drew, or those ears must have been of a wonderful length, that it could wound at such a distance; for it could not so much as in the least offend any ears but those of an afs. For what harm is it to you, that are foreigners? are any of you hurt by it, if we amongst ourselves put our own enemies, our own traitors to death, be they commoners, noblemen, or kings? Do you, Salmafius, let alone what does not concern you : for I have a horrible message to bring of you too; which I am mistaken if it strike not a more heinous wound into the ears of all grammarians and critics, provided they have any learning and delicacy in them, to wit, your crowding so many barbarous expressions together in one period in the person of (Ariftarchus) a grammarian; and that so great a critic as you, hired at the king's charge to write a defence of the king his father, should not only set fo fulfome a preface before it, much like those lamentable ditties that used to be fung at funerals, and which can move compassion in none but a coxcomb; but in the very first sentence should provoke your readers to laughter with so many barbarisms all at once. “ Persona regis,” you cry. Where do you find any such Latin? or are you telling us fome tale or other of a Perkin Warbec, who taking upon him the person of a king, has, forfooth, committed some horrible parricide in England ? which expression, though dropping carelesly from your pen, has more truth in it than you are aware of. For a tyrant is but like a king upon a ftage, a man in a vizor, and acting the part of a king in a play; he is not really a king. But as for these gallicilms, that are so frequent in your book, I won't lash you for them myself, for I am not at leisure; but shall

deliver ing, thould be

of lacrilegious perte been done “by a w

deliver you over to your fellow grammarians, to be laughed to scom and whipped by them. What follows is much more heinous, than what was decreed by our fupreme magistracy to be done to the king, should be said by you to have been done “ by a wicked conspiracy of facrilegious persons.” Have you the inpudence, you rogue, to talk at this rate of the acts and decrees of the chief magistrates of a nation, that lately was a molt potent kingdom, and is now a more potent commonwealth? Whose proceedings no king ever took upon him by word of mouth, or otherwise, to vilify and fet at nought.

The illustrious states of Holland therefore, the genuine offspring of those deliverers of their country, have deservedly by their edict condemned to utter darkness this defence of tyrants, fo pernicious to the liberty of all nations; the author of which every free state ought to forbid their country, or to banish out of it; and that state particularly that feeds with a stipend so ungrateful and fo lavage an enemy to their commonwealth, whose very fundamentals, and the causes of their becoming a free state, this fellow endeavours to undermine. as well as ours, and at one and the same time to subvert both ; loading with calumnies the most worthy asferters of liberty there, under our names. Consider with yourselves, ye most illustrious states of the United Netherlands, who it was that put this asserter of kingly power upon setting pen to paper ? who it was, that but lately began to play Rex in your country? what counsels were taken, what endeavours used, and what disturbances ensued thereupon in Holland ? and to what pass things might have been brought by this time? How slavery and a new master were ready prepared for you; and how near expiring that liberty of yours, aflerted and vindicated by so many years war and toil, would have been ere now, if it had not taken breath again by the timely death of a certain rash young gentleman. But our author begins to strut again, and to feign wonderful tragedies; “ whomsoever this dreadful news reached (to wit, the news of Salmasius's parricidial barbarisms) all of a fudden, as if they had been struck with lightning, their hair stood an end, and their tongues clove to the roof of .

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