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II. Comm. Thou shalt not make to thyself any
The moral duties of this commandment are, 1. To worship God with all bodily worship and external forms of address, according to the custom of the church we live in. 2. To believe God to be a spiritual and pure substance, without any visible form or shape. 3. To worship God in ways of his own appointing, or by his proportions, or measures of nature, and right reason; or public and holy customs.
They sin against this commandment, 1. That make any image or pictures of the Godhead, or fancy any likeness to him. 2. They that use images in their religion, designing or addressing any religious worship to them: for if this thing could be naturally tolerable, yet it is too near an intolerable for a jealous God to suffer. 3. They that deny to worship God with lowly reverence of their bodies, according as the church expresses her reverence to God externally. 4. They that invent or practise superstitious worshippings, invented by man against God's word, or without reason, or besides the public customs or forms of worshipping, either foolishly or ridiculously, without the purpose of order, decency, proportion to a wise or a religious end, in prosecution of some virtue or duty.
III. Comm. Thou shalt not take God's name in vain.
The duties of this commandment are, 1. To honour and revere the most holy name of God. 2. To invocate his name directly, or by consequence, in all solemn and permitted adjurations, or public oaths. 3. To use all things and persons, upon whom his name is called, or any ways imprinted, with a regardful and separate manner of usage, different from common, and far from contempt and scorn. 4. To swear in truth and judgment.
They sin against this commandment, 1. Who swear vainly and customarily, without just cause, without competent authority. 2. They that blaspheme or curse God. 3. They that speak of God without grave cause or solemn occasion. 4. They that forswear themselves; that is, they that do not perform their vows to God; or that swear, or call God to witness to a lie. 5. They that swear rashly, or maliciously,
to commit a sin, or an act of revenge. 6. They that swear by any creature falsely, or any way, but as it relates to God, and consequently invokes his testimony. 7. All curious inquirers into the secrets, and intruders into the mysteries and hidden things of God. 8. They that curse God, or curse a creature by God. 9. They that profane churches, holy utensils, holy persons, holy customs, holy sacraments. 10. They that provoke others to swear voluntarily, and by design, or incuriously, or negligently, when they might avoid it. 11. They that swear to things uncertain and unknown.
IV. Comm. Remember that thou keep holy the Sabbath-day.
The duties of this commandment are, 1. To set apart some portions of our time for the immediate offices of religion, and glorification of God. 2. This is to be done, according as God or his holy church hath appointed. 3. One day in seven is to be set apart. 4. The Christian day is to be subrogated into the place of the Jew's day: the resurrection of Christ and the redemption of man was a greater blessing than to create him. 5. God on that day to be worshipped and acknowledged as our Creator, and as our Saviour. 6. The day to be spent in holy offices, in hearing Divine service, public prayers, frequenting the congregations, hearing the word of God read or expounded, reading good books, meditation, alms, reconciling enmities, remission of burdens and of offences, of debts and of work: friendly offices, neighbourhood, and provoking one another to good works; and to this end all servile works must be omitted, excepting necessary and charitable offices to men or beasts, to ourselves or others.
They sin against this commandment, 1. That do, or compel or entice others to do, servile works without the cases of necessity or charity, to be estimated according to common and prudent accounts. 2. They that refuse or neglect to come to the public assemblies of the church, to hear and assist at the Divine offices entirely. 3. They that spend the day in idleness, forbidden or vain recreations, or the actions of sin and folly. 4. They that buy and sell without the cases of permission. 5. They that travel unnecessary journeys. 6. They that act or assist in contentions or lawsuits, markets, fairs, &c. 7. They that on that day omit their
private devotion, unless the whole day be spent in public. 8. They that, by any cross or contradictory actions against the customs of the church, do purposely desecrate or unhallow and make the day common; as they that, in despite and contempt, fast upon the Lord's day, lest they may celebrate the festival after the manner of the Christians.
V. Comm. Honour thy father and thy mother.
The duties are, 1. To do honour and reverence to, and to love our natural parents. 2. To obey all their domestic commands; for in them the scene of their authority lies. 3. To give them maintenance and support in their needs. 4. To obey kings and all that are in authority. 5. To pay tribute and honours, custom and reverence. 6. To do reverence to the aged and all our betters. 7. To obey our masters, spiritual governors and guides, in those things, which concern their several respective interest and authority.
They sin against this commandment, 1. That despise their parents' age or infirmity. 2. That are ashamed of their poverty and extraction. 3. That publish their vices, errors, and infirmities, to shame them. 4. That refuse and reject all ́or any of their lawful commands. 5. Children that marry without or against their consent, when it may be reasonably obtained. 6. That curse them, from whom they receive so many blessings. 7. That grieve the souls of their parents by not complying in their desires, and observing their circumstances. 8. That hate their persons, that mock them, or use uncomely jestings. 9. That discover their nakedness voluntarily. 10. That murmur against their injunctions, and obey them involuntarily. 11. All rebels against their kings, or the supreme power, where it is legally and justly invested. 12. That refuse to pay tributes and impositions imposed legally. 13. They that disobey their masters, murmur or repine against their commands, abuse or deride their persons, talk rudely, &c. 14. They that curse the king in their heart, or speak evil of the ruler of their people. 15. All that are uncivil and rude towards aged persons, mockers and scorners of them .
g Credebant hoc grande nefas et morte piandum,
Juven. Sat. 13.
VI. Comm. Thou shalt do no murder.
The duties are, 1. To preserve our own lives, the lives of our relatives, and all with whom we converse (or who can need us, and we assist), by prudent, reasonable and wary' defences, advocations, discoveries of snares, &c. 2. To preserve our health, and the integrity of our bodies and minds, and of others. 3. To preserve and follow peace with all
They sin against this commandment, 1. That destroy the life of a man or woman, himself, or any other. 2. That do violence to, or dismember or hurt, any part of the body with evil intent. 3. That fight duels, or commence unjust wars. 4. They that willingly hasten their own or others' death. 5. That by oppression or violence embitter the spirits of any, so as to make their life sad, and their death hasty. 6. They that conceal the dangers of their neighbour, which they can safely discover. 7. They that sow strife and contention among neighbours. 8. They that refuse to rescue or preserve those, whom they can, and are obliged to, preserve. 9. They that procure abortion. 10. They that threaten, or keep men in fears, or hate them.
VII. Comm. Thou shalt not commit adultery.
The duties are, 1. To preserve our bodies in the chastity: of a single life, or of marriage. 2. To keep all the parts of our bodies in the care and severities of chastity; so that we be restrained in our eyes as well as in our feet.
They sin against this commandment. 1. Who are adulterous, incestuous, sodomitical, or commit fornication. 2. They. that commit folly alone, dishonouring their own bodies with softness and wantonness. 3. They that immoderately let loose the reins of their bolder appetite, though within the protection of marriage. 4. They that by wanton gestures, wandering eyes, lascivious dressings, discovery of the nakedness of themselves or others, filthy discourse, high diet, amorous songs, balls and revellings, tempt and betray themselves or others to folly. 5. They that marry a woman divorced for adultery. 6. They that divorce their wives, except for adultery, and marry another.
VIII. Comm. Thou shalt not steal.
The duties are, 1. To give every man his due. 2. To permit every man to enjoy his own goods and estate quietly.
They sin against this commandment, 1. That injure any man's estate by open violence or by secret robbery, by stealth or cozenage, by arts of bargaining or vexatious law-suits. 2. That refuse or neglect to pay their debts, when they are able. 3. That are forward to run into debt knowingly beyond their power, without hopes or purposes of repayment. 4. Oppressors of the poor. 5. That exact usury of necessitous persons, or of any beyond the permissions of equity, as determined by the laws. 6. All sacrilegious persons; people, that rob God of his dues or of his possessions. 7. All that game, viz. at cards and dice, &c. to the prejudice and detriment of other men's estates. 8. They that embase coin and metals, and obtrude them for perfect and natural. 9. That break their promises to the detriment of a third person. 10. They that refuse to stand to their bargains. 11. They that by negligence imbecile other men's estates, spoiling or letting any thing perish, which is entrusted to them. 12. That refuse to restore the pledge.
IX. Comm. Thou shalt not bear false witness.
The duties are, 1. To give testimony to truth, when we are called to it by competent authority. 2. To preserve the good name of our neighbours. 3. To speak well of them, that deserve it.
They sin against this commandment, 1. That speak false things in judgment, accusing their neighbour unjustly, or denying his crime publicly, when they are asked, and can be commanded lawfully to tell it. 2. Flatterers, and 3. Slanderers; 4. Backbiters, and 5. Detractors. 6. They that secretly raise jealousies and suspicion of their neighbours, causelessly.
X. Comm. Thou shalt not covet.
The duties are, 1. To be content with the portion God hath given us. 2. Not to be covetous of other men's goods.
They sin against this commandment, 1. That envy the prosperity of other men. 2. They that desire passionately to