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weak or scrupulous conscience. But if ever the Spirit comforts die—I die ; but the Lord liveth, and blessed of God visit their hearts as a spirit of conviction, and be my rock, and let the God of my salvation be exalted." lead them to see sin in its own intrinsic odiousness, Speaking to me of his poverty, I said to him, “ You, they will feel that it is only the fool who can mock at John, know wbat this means; I know thy poverty, but any sin, however little, and that deliverance from any thou art rich.”—“ Yes,” said he," and it is all through act of that deceitful and ensnaring evil which seduces Him, who, though rich, yet for our sakes became poor, the transgressor from bad to worse, till he fall into ruin, that we, through His poverty, might be rich.” Speaking is, indeed, the cause of thanksgiving to God, through of his prospects, he assumed the language of the apostle, whom we stand. St Augustine, whose youth was “ I know that when the earthly house of this tabernacle spent in ungodliness, but whose age was happily as sig- shall be dissolved, I have a building of God, eternal in nally eminent for Christian character, dwells with fre- the heavens ;” and as if catching the spirit of triumph quent and bitter expressions of penitential sorrow upon from the expression of bis confidence, he proceeded to the very sin for his preservation from which this man give utterance to it in these other words of Paul, “ 0 gave God the praise. If the sin, as committed, sowed death, where is thy sting! O grave, where is thy ricthe seed of such grief and bitter regret, not less, surely, tory !” I asked him if he used this language to express ought preservation from it, as remembered, to be made his own experience, he said, " he did.”._." Like Paul, the cause of gratitude and praise.
then, you must be willing to depart ?”—“ Yes, Sir, to Another instance of the sins of his youth I may men- tell you my mind, I am at this moment more willing to tion, for the sake of shewing how unhappy he was in depart and leave the world, than I was ever willing or sinning. A companion of his being about to leave the anxious about any thing in the world; for, blessed be parish on the Lord's day, he was prevailed on to ac- His name, He has reconciled himself to me as my S3company him into an inn by the way-side to take a part- | viour and my friend, and why should I desire to linger ing glass. He had no sooner yielded to solicitation, here?” This blessed confidence was not the feeling of however, than he was filled with remorse and shame. the moment, strong when death seemed distant, feedle “ I could not look the people in the face whom I met when it drew near. It was the unshaken, and almost going to church, I was so ashamed,” said he, and from uninterrupted state of his mind. One morning when that day to the last hour of his life, he steadily avoided I asked him how he felt, he answered, “ I am wading all such profanation of the Lord's day. It is, alas! but among thorns and briers ; but there is light above, and too evident, that in our day such conduct is not so feared soon shall I see face to face, and shall behold His glory." or shunned by multitudes of both sexes. The suburbs But though he had an hour of conflict, he had not one of our cities are thronged with young people, who spend moment of distrust or terror. Even in the depth of great part of their Sabbaths in the taverns, and who his trouble, he held fast his confidence and hope. Anmeet the returning worshippers unabashed. Alas! their other morning, he said to me, “ I have had a sweet steps take hold on hell. They stand on the brink of a visit from my Lord.” I asked him to explain it, but steep and dangerous descent, and are ready to fall into he said, “ I cannot, it is not lawful for me to utter it. deepest ruin. O that they had more of that tender watch-While he lay in this state of assured confidence and ful conscience which would give them no rest until they joyful hope, the gable of his house fell down, and threw were recovered out of the snare of the devil. O that the family into great consternation. Notwithstanding they had more of that resolved purpose, which would em- of his great nervous debility, he felt no disquiet or alarm. bolden them to say to all who would seduce them to such “We need na fear,” said he to his wife, who was much profanation of the holy Sabbath,—“ Depart from me, ye Aurried by the accident, we need na fear, we are unwicked men, for I will keep the commandments of God.” | der the shadow of the Almighty. - Ye hae strong coll
While it appears from the incidents just mentioned, fidence, John,” said she.“ Na," Mally, said he, “ I hae that this man feared the Lord from his youth, I am a stronger tower.” It is not easy to find, as it appears disposed to think, that his years of trouble, the last to me, a more beautiful specimen of the self-renouncing four years of his earthly life, were the season of his spirit of the Christian than this language manifests
. most signal progress in the life of grace. During this It is as if he had said, don't admire my fortitude ; con time, he was relieved from labour-his sole occupation sider rather who sustains and protects us, and wonde was reading the Scriptures, and storing his mind with rather it is not greater both in you and me. In thi their precious truths; and indeed I have seldom seen a man, state of mind he continued to the end. who might with so much truth have adopted the words of would I be to-day,” said he, on one of the last days o the Psalmist,“ O how love I thy law, it is my medi- his life, “ without Christ. Blessed be He who has re tation all the day.” When he began to speak on this vealed his glorious Gospel to me.” I shall not sov theme, it was as the letting out of water. An allusion forget the last articulate words I heard him speak. O to a Scripture text often gave occasion to the repetition my asking him once again the ground of bis hope i of an entire chapter, with a propriety, and pathos, and unc-eternity, he summoned up his little remaining strenut tion which only a deep experimental sense of its mean- to a last effort, and his voice swelling into animati ing and preciousness could produce. And indeed, there and pathos, which gave a character of sublime and mo was a consistency and a finish about his simple character, melting eloquence to his words, he replied,
** Christ which shewed that the Gospel had come to him not in my hope, I have no righteousness of my own;
bless word only, but in power, and that his whole man was cast be He, for the fountain opened in his blood. On Him into and formed upon its pure and elevating truths. depend for my salvation. Through Him I look for jus
During his last illness, he exhibited a fine instance fication at the Father's judgment-seat. From Him of the triumph of faith over the severities of bodily trust to have a place among the spirits of the just in t pain, and the terrors of approaching death. Though he New Jerusalem, where I shall sing for ever and for ev suffered much, there did not one word of complaining the new song, Worthy is the Lamb that was slain, escape him. On one occasion, his wife said to him, receive honour and blessing, and glory and praise." “ You seem to suffer greatly ;" he replied, “But I suf. On the morning of this day, as his wife informed n fer not from the hand of man; when I suffer much, he had asked the day of the week. On his being to much comfort comes on the back of it, for the hand of it was Friday, he said, Then I hae now but two di my friend in heaven is laid upon me, and straikes (strokes) and little more to suffer, before I shall be at rest." my wounds.” In speaking to me of his losses and af- fell out according to his presentiment. On the eve fictions in his family, he at once appeared to lose sight ing of the Sabbath, John entered into rest. • Mark and feeling of them; and with tremulous, yet triumph-perfect man, and behold the upright, for the end of t ant accens, exclaimed, “ Children die-friends die man is peace.”
- How pou
REMARKS ON ISAIAH, CHAPTER XVIII. phecy has no respect to Egypt, or any of the contiguous The following exposition is taken from the elaborate scription of some people, or another, destined to be
countries. What has been applied to Egypt is a dedissertation of Bishop Horsley, the finest specimen perhraps extant, of profound and sagacious Scripture criti- principal instruments in the hand of Providence, in the ci-m. Instead of the Bishop's own translation of the
great work of the resettlement of the Jews in the Holy chapter, excellent as it is, we prefer giving the authorized
Land; a description of that people, by characters by
which they will be evidently known, when the time version as it stands in our common Bibles, only arranging arrives. Thirdly, the time for the completion of the it in lines, according to the manner of Hebrew poetry: prophecy was very remote, when it was delivered, and In the first verse, we change “ Woe to" into “ Ho!" a change justified in the notes. In the second verse, we
is yet future ; being indeed the season of the Second
Advent of our Lord.” omit the word “ saying,” which our translators have supplied, printing it as usual in italics, to shew that it is not
Ver. 1. “Ho” land.—“Many interpreters render the in the original. In the same verse, as well as in the last exclamation by "Wo to'—But the particle is not necesverse, instead of " a nation meted out,” we say, with sarily comminatory. Sometimes it is an exclamation of Bi-hop Horsley, “ a nation expecting, expecting. And surprise ; and very often it simply calls persons at a in the fourth verse, instead of " I will consider in my distance: and so it is to be taken here.” dweling-place,” we adopt, as more correct, the render- Shadowing with wings.”—“ The shadow of wings ing suzgested by our translators themselves in the mar- is a very usual image in the prophetic language, for gin, “ I will regard my set dwelling-place,” “ I will protection afforded by the stronger to the weak. Gods’ beep my ere upon my prepared habitation. - Horsley. protection of his servants is described by their being safe With these slight variations, we adhere to the text of under the shadow of his wings. And in this passage the authorized version.
the broad shadowing wings may be intended to charac1. Ho! Land shadowing with wings, which art beyond terise some great people who should be famous for the the rivers of Ethiopia,
protection they should give to those whom they received 2. That sendest ambassadors by the sea
into their alliance.” Eren in vessels of bulrushes upon the waters !
Beyond the rivers of Ethiopia."-" The land of Go, ye swift messengers,
Cush in holy writ (commonly rendered Ethiopia) is To a nation scattered and peeled,
properly that district of Arabia where the sons of Cush To a people terrible (or wonderful] from their begin- first settled. But as this race multiplied exceedingly, ning hitherto,
and spread, not only into other parts of Arabia, but A nation expecting, expecting, and trodden down, eastward, round the head of the Persian Gulf, to the Whose land rivers have spoiled.
confines of Susiana ; and westward, across the Arabian 3. All ye inbabitants of the world, and dwellers on the Gulf, into the region since called Abyssinia ; the land earth,
of Cush is often taken more largely. The rivers of See ye, when He lifteth up an ensign on the moun- Cush, in this place, may be either the Euphrates and tains,
the Tigris on the east, or the Nile, and its adjacent And when He bloweth a trumpet, hear ye.
streams on the west. But which of these are meant, 4. For thus the Lord (Jehovah] said unto me,
it must be left for time to shew." " I will take my rest (and yet I will regard my set
*** Ver. 2. “ That sendest ambassadors by the sea."duelling-place)
Messengers in this place, in the English, might be Like a clear heat upon herbs, [or, just before light- better than ambassadors; for the original word may be ring.]
taken for persons employed between nation and nation, Like a cloud of dew in the heat of harvest."
for the purposes either of negotiation or commerce.” 5. For afore the harvest, when the bud is perfect,
“ In vessels of bulrushes.”_" Navigable vessels are And the sour grape is ripening in the flower,
certainly meant; and if it could be proved, that Egypt He shall both cut off the sprigs with pruning-hooks, is the country spoken to, these vessels of bulrushes
And take away and cut down the [useless] branches. might be understood literally of the light skiffs, made 6. They shall be left together unto the fowls of the of that material, and used by the Egyptians upon the mountains
Nile. But if the country spoken to be distant from And to the beasts of the earth;
Egypt, vessels of bulrush are only used as an apt image, And the fowls [birds of prey] shall summer upon on account of their levity, for quick-sailing vessels of
tbem, [it, i. e., God's dwelling-place, v. 4.] any material. The country, therefore, to which the And all the beasts of the earth shall winter upon them. prophet calls, is characterised as one, which in the days 7. In that time shall the present be brought
of the completion of this prophecy, should be a great Into the Lord [Jehovah] of Hosts ;
maritime and commercial power, forming remote alli[The present) of a people scattered and peeled, ances, making distant voyages to all parts of the world Èven of a people terrible from their beginning hitherto, with expedition and security, and in the habit of affordA nation expecting, expecting, and trodden under foot, ing protection to their friends and allies. Where this Whose land rivers have spoiled—[shall be brought] country is to be found is not otherwise said, than that To the place of the name of the Lord of Hosts, it will be remote from Judea, and with respect to that Mount Zion.
country, beyond the Cushean streams." * It has been assumed by most interpreters, 1st, that 'Go, ye swift messengers.”—“ The word ' saying' has the principal matter of this prophecy is a woe, or judg- been inserted in our public translation, and many others ment; 2dly, that the object of this woe is the land of of a late date, upon a supposition that the words which Egypt itself, or some of the contiguous countries ; 3dly, follow, “Go, ye swift messengers,' &c. are a command that the time of the execution of the judgment was at given by the people, called to in the first verse, to ineshand, when the prophecy was delivered.
sengers sent by them. But it should rather seem, that " I set out with considering every one of these as- the command to the swift messengers is the prophet's sumptions as doubtful; and the conclusion, to which command, that is God's command by the prophet; and any investigations bring me, is, that every one of them that the swift messengers to whom the command is is false. First, the prophecy indeed predicts some woe- given, are the very people called upon in the first verse; ful judgment. But the principal matter of the prophecy who by their skill in navigation, and their perpetual voy, is not judgment, but mercy ; a gracious promise of the ages to distant parts were qualified to be swift carriers final restoration of the Israelites, Secondly, the pro- of the message, First, the prophet calls upon this peo,
ple; he summons them to attend to him; then he de- standard of the cross of Christ; the trumpet of the Gospel. clares for what immediate purpose they are summoned, The resort to the standard, the effect of the summons, viz. to be the carriers of a message."
in the end will be universal. A pruning of the vine “ To a nation scattered and peeled.”_" The first shall take place after a long suspension of visible interparticiple, 'scattered,' or dragged away,' may be ap. positions of Providence, just before the season of the plied to a people forcibly torn from their country, and gathering of the fruits. Fowls of prey and wild beasts carried into captivity. And the second, peeled,' or
shall take possession of Jehovah's dwelling-place. But pluckt,' may be applied to a people plundered of at that very season, when the affairs of the church seem their wealth, and stripped of their power, Or, as the ruined and desperate, a sudden reverse shall take place. word is sometimes used for the plucking of the hair of The people to whom the message is sent, shall be conthe beard in contumely, it may be applied figuratively ducted in pomp, as a present to Jehovah, to the place of to a depressed people, treated every where with insult his name, to Mount Zion.” and indignity. Thus both these participles may be more
Ver. 3. “ See ye-hear ye," or, “ shall see—shall naturally applied to the Jews in their present condition, hear.”—“ The prophecy announces a display of God's than to any other nation of any other time.”
power and providence which should be notorious to the “ To a people terrible from their beginning hitherto.”
whole world, and particularly, I think, alludes to a re“• To a people terrible,' &c.—' to wit, the Jews,' says newed preaching of the Gospel with great power and
effect in the latter ages.” the annotator in the English Geneva Bible, 'who, because of God's plagues, made all other nations afraid of
Ver. 4. “For thus the Lord," 8C.-" This verse seems the like ; as God threatened.' The word, if I mistake
to describe a long suspension of the visible interpositions not, is applicable to whatever excites admiration or awe.
of God in the affairs of this world and in favour of his And the people of the Jews have been from their very people; during which, however, his providence is not beginning, are at this day, and will be to the end of asleep; he is all the while regarding his set dwellingtime, a people venerable in a religious sense, awfully re
place-i. e., Zion, directing every thing to the ultimate markable, on account of the special providence visibly prosperity of his people, and to the universal establishattending them.”
ment of true religion.”
“ The Lord takes his rest, like a clear heat upon “ A nation meted out and trodden down,”.“ or literally herbs,” or “a parching heat just before lightning."rendered, according to the ancient translations, “A na
“ The stillness of that awful pause is described under tion expecting, expecting, and trodden down.' Now, the image of that torpid state of the atmosphere in hot are not the Jews, I would ask, in their present state, weather which precedes a thunder-storm, when not a a nation expecting, expecting, and trampled under gleam of sunshine breaks for a moment through the foot ?' still without end expecting their Messiah, who
sullen gloom; not a breath stirs; not a leaf wags; not so many ages since, and everywhere trampled
a blade of grass is shaken; no rippling wave curls under foot, held in subjection, and generally treated with contempt? And is not this likely to be their character derous cloud covering the whole sky seems to hang
upon the sleeping surface of the waters ; the black ponand condition till their conversion shall take place ?"
fixed and motionless as an arch of stone, Nature seems “ Whose land the rivers have spoiled.”—“ • Rivers,' benumbed in all her operations. The vigilance neveri. e. the armies of conquerors, which long since have theless of God's silent providence is represented under spoiled the land of the Jews. The inundation of rivers the image of his keeping his eye, while he thus sits still, is a frequent image in the prophetic style for the ravages upon his prepared habitation. The sudden eruption of of armies of foreign invaders. (Isaiah, viii. 7, 8.) judgment threatened in the next verse, after this total
“ Thus it appears that the description of the people cessation, just before the final call to Jew and Gentile, to whom the swift messengers are sent, agrees most ac- answers to the storms of thunder and lightning which, curately in every particular with the character and con- in the suffocating heats of the latter end of summer, sucdition of the dispersed Jews, a nation dragged away from ceed that perfect stillness and stagnation of the atmosits proper seat, and plucked of its wealth and power; a phere. And as the natural thunder at such seasons is people wonderful, from the beginning to this very time, the welcome harbinger of refreshing and copious showers, for the special providence which ever has attended so it appears the thunder of God's judgments will usher them, and directed their fortunes; a nation still linger- in the long desired season of the consummation of mercy, ing in expectation of the Messiah, who so long since So accurate is the allusion in all its parts." came, and was rejected by them, and now is coming Ver. 5. He shall cut off the sprigs, and take away the again in glory; a nation universally trampled under foot; branches.”- “ These words express not simply sprigs and whose land, ‘rivers,' armies of foreign invaders, the branches, but 'useless shoots,' 'luxuriant branches,' Assyrians, Babylonians, Syromacedonians, Romans, Sa- which bear no fruit, and weaken the plant; and properly racens, and Turks, have overrun and depopulated. such shoots and branches of a vine. A vine, in the pro
“ We have now heard messengers summoned; we phetic language, is an image of the church of God; the branhave heard a command given to them to go swiftly with ches of the vine are the members of the church ; and the the message ; we have heard the people described to useless shoots and unfruitful luxuriant branches are the whom the message was to be carried. It might be ex- insincere nominal members of the church ; and the prunpected we should next hear the message given to the ing of such shoots and branches of the vine is the exci. messengers in precise terms. But in prophecy, the cur- sion of such false hypocritical professors, at least the tain (if the expression may be allowed) is often suddenly separation of them from the church by God's judgdropped upon the action that is going on before it is ments. This verse therefore, and the following, clearly finished, and the subject is continued in a shifted scene, predict a judgment to fall upon the church for its purias it were, of vision. In the present instance, the scene of fication, and the utter destruction of hypocritical promessengers sent upon a message is suddenly closed with fessors of the truth. this second verse, before the messengers set out, before “ The time is fixed in the beginning of this verse, even the message is given to them. But the new ob- For afore the harvest,' &c. This pruning will immejects which are immediately brought in view evidently diately precede the harvest and the ingathering. The represent under the usual emblems of sacred prophecy, season of the harvest and of the gathering of the fruit is other parts of the same entire action, and declare with the prophetic image of that period, when our Lord will the greatest perspicuity the purport, the season, and the send forth his angels to gather his elect from the four effect of the message. An ensign or standard is lifted up winds of heaven ; of that period, when a renewed preachon the mountains ; a trumpet is blown on the hills : the ing of the Gospel shall take place in all parts of the
world, of which the conversion of the Jews will per- | rivers ; far to the east, if of the Tigris and Euphrates. haps be the first effect.
The one or the other they must denote, but which, is Ver. 6. “ They shall be left together,” &c.—" That uncertain. It will be natural to ask, of what imporis, the shoots and branches cut off as unfruitful and use- tance is this circumstance in the character of the counless shall be left.”
try, which, if it be any thing, is a geographical character, “ Summer upon them—winter upon them.”_" The and yet leaves the particular situation so much undeterpronoun of the third person in the original is singular, mined, that we know not in what quarter of the world sit.' The true antecedent of this singular pronoun in to look for the country intended, whether in the East the original is the word, ‘my dwelling-place,' in verse 4; Indies, or in the western parts of Africa or Europe, or which dwelling-place may be understood literally of in America ? I answer, that the full importance of this Mount Zion. It was a prevailing opinion in the primi- circumstance will not appear till the completion of the tive ages that Antichrist's last exploit would be, to fix prophecy shall discover it. But it had, as I conceive, his seat of empire on that holy spot, where he would
a temporary importance at the time of the delivery of ultimately perish.”
the prophecy, namely, that it excluded Egypt. Ver. 7. “ In that time shall the present be brought," “The Jews of Isaiah's time, by a perverse policy, &c_“In that time.'-Immediately after this purgation were upon all occasions courting the alliance of the of the church, at the very time when the bird of prey, Egyptians, in opposition to God's express injunctions with all the beasts of the earth, Antichrist with his rebel by his prophets to the contrary. Isaiah therefore, as if rout, shall have fixed his seat between the seas, in the he would discourage the hope of aid from Egypt at any holy mountain, “a present shall be brought,' &c. the time, tells them that the foreign alliance which God nation, described in verse 2, as those to whom the swift prepares for them in the latter times, is not that of messengers are sent, after their long infidelity, shall be Egypt, which he teaches them at all times to renounce brought as a present unto Jehovah. (Compare chap. and to despise, but that of a country far remote; as livi. 20.) They shall be converted to the acknowledg- every country must be that lies either west of the Nile ment of the truth, and they shall be brought to the place or east of the Tigris.” of the name of Jehovah, to Mount Zion; they shall be settled in peace and prosperity in the land of their ori.
DOGS IN EASTERN CITIES. ginal inheritance.
BY THE Rev. ROBERT JAMIESON, “ This then is the sum of this prophecy, and the substance of the message sent to the people dragged about
Minister of Westruther. and pluckt. That in the latter ages, after a long sus- It is scarcely possible for an European to form an idea pension of the visible interpositions of Providence, God, of the intolerable nuisance occasioned in the villages who all the while regards that dwelling-place, which he and cities of the East, by the multitude of dogs that never will abandon, and is at all times directing the infest the streets. The natives, accustomed from their events of the world to the accomplishment of his own earliest years to the annoyance, come to be regardless purposes of wisdom and mercy, immediately before the of it; but to a stranger these creatures are the greatest final gathering of his elect from the four winds of hea- plague to which he is subjected; for, as they are never
will purify his church by such signal judgments as allowed to enter a house, and do not constitute the shall rouse be attention of the whole world, and in the property of any particular owner, they display none of end strike all nations with religious awe.
those habits of which the domesticated species among riod the ap-)state faction will occupy the Holy Land. us are found susceptible, and are destitute of all those This faction will certainly be an instrument of those social qualities which often render the dog the trusty judgments by which the church will be purified. That and attached friend of man,—the lively companion,purifi'ation therefore is not at all inconsistent with the the faithful guardian, and the favorite on every hearth. seeming prosperity of the affairs of the atheistical con- Instead of the gentle, attractive, and almost rational federuey; but after such duration as God shall see fit to creature he appears to be among us, the race seems allow to the plenitude of its power, the Jews converted wholly to degenerate in the warm regions of the East, to the faith of Christ will be unexpectedly restored to and to approximate to the character of beasts of prey, their ancient possessions.
as in disposition they are ferocious, cunning, blood“ The swift messengers will certainly have a consi-thirsty, and possessed of the most insatiable voracity: derable share as instruments in the hand of God in the and even in their very form, there is something repulrestoration of the chosen people. Otherwise, to what sive; their sharp and savage features; their wolf-like purpose are they called upon (verse 1) to receive their eyes; their long hanging ears; their straight and pointcommission from the prophet ? It will perhaps be some ed tails; their lank and emaciated forms, almost enpart of their business to afford the Jews the assistance tirely without a belly, give them an appearance of and protection of their fleets. This seems to be insinu- wretchedness and degradation, that stands in sad conated in the imagery of the 1st verse. But the principal trast with the general condition and qualities of the sert they will have to act will be that of the carriers of breed in Europe. They are almost wholly outcasts God's message to his people. This character seems to from human habitations ; and, consequently, in Asiatic describe some Christian country, where the prophecies countries, the beautiful traits of canine fidelity and relating to the latter ages will meet with particular at- attachment are altogether unknown. There the hand tention; wbere the literal sense of those which promise of man is seldom extended to offer the stroke or the tbe restoration of the Jewish people will be strenuously morsel of kindness; and the creature that receives or upkeld; and where these will be so successfully ex- snatches it from the unwilling hand, would, in a few pounded as to be the principal means, by God's blessing, hours after, if an opportunity offered, mangle and deof removing the veil from the hearts of the Israelites. vour the corpse of his benefactor without the smallest
“ Those who shall thus be the instruments of this repugnance. These hideous creatures, dreaded by the blessed work, may well be described in the figured lan- people for their ferocity, or avoided by them as useless guage of prophecy as the carriers of God's message to and unclean, are obliged to prowl about everywhere his people. The situation of the country destined to so in search of a precarious subsistence; and, as they have high an office is not otherwise described in the prophecy never been subjected to any discipline, and run generalthan by this circumstance, that it is beyond the rivers ly in bands, their natural ferocity, intiamed by hunger, of Cush :'--that is, far to the west of Judea, if these and the consciousness of strength, makes them the most rivers of Cush are to be understood, as they have been troublesome and dangerous visitors to the stranger generally understood, of the Nile and other Ethiopian | who unexpectedly finds himself in their neighbour
At this pe
hood, as they will not scruple to seize whatever he figurative language the prophet described the indo. may have about him, and even in the event of his fall. lence, unfitness, and rapacity of the prophets and ing, and being otherwise defenceless, to attack and teachers of his corrupt age; the application of his bold devour him. It is chiefly, however, at night, that metaphors may easily be made by help of the statements these prowlers are the most formidable; for even those already given, of the disposition and habits of the dog which lie during the heat of the day, lazy, inactive, in Eastern countries; but he has included one additional and scarcely raising their head to growl at the passenger circumstance that remains to be noticed to complete the who may have chanced to trample on them, run about, description of the Oriental breed. He calls them “dumb whenever the shades begin to fall
, and the inhabitants dogs; they cannot bark ;” and this, too, is in exact acto disappear from the streets, and are so intolerable by cordance with what is found to be the case still; for their perpetual din, and their sudden and furious attacks, travellers, who have attended to this point, inform us, that it is an attempt never made without the greatest that the canine species degenerate so much in hot risk, to walk abroad at night, and without sufficient countries, that in a short time they lose their voice protection. This circumstance, which is frequently and cannot bark, so that they either make a hideous noticed by travellers in the East, may be illustrated by melancholy howl, or, as in some places, become al. an incident described in a very lively manner by the together dumb. These animals, driven by hunger, French traveller Denon. It occurred on the day of greedily devour every thing that comes in their way; his entry into Alexandria, when that city was stormed they glut themselves with the most putrid and loathby the French in the late war, and having omitted to some substances that are thrown about the cities, and take with him some necessary articles of clothing, he of nothing are they so fond as of human flesh ; a repast, had gone for that purpose to his ships, and was return- with which the barbarity of the despotic countries of ing considerably later than he had anticipated to the Asia too frequently supplies them, as the bodies of city, which he found totally deserted; the stillness of criminals slain there for murder, treason, or violence, midnight prevailing, and not a glimmer of light, but are seldom buried, and lie exposed till the mangled what was afforded by the stars and clear atmosphere of fragments are carried off by the dogs. Many travellers the climate. He had not proceeded far, when he was in the East mention their having met with such dismet by a troop of furious dogs, who attacked him from gusting spectacles, and Bruce, in particular, describes the streets, the doors and the low roofs of the houses, the streets of Gondar, the capital of Abyssinia, as with so much ferocity, as almost to deprive him of the strewed with pieces of carcases, and that he was renpower of self-defence. No sooner had he passed the dered miserable at seeing his own hungry dogs, twice territory of these, than he was received by a fresh band let loose through the carelessness of his servants, and of assailants, till at length, molested and wearied almost bringing off the heads and arms of slaughtered men into to death, he thought of taking a circuitous route along the court-yard to eat them at leisure. With these cir. the suburbs of the city, by which, after climbing over cumstances in our knowledge, we cannot be surprised walls, and wading a considerable depth into the river, at those parts of the Sacred History which describe the he came, after the greatest fatigue, about midnight to readiness of the dogs to lick up the blood of the much one of the French sentinels, convinced that dogs are injured Naboth; or at the wretched fate of the royal one of the greatest pests of an Oriental city. Cha- accomplices in this murder ; with one of whom, the teaubriand, speaking of Galata, near Constantinople, atrocious Jezebel, the dogs had been so busy, that when says, that “the almost total want of women, the want the messenger came to bury her corpse, “ they found of wheel-carriages, and the multitude of dogs without no more of her than the skull and the feet, and the masters, were the three distinguishing features of the palms of her hands.” And we are enabled to judge also city;" and Le Bruyn, describing another Eastern city, of the severity of the divine judgment upon the guilty says, great numbers of dogs crowd the streets ; they and impenitent nations of old, when the Almighty do not belong to any one, but either get their food as threatened to visit them, among other terrible scourges, they can, or are supported by the charitable, who give with multitudes of furious and ravenous dogs:-* I money to bakers and butchers to feed them, and even will appoint over them four kinds, saith the Lord; the leave legacies for that purpose.” In ancient times, sword to slay, and the dogs to tear, and the fowls of they seem to have been no less a nuisance than they heaven, and the beasts of the earth, to devour and deare to the modern cities of the East; for we find the stroy." (Jer. xv. 3.)* sacred writers making several allusions to the parti- The unsocial and disgusting propensities which the culars now mentioned regarding the character and dog exhibits, together with the general state in wnich condition of dogs in terms so graphic, and so like what he lives as a wandering outcast, have made him he rean observer of the present day might use, as to convey | garded, in all ages, by the people of the East, with the the impression, that the ancient inhabitants of Palestine greatest aversion and contempt; and hence, one of the witnessed the same spectacles, and were subjected to strongest terms which they can ever employ towards the same molestations, as are found still to exist in all one whom they hold in little or no estimation, is, to the towns and villages throughout the East. Thus, call him a dog. Various examples of this occur in the the Psalmist, (Psalm lix, 14, 15,) “at evening they course of the Sacred History. “Am I a dog,” said the return, and make a noise like a dog, and go round about Philistine champion to David, “ Am I a dog, that thou the city; they wander up and down for meat, and comest to me with staves ?" alluding to the defences grudge if they be not satisfied.” In the 22d psalm, in with which people are obliged to furnish themselves which he gives a prophetical description of the suffer- against the attacks of these furious animals. “ After ings of Messiah, he uses these expressions : “ dogs have whom,” said David, wishing to express his own insigcompassed me; the assembly of the wicked have en- • In a more settled and advanced state of Eastern society, more
attention is paid to the domestication of the dog, and the owners closed me;"_aptly representing, under the image of a
shew him acts of kindness. Thus, in the Gospel history, we read band of ferocious dogs attacking a defenceless pas- of the dogs being fed with the crumbs that fell from their master's senger, the proceedings of the insolent and infuriated table ; a circumstance, which, while it indicates a higher status as
occupied by the dog at that period, is probably to be accounted for multitude, who insisted for the crucifixion of Jesus. by the custom of the ancients not using a linen cover for their To the same features in the character of Eastern dogs, tables : but merely rubbing them with a wet sponge, and after eat
ing, cleansing their hands with the soft parts of the bread, instead allusion is made in the following passage from Isaiah :- of a towel. "So that the crumbs used for this purpose, or dropped “The watchmen of Israel are blind; they are ignorant; by the guests on the table, were reserved as the portion of the dogs.
Perhaps, too, the graphic circumstance introduced into the parablo they are all dumb dogs, they cannot bark, sleeping, of the rich man and Lazarus, of the dogs licking the sores of the lying down, loving to slumber : yea, they are greedy beggar, is to be interpreted rather of the private and well-fed pack dogs, which can never have enough,” Under this
of Dives, than of a ravenous band, whom the feeble arm of the aged and diseased inendicant would have been ill able to keep at bay.