« VorigeDoorgaan »
to above four grown persons. The result of the trial | vanced age many urgent applications were made to him
enter upon the seventieth year of my life, the age of “the things which happened unto me, have fallen out
Whether I shall accomplish this year, I know
not, nor am I much concerned, so that I may live to rather unto the furtherance of the Gospel."
God, and finish my course with joy in his service and After the lapse of nearly a year, Mr Heywood was to his glory. I said to him this day, when prostrate released, and, at the next assizes, his fine was paid. before him, now, Lord, I would welcome my last breath, On bis return home he spent two days in thanksgiving that this poor carcass may never rise, but be carried to to the Almighty for his goodness. During the imprison- the grave, if only my soul may ascend to heaven; but I ment of Mr Heywood in York, Charles II. died, and have arisen in health, and this breath I give to thee, this was succeeded by his brother James. The reign of vice, this soul and all its faculties shall be for thy glory.
body and all its powers and senses shall be for thy serCharles, who was, with too much reason, suspected of I am here to comply with thy mind, to be at thy disbeing favourable to Popery, bad been a memorable pe- posal ; service or suffering, this ensuing year, shall be riod to the nonconformists, and they had little to ex- welcome. Make my heart sound in thy statutes, search pect from a monarch who had ascended the throne, an
me to the bottom, discover to me all the deceit and falavowed Papist. It was a remarkable circumstance,
Leave me not to myself, hold me however, that one of the earliest acts of James, was to
by my right hand, that my soul may still follow hard
after thee. Give me this year seals to my ministry, set proclaim liberty of conscience to all persons of every my soul some steps nearer heaven, and let me have some persuasion. Though the real design of this act of further attainments towards perfection. O that I could toleration was generally understood to be to promote bring forth still more fruit in old age to myself and the growth of Popery, yet the nonconformists who, for others, and in both to God. Help me to arise and denearly twenty-five years, had been treated with so much part, for this is not my rest, that my soul may aspire harshness, hailed the declaration as a gracious boon.
more after my everlasting rest above." Mr Heywood now renewed his labours at Coley, and,
The longest life must at length draw to a close. Mr on the afternoon of every Sabbath, at Halifax. Hitherto Heywood's bodily vigour began sensibly to diminish, his hearers had been in the habit of assembling at his
when no longer able to endure the fatigue of own house, but the number was now so much increased walking to his chapel, though but a short distance from that they required additional accommodation. Various his residence, he was carried to the house of God in his attempts were made to build a chapel, but all of them, chair, where he conducted the services with his accusfrom various circumstances, failed. At length, he un
tomed energy. The subject on which he preached a dertook the work at his own expense.
It is related of series of discourses for several Sabbaths immediately
before his death, was in striking accordance with that him, that when he laid the first stone, he knelt down
solemn event,-“ Nevertheless the foundation of God upon it, and spent a whole hour in giving thanks to God for the liberty now enjoyed, and in praying for the
standeth sure, having this seal, the Lord knoweth them success of present and future endeavours to promote of Christ, depart from iniquity.” No particulars of his
that are his. And, Let every one that nameth the name the cause of the Redeemer. The building was finished
decease are preserved, except that he died in peace, in the course of a few months, and, on a review of what God had enabled him to expend in rearing this sanctuary, May 4, 1702, in the seventy-third year of his age, and he felt that he had no cause to repent it.
fifty-second of his stated ministry. The freedom of worship which the nonconformists enjoyed during the reign of James was very precarious, but,
CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHY. in the course of events, it was placed on a firmer footing.
No, VII. The monarch soon abdicated his throne, which was after
LAWS OF MOTION. wards filled by William and Mary. A short time after
By The Rev. JAMES BRODIE, their establishment on the throne, the renowned toleration act was passed, and the freedom of religious wor
Minister of Monimail. ship was secured to the dissenters by law. This to the Motion is a continued and successive change of place. nonconformists was like life from the dead. Mr Hey. It is performed in space, and requires time. In exawood, though now nearly sixty years of age, felt him-mining its laws, we must consider the quantity of mat
ter that is in motion, the direction in which it tends, self called upon to labour with greater ardour than ever,
and the velocity with which it moves. The velocity is after the many opportunities of usefulness from which sometimes uniform, and sometimes irregular, sometimes he had been so long debarred. Hitherto he had enjoyed accelerated, and sometimes retarded. almost uninterrupted health of body, amid all the trials Force is the term which we apply to the mechanical which he had been called to endure. Now, however, cause which either originates or destroys motion, and he began to feel the infirmities of age, but still persisted receives the distinctive names of accelerating or retardin preaching to his own congregation at home, and ing, regular or irregular, according to the nature of the
motion that it produces. itinerating occasionally to the towns and villages around.
With respect to the different kinds of forces, a very Mr Heywood's high character, both as a Christian strange error has hitherto prevailed. In the words of and a faithful and laborious minister, was well known Professor Robison, (Mech. Phil. vol. I. p. 6,)“ Metbroughout the whole of England, and even at an ad. I chanical actions have been usually classed into two
heads; they are either pressures or impulsions. They | is this very remarkable uniforinity preserved? How is are generally considered as of different kinds, the exer- it, that in the celestial machine no retardation takes tions of different powers. Pressure is supposed to place by the lapse of time, as would be the case in ay diller essentially from impulse." He then proceeds to machine which it would be possible for human power say,
“ Instead of attempting to define or describe these to construct? The answer is, that in the earth's rerotwo kinds of forces and actions, we shall just mention lution on her axis no cause operates to retard the speed, some instances that will give all the knowledge of these like the imperfection of materials, the friction of supdistinctions that we can acquire. To the same effect, ports, the resistance of the ambient mediuin, impeci. in the Library of Useful Knowledge, (No. VI. sec. ments which cannot in any human mechanism, however 23,) it is said, “ The force of gravity, or any other at- perfect, be completely removed. But here we are le traction, differs essentially from an impulse. An im- to ask again, why should the speed continue the same, pulse acts instantaneously, and produces all its effect at when not affected by an extraneous cause? Wy once, and time does not change that effect. On the should it not languish and decay of itself, by the mere other hand, attraction, such as gravitation, requires lapse of time? That it might do so involves no Corte time to produce any effect at all, and the effect pro- tradiction, for it was the common, though erroneous, duced increases exactly in the same ratio as the time of belief of all mechanical speculators to the time of Galiproducing it. And Professor Whewell, (Bridgewater leo. We can conceive velocity to diminish in proceed
Treatise, p. 232,) when he enumerates the laws of mo- ing from a certain point of time, as easily as we can tion, considers it necessary to limit his statements to conceive force to diminish in proceeding from a cerforces “ of the nature of a pressure. Notwithstand- tain point of space, which in attractive forces really or. ing, however, the high authority of the writers, we do Why must the speed of a body, left to itsell, not hesitate to affirm that these distinctions are utterly continue the same, any more than its temperature? absurd. All forces are of the nature of pressures. Hot bodies grow cooler when left to themselves; why Omnipotence alone can act instantaneously. Attrac- should not quick bodies go slower when left to theration and impulse are identically the same in their man- selves? Why must a body describe 1000 feet in the ner of acting; time is essential to both; and all the next second, because it has described 1000 feet in the wonderful effects produced by impulse and percussion, last? Nothing but experience can inform us whetit: inay be calculated (as will afterwards be shewn) by bodies do move according to such a rule. We find it the established and well known laws of accelerated and they do so, for we learn that all diminution of the retarded motion. The laws we are now about to exa- speed which ever takes place, can be traced to extermine, apply to every species of matter, and to every nal causes. Contrary to all that man had guessed, mokind of force; they regulate all the endless variety of tion appears to be of itself endless and unwearied." jnovements that the universe exhibits; and, if rightly (Whewell.) And why is it so? Because thus the considered, illustrate the procedure of Him who is Go-Creator has determined; because by these means he is vernor alike of matter and of mind.
able most fully, and effectually, to promote the hap(?First Law.—A body at rest continues at rest, and a ness of his creatures. If the earth did not contine body in motion continues in motion, with its velocity its daily revolutions unchanged, the alternation of light and direction unchanged, unless it be acted upon by and darkness, of coolness, and warmth, of repose and some external force. That inatter can never put itself activity, would immediately cease, and comfort and life in motion is allowed by all, the want of such a power would soon be destroyed. constituting an essential part of the idea which we In like manner, if the velocity of the earth in its form of it, and universal experience confirms our belief annual course were retarded, it would approach nearer in its truth. We see that a stone, lying on the ground, and nearer to the sun, till it was consumed in his never removes itself from its place, nor does any one blaze; and, on the other hand, if that speed should imagine it ever can. Most people, however, are apt to be accelerated, it would wheel farther and farther 3735 suppose that all matter has a propensity to rest, because from the centre, till it flew off into the voids of space the motion of bodies on the surface of the earth is soon and regions of endless night. stopt, however rapid it may be at first.
But this stop
Second Law.--The quantity of motion produced is page is easily explained, when we consider the gravita- always proportioned to the force applied, and correstion of the body which brings it to the ground, not- ponds to the direction in which it acts.- This law withstanding the impulse that may have been given, requires to be viewed in three different aspects. I. and the resistance offered to it by the air, by which its when the body acted on is previously at rest, the provelocity is retarded every moment till it falls. A bowl position merely afirms, that a double force will gerne moves but a little way upon a bowling green, because rate a double velocity, and a triple force a triple one, the unevenness of the grassy surface soon creates fric- &c. 2. When the body is previously in motion, the sion enough to stop it. But if the green were perfectly velocity which the force communicates, will be aduet level, and perfectly smooth, the bowl would have no- to that which the body had before, if they are in the thing but the air to resist it, and would go a great way same direction; it will be deducted from it, if they are farther; if, then, the air were taken away, and the opposed to each other, and will be combined witi iL, green extended round the earth, it would go on with if they act obliquely. 3. When two or more foress out any resistance, and consequently without any dimi- act on a body at once, the effect produced in any giren nution of its velocity, round and round the globe for time, will be the same as if they acted upon it in
cession for a period equal to the given time. That this The rotation of the earth on its axis affords one of must be true, is evident from a consideration of the the best examples of continued uniform motion. To general law; for if the effect of any force be alar this constant revolution we owe the succession of night proportional to that force, this effect must be the on, and day; and the calculations of astronomers assure us, whether the force act alone, or whether it act condo that there has been no change on it, no increase or di- | ly with others, minution of its velocity, since the first observation was By adopting this mode of stating the effect of pse made. “ Each day, measured by the passages of the bined forces, we get a much more simple mode of ra stars, is so precisely of the same length, that, according solving various problems than has hitherto been obtzs to Laplace's calculations, it is impossible that a differ- ed. Let a line drawn in the direction in which the ence of one-hundredth of a second of time should have force acts, and of a length proportional to the distabil obtained between the length of the day in the earliest to which it would carry the body in a given time, it ages and at the present time. Now, why is this? How present the force. If the forces impressed be untia,
IN 1830 AND 1831.
and, when combined, produce uniform rectilineal mo- operation, by which perfect order is preserved through tion, however numerous, and however varied in their a universe in motion, shew the extent of his contriving direction and degree, by representing them as acting skill. Their universal application to every kind of successively, the point to which the body is carried by force, whether it impel the revolution of the stars, or the last, will be that to which it will be carried, in the move the dust that floats in the sunbeam, proves the given time, by the combined operation of the whole; extent and unity of his government. Their beneficial and a straight line drawn from this point, to that result, in which every movement tends to advance the from which it set out, will be the line in which it comfort of his creatures, evinces the benevolence of
To take the simplest illustration, let us sup- Him who made and governs all. While the fearful pose that only two bodies act on a body, as, for exam
consequences that would follow if they were suspenda ple, when a ship is sailing before the wind, and at the ed or broken, shew the direful fruits that transgression. same time is carried along by a current, if, in any given of his appointments must ever produce. time, the one force carry it a mile to the south, and the other carry it a mile to the east, when these two
STRAY LEAVES FROM THE JOURNAL OF act together, their effect will be the same as if they
A RESIDENCE IN SOUTH AMERICA, acted successively; the distance sailed will be the diagonal of a square, of which each side is a mile, and the vessel's course will be south-east. If there be ever
BY THE REv, David WADDELL. so many forces acting together, the effect may be found
No. II. in the same manner. If the last force bring the body
STATE OF THE SLAVES AT MONTE VIDEO. back to the point of starting no motion will be produced, and the forces will be in equilibrium. When The blacks in Monte Video are very numerous. Most the forces produce curvilinear motions, these motions of them are free, some having purchased their freedom must be considered as formed of a number of small by the earnings of their industry, others having obtained rectilineal ones, each of which may be determined by it by the generosity of their masters. A few of these the rule laid down above.
have acquired considerable property; and all who are When we contemplate the various movements that emancipated appear happy and industrious. Many of occur in creation, and remember that every one must the negroes act as peons, or porters, and are obliged to have proceeded from some proportionate cause, how give a certain number of dollars weekly to their owners, wonderful does the power of Jehovah appear! The wbo permit them to appropriate to themselves whatever flowing of the streams, the swelling of the waves and they may earn beyond the stipulated sum. With this the tide, the breath of the zephyr, the fury of the overplus, not a few have succeeded in purchasing their hurricane, and every motion that takes place on the freedom. And it is a singular fact, that, so soon as they earth, originate in his appointment, and are guided by have thus obtained their own release, they immediately his might. “ He makes a weight for the winds, and begin to buy slaves for themselves; and many of them he weigheth the waters by measure.” “ He shuts up bave a considerable number in their possession. They the sea with doors, and saith, hitherto shalt thou come are also very generally employed as domestic servants, but no further, and here shall thy proud waves be and, when kindly treated, they usually prove honest, staved."
faithful, and attached to their master and his family. These proofs of the Creator's energy are open to
As this was the first time I had ever come into conevery eye, and leave the atheist without excuse ; but, tact with human beings in a state of slavery, I was in the discoveries of modern science, we find manifes- anxious to ascertain something of its real character; and, tations of power far more amazing. The earth itself as I had not been aware that the Spaniards generally is in motion. It forms a vast globe, eight thousand treat their slaves with greater mildness than any other miles in diameter ; its surface contains two hundred nation, I was agreeably surprised to find that slavery millions of square miles; when compared to its mass, presented here a less repulsive aspect, than I had been the loftiest mountain is but as a grain of sand; yet led to expect. I observed enough, however, I confess, this immense body is in constant motion, and that mo- to confirm my previous abhorrence of the system, and tion is inconceivably rapid.
Unconscious of its pro- to satisfy me of its tendency to degrade and brutalize gress, we naturally imagine that it is at rest, that the the human mind. Though in general treated with habitations in which we dwell, and the ground on much kindness by the Spanish Creoles, they appear sulwhich we tread, are standing still, while, in fact, we len, sulky, and unhappy. Unlike their emancipated are flying through space with a speed a thousand times brethren, who bear the erect and manly port of freemen, more rapid than the flight of the swiftest bird, for the they sneak along the streets, like an inferior race of ascertained rate of the earth's progress round the sun beings; and, on meeting a white man, they will lift is nearly 70,000 miles in the hour. Nor is the earth their hats and make their obeisance to him, as to some alone in motion ; the other planets, and their attend- superior intelligence; nay, they have been known ant moons, emulate its speed. All these bodies, too, sometimes even to kneel before a white man, and implore and the sun himself, are rapidly wheeling around their his blessing. axis. Nay, the vast extent of the solar system seems They are generally accused of ingratitude, and it is but a fragment of a mighty whole, of which every part alleged that no degree of kindness can excite any coris moving too. And by whom are all these motions responding feeling in their breasts, and that the more leni. regulated and sustained ? By Him who, even in his ently they are treated, the more sullen and perverse they day of humiliation, could rebuke the tempest, and make become. This idea, which has, I presume, given rise its swelling cease, and who is now exalted King of to the unnatural and cruel maxim, that a harsh and riKings and Lord over all. And yet men reject his offer- gorous discipline is necessarily adapted to the negro ed friendship, and will not depend on bis care; they character, may be perfectly true. It is strange, howtrust to their own righteousness and strength rather ever, that this, which is but the natural consequence of than to the arm of the Redeemer, and are more afraid slavery, should be adduced as a reason for perpetuating of the displeasure of their fellow-mortals, than of the the horrors of such a system. That these poor degraded wrath of creation's King !
creatures should sometimes betray a spirit of restiveness No part of the works of nature is better calculated and perversity, is not at all wonderful. When they for shewing forth the character of God, and the me- look around them and see their fellow-men basking in chod of his procedure, than the laws of motion. Their the sunshine, and rioting in all the luxuries of liberty, extreme, yet beautiful simplicity, and their harmonious having their time and their persons at their own dis
posal, and then perceive themselves, though partaking back, I happened to meet a British resident, and asked of the same nature, and entitled to the same rights, him who the sufferer was, and what he had done He doomed to perpetual bondage, and subjected to the informed me, with great coolness, that “ he was only a caprice of a fellow-creature, who regards them in the slave, who had got drunk, and that his employer having same estimation as the horse that he rides, or the ox been insulted by him, had sent out a young man to kill that drags his car; is it surprising that the negro should him.” On further inquiring if the public authorities refuse to kiss his chains, and bless the hands that fast- would investigate the affair, he replied, with a seng ened them?
froid worthy of the meanest burgess of a slave city
, They are accused of ingratitude forsooth; and what are • 0, the doctors will examine his wounds—that's all." the mighty favours for which their gratitude is claimed ? I shrunk from my heartless countryman, with almost as Are they to be grateful to the man who tore them from much horror as I had done from the bapless object of the bosom of their country and homes, who has robbed my inquiries; and hastening home, I soon found myseli them of their birthright, who has rivetted their fetters, alone, sighing and weeping over the miseries of fallen holds them in hopeless thraldom, and, ranking them humanity in an unchristianized state, and recalling, with with the lower creation, seeks to obtain their affections, fond remembrance, the sweet charities, the soothing only from the same motive that induces him to treat sympathies, the calm and peaceful scenes of my own, gently and mercifully his favourite horse ? It is not my native land,—the happy land of liberty, and pure consistent with the principles of reason, much less with religion. the feelings of human nature, for a rational being to be Such is the estimation in which the life of the poor grateful or contented in a state of bondage. And it is negro is held at Monte Video. And many a fell deed, invariably found, that the nearer the state of the ne- like the foregoing, is perpetrared there. The poor ungro's mind approximates to that of contentment, the fortunate beings have, no doubt, their faults; but who more degraded and brutalized has his intellect become. is chiefly to blame? Is it the uneducated and hard
They are, besides, accused of idleness and dishonesty. tasked slave? or is it his iron-hearted master, whose But do not these evils, also, naturally arise from the treasures are amassed by the sweat of the negro's brow? enslaved condition in which they are held ? Perceiving, They received no education in their youth, and no opas they do, that all their earnings go to fill the coffers, portunity is ever allowed to them of obtaining religious and pamper the avarice of their owners, who have no instruction. The day of holy rest never comes to themi, just claim or natural right to them; and aware that to solace and sanctify, with its benign influences and they themselves have been stolen from their native heavenly consolations, their weary and toil-worn spirits. country, and robbed of all that is dearest to the human They grow up like the wild ass's colt, and no more care heart; is it surprising that these unfortunate victims or attention is given to the formation of their minds are. of rapacity should manifest some reluctance to labour, virtuous habits, than is paid to the training of the'r or a disposition to plunder their oppressor ?
master's dog or his horse. In Monte Video, however, as in some other places, I had almost forgotten to mention, however, that the the poor negroes are not always treated with gentleness poor neglected negroes have one “ bright sunny spot, and lenity. Here, too, their backs often smart under which, when unshaded by counterpoising sorrow's, faintthe lash of their masters, and the most trivial delin- ly glitters in the waste of their wretched existence, like quency is not unfrequently atoned for by the blood of the fresh and fair oasis in the wilderness. They are the ofender. In a land where the breath of life is of- permitted to employ the evenings of Sundays and feast ten, for the acquisition of a trifle, extinguished by the days as they please; but, unfortunately, in their işthohand of violence; and where the assassin roves un- rance, they devote them uniformly to music and dancing punished, hardly heedful of his concealment, it is not On these evenings, they assemble in groups around the to be expected that any great restraint can be laid upon walls of the town, and dance to the wild airs of their the evil passions of the negro task-master. Occasion native country. ally, therefore, crimes of the deepest dye are committed,
“ Such have I heard in Scottish land and not much regarded where a negro is the victim.
Rise from the busy harvest band, This statement is strikingly illustrated by an occur
On Lowland plains, the ripen'd ear. rence which came under my own observation. A few
Now one shrill voice the notes prolong, days after my arrival, I noticed from my window a man
Now a wild chorus swells the song;
ont have I listen'd, and stood still, of European extraction, pursuing along the street, with
As it came soften'd up the hill, a drawn sword, a man of colour brandishing a large knife in his hand; and, having overtaken him within
Who languish'd for their native glen ;
And thought how sad would be such sound thirty yards of the house in which I resided, he as
On Susquehanna's swampy ground, saulted him with the most brutal ferocity, and broke
Kentucky's wood-encumbered brake,
Or wild Ontario's boundless lake, his arm, when the poor unfortunate, dropping the
Where heartsick exiles, in the strain, bootless weapon, tled into the next street, with his
Recall'd their native hills again. erin dangling at his side, and his adversary pursuing at The negroes are passionately enchanted with their his heels, to strike a deadlier blow. They were then native music; and, on such occasions, if wild screamconcealed from my view, and I escaped the horror of ing, odd grimaces, comical attitudes, and fantastic F. witnessing the shocking scene that was enacted. The rations, be indicative of happiness, they then reach the assu sin, however, soon returned, and, with a grin of acme of human felicity. malignant satisfaction, described to those around him The revolution in the government, however, he the manner in which he had despatched his victim. I opened a prospect of better and brighter days to the felt inexpressibly shockel; and, as I could not rest till black population in Monte Video. By the new coco I had ascertained what the ruthan had actually done, I stitution, all distinctions of caste and colour have been went out, a few minutes after, to the spot where I saw abolished; and by one of its articles it is ordained, thr: the blood first spilt; and, following the purple track till no slave shall in future be brought into the country, I reached the adjoining street, I perceived a small group and that henceforth all children born of slaves shall me of negroes carrying a box, over which hovered an im- free, and provided for by the owners of their parens, mense multitude of flies, forming a cloud so dense, as, till they be fifteen years of age. The evils of slaves at a little distance, to prove quite impenetrable to the will now, therefore, gradually disappear ; and there 3 eye. In the box lay, "ghastly and ghostly,” the wretched some reason to hope, that the day is not far disa, object of my anxiety, weltering in his blood, and groan- when no vestige of this horrible system of inhuman ing bis last. I shuddered at the sight; and, turning will exist throughout the Banda Oriental, except the
When falls before the mountaineer,
And deem'd it the lament of men
sable hue of “ tropic cheeks suffused with the sun. I gods and Ashtaroth from anong you ; and preborn blood" of their enslaved fathers. And, since all
pare your hearts unto the Lord, and serve him distinction of rank and colour is now done away, we may indulge the pleasing hope, that the time will come
only, and he will deliver you out of the hand of when even the dark visage of the negro shall no long- the Philistines.” The exhortation was obeyed. er be deemed a mark of degradation.
“ Then the children of Israel (ver. 4.) did put away In conclusion, let us express our ardent wish, that Baalim and Ashtaroth, and served the Lord only. every Christian may offer up his humble prayer, that it | And Samuel said, Gather all Israel to Mizpeh, may please the Almighty, in his own inscrutable ways, and I will pray for you unto the Lord. And they to enlighten those lands of spiritual darkness with the glad tidings of the Gospel of Jesus ; and that, whilst the gathered together to Mizpeh, and drew water, and negroes are in the course of being emancipated from poured it out before the Lord, and fasted on that slavery at the hand of man, he who judgeth the cause day, and said there, We have sinned against the of the oppressed may so overrule this event, that, in Lord. And Samuel judged the children of Israel all those distant countries, the worse and more awful in Mizpeh.” It is generally understood, that the bondage of sin and death may also be abolished, and libations of water, on such occasions, were intendour heathen fellow-men delivered from the slavery of ed to be emblematical of the penitent effusions of Satan, and blessed with that liberty “ where with Christ hath made his people free.”
a soul smitten with shame and sorrow for sin. “I
am poured out like water, says the Psalmist. DISCOURSE.
“ Pour out your hearts before him,” is the ex
hortation given to all the repentant Israel of God. BY THE Rev. JOHN SMYTH, D.D.,
After these solemn and necessary preparations for Minister of St. George's Parish, Glasgow. the battle, “ the children of Israel implored Sa“ Then Samuel took a stone, and set it between Miz-muel that he would not cease to cry unto the Lord
peh and Shen, and called the name of it Eben- | their God for them, that he would save them out ezer, saying, Hitherto hath the Lord helped us.”— of the hands of the Philistines.” The prophet, 1 Sam. vii. 12.
accordingly, presented a lamb for a whole burntAvong the many distinguished men whom the offering : and cried unto the Lord for Israel ; Almighty raised up, and qualified to instruct and and the Lord heard him. And as Samuel was ofdeliver his people, Samuel holds a conspicuous fering up the burnt-offering, the Philistines drew place. The sins of the nation had marked them near to battle against Israel : but the Lord thunout for the infliction of punitive justice. The dered with a great thunder on that day upon the Philistines had prevailed against them, and slain Philistines, and discomfited them; and they were more than thirty thousand in battle. Hophni smitten before Israel. And the men of Israel went and Phinehas, Eli's apostate sons, who had been out of Mizpeh, and pursued the Philistines, and instrumental in the increase of wickedness among smote them, until they came under Beth-car. Then their brethren, perished by the hand of their ene- Samuel took a stone, and set it between Mizpeh mies. The ark of God was seized and carried in- and Shen, and called the name of it Eben-ezer, to the camp of the Philistines, and the prophets saying, Hitherto hath the Lord helped us." of Israel were thus enveloped in thick darkness. From this brief outline of the particulars conBut deliverance was at hand. The Lord remembered nected with the text, it is plain that Samuel inhis covenant, and interposed for the salvation of tended to perpetuate the remembrance of those the seed of Abraham his friend. The men of mercies which he and his countrymen had received Bethshemesh were signally punished, because of from the hand of God. The commemoration was their irreverent treatment of the ark of testimony. preceded by a train of arrangements which evinced That sacred symbol of Jehovah's special presence the simplicity and godly sincerity of his spirit, was restored ; for we read in the beginning of this and the value which he attached to the intervenchapter, that “the men of Kirjath-jearim came, tions of the Supreme hand. He deemed it no light and fetched
up the ark of the Lord, and brought matter to approach unto God, but was careful to it into the house of Abinadab in the hill, and sanc- seek both for bimself and the people that preparatified Eleazar his son to keep the ark of the Lord. tion of the heart which ought to characterize all And it came to pass, while the ark abode in Kir- our religious services. And, in like manner, the jath-jearim, that the time was long; for it was memorial which he raised expressed the depth and twenty years : and all the house of Israel lamented intenseness of a grateful heart, dwelling on the after the Lord.” The people had been brought to unmerited mercy of its God. Nothing, you oba deep sense of their sinfulness before Him who is serve, is ascribed to the creature; no part of Isof purer eyes than that he can behold iniquity. rael's deliverance is attributed to the agency of seEven the men of Bethshemesh exclaimed, “Who condary causes, although these are mentioned as is able to stand before this holy Lord God!” subservient to its accomplishment. But the Lord
How impressively is it said in Scripture, “when of Hosts alone is exalted as the Saviour of his he slew them, then they songht him, and inquired people. “ Hitherto hath the Lord helped us, early after God!” The season of conviction and was the memorable inscription engraven on that penitent acknowledgment was improved by Samuel stone, which attested the thankfulness of the true for holy purposes. “He spoke unto all the house Israelite. And we may justly conclude, that it of Israel, saying, if ye do return unto the Lord continued to be regarded hy all who, like Samuel, with all your hearts, then put away the strange exercised genuine faith towards God, as express