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the Scriptures themselves, through and through, ON THE BEST METHODS OF STUDYING SCRIPTURE TRUTH.
we are necessarily brought into contact with those
things which our preconceived opinions or desires BY THE Rev. CHARLES J. Brown,
might be apt to make us jealous of ; while those Minister of Anderston Parish, Glasgow.
texts which, when partially extracted, or rent THERE are two principal methods of searching asunder from their connection with the context the Will of God, as made known in the Scriptures, and other Scriptures, may have seemed to justify The one is the careful and devout perusal of the our errors, when carefully and devoutly read as clifferent chapters and books of Scripture, availing they lie in their different chapters, will easily be ourselves of such aids as we may happen to have seen to warrant and require a different interpretaaccess to, for the removing of difficulties, discover- tion. We notice only another advantage of studying the exact sense, opening up the connection of ing the divine will in the very form and shape in the different verses, and suggesting the practical which it lies in the Scriptures. It is thus presentuses to which the whole is applicable. The other, ed in a peculiarly attractive and interesting light, is that of drawing forth from Scripture its grand because accompanied by an endless variety of incileading heads of doctrine and duty, in an order dent and illustration. Instead of having the difmore or less regular and systematic, observing and ferent matters set before us in the dry and abstract examining them, and thus endeavouring to ascer- form of a system, they are associated, at every tain distinctly their nature, the Scripture evidence point, with events of the most rivetting interest, and authority on which they rest, the place which imparting to them an air of perpetual freshness they severally hold in the entire system of divine and beauty. What an attractive loveliness, for truth, the light which they are capable of receiv- example, does the history of the Redeemer's life ing from different quarters, and the grand uses to throw around the various doctrines which lie which God designs them to be applied.
taught, and duties which he enjoined and exemOn a very slight reflection upon these different plified! There can be no doubt, accordingly, that methods, it will be found that each of them has one of the grand designs of Infinite Wisdom, in advantages peculiar to itself. By the former, the giving to the Scriptures their present forin, was method of studying divine truth in the very form just that men might be drawn to the study of and shape in which it lies in the Scriptures, the them, by that delightful variety of incident and inquirer puts peculiar honour upon the Word of illustration with which they every where abound. God. Instead of satisfying himself with a selec- On the other hand, however, it is equally clear, tion of those particulars which appear of special that there are defects connected with this first importance, he marks his reverential sense of its method of inquiry, which the second, that of studlyentire excellence, by perusing in succession its ing the divine will systematically, or according to various portions, endeavouring to arrive at their the intrinsic and natural connection of its different genuine scope and import, and accommodating parts, can alone supply. While there is nothing himself to that particular form in which it has in Scripture, strictly speaking, unimportant, there seemed meet to the wisdom of God to deliver His are yet evidently certain matters, which occupy will to men in the Sacred Volume. Hence arises the place of heads or leading divisions, standing another important advantage of this method. It to each other in a certain fixed order, and each provides one of the best securities against error. embracing under it a variety of subordinate parti
For, in selecting from Scripture those matters culars, which can be fully understood, and their which are leading and principal, there is much real use and value ascertained, only when viewed room for the operation of prejudice ; and unless in their connection with it. Such are the various very carefully upon our guard, we shall be exceed attributes of Deity, the doctrine of the Trinity, ingly apt to frame our system, rather on the model the divine decrees, the original state of innocence, of our own preconceived opinions, than of God's the covenant of works, the fall and its conserevealed will. But when we carefully examine quences, the covenant of grace, the person and work of the Mediator, the person and office of vidence of God, we are favoured, and which dethe Spirit, and so on. Unless, in our reading of serves to be specially noticed. We refer to the Scripture, we keep in view some such classifica- weekly ministrations of the pulpit, and with more tion of leading topics, and by a distinct and sepa- especial reference to the practice observed generate consideration of them, familiarise our minds rally by ministers of the Presbyterian Church, of with their nature, evidence, and practical bearings, dividing their discourses into two principal kinds, the our reading will be altogether confused and next lecture and the sermon. Observing the peculiar to useless. All things will seem as if jumbled object of each of these, it will be found that the together in a heap; nor shall we be able to see in one is more immediately connected with the one the divine will a beginning, a middle, or an end. method of inquiry, and the other with the other. It will be as if, when invited to survey some ex- It is the peculiar and characteristic business of the tensive and splendid edifice, instead of fixing our lecture, to lay open the sense of some considereye first and chiefly on the grand outlines, and able portion of the Word of God, not dwelling at thence proceeding to inspect the minuter parts, large on any single topic, but rather showing the we should begin with the latter, and, examining import, scope, and connection of the various parts them one by one, depart as ignorant as we came, of the passage, with the practical uses of the of the real structure, magnificence, and uses of whole. The characteristic design of the sermon, the building. There are very many things in again, is not so much to expound Scripture as, Scripture which, from their occupying only a de- taking up some one principal head in doctrine or pendent and subordinate place, it is sufficient to in duty, fully to open it up in its nature, evidence, read with care as they occur in the different por- illustrations, and practical bearings. It will thus tions which come before us from time to time. be further apparent, how the lecture and the serNot so with the grand outlines and leading heads mon, like the two corresponding methods of inof Scripture truth. These must be not only quiry into the divine will, have their respective glanced at, but carefully studied; drawn forth advantages and defects, the defects of the one from the particular connection in which they hap- being supplied by the advantages of the other. pen to stand in different passages, and examined | The lecture, on the one hand, puts a peculiar buin their nature, their various proofs, the relations nour upon the Word of God, and, if rightly filathey stand in to each other, and to the entire sys- naged, tends powerfully to raise the inspired retem of divine truth, and their practical bearings cord to its due place in the hearer's esteem ani on human conduct and human happiness. veneration. It further provides an admirable se
Having thus adverted to the two principal me- curity against error ; since the verses are viewe! thods of studying the revealed will of God, in their connection, and the lecturer, by goin pointing out the chief advantages and defects pe- through a complete book, as is usually done, is culiar to each, and leaving it to be inferred that preserved from all partial selection of topics, obneither can with safety be used to the neglect of liged to take up whatever subject happens to come the other, let us add that, in following out these in his course, and thus is trained to a spirit of methods, there are certain aids appropriate to careful and laborious, and, at the same time, free, each, which it is of much importance for us and fearless, and candid inquiry. In one wor', thankfully and diligently to avail ourselves of the lecture has this mighty advantage over thIn pursuing the first method, we cannot fail to sermon, that the various topics are presented, : : find such approved commentaries as those of in a naked, abstract form, but with all the bene.in Henry, Scott, and Brown, of the greatest use in of the surrounding scenery, so to speak, of Scrip. the removing of difficulties, throwing light on pe- ture incident and illustration, so that an air culiarities connected with climate, manners, cus- agreeable freshness comes to be imparted even t. toms, and language, opening up the connection of the most common and familiar subjects. On ti. the various parts, and suggesting the practical other hand, however, the very advantages of the uses to which they are applicable. Then, in fol- lecture are closely allied to its characteristic delowing out the other method,—that is, selecting fects. The lecture, it will be remarked, dues D the leading points of doctrine and duty, and view- thoroughly investigate any one topic. Much 1. ing them, not as they lie scattered up and down its peculiar interest just springs from this, it over the Sacred Volume, but in their own nature glancing at many, it does not dwell at much lens and mutual connection and dependence, we may on any one. But then the edification of the employ, with vast advantage, such admirable forms Church imperatively demands, that we not mert. of sound words, as the Westminster Confession glance at the grand subjects of Christian doctri: of Faith, and the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, and duty, but, even at the risk of offending where we have the leading heads of doctrine and scrupulous taste, and seeming to grow comm... duty selected to our hand, expressed in brief and place, again and again set these forth fully and dir appropriate and perspicuous terms, thoroughly ar- tinctly, in their nature, their grounds and enranged, and formed into one entire system, and dences, and their various practical application: accompanied by specimens of the Scripture au- And this is the characteristic object of the stia thority on which the various statements are built. mon as distinguished from the lecture. We shanno
But there is another aid common to both the only further add, that the sermon has this impurimethods of inquiry, with which, in the good pro- I ant advantage over the best standards, that a
gives room for a variety of illustration and ampli- | vow which he accordingly performed, with the earnest fication which they, of course, do not admit of; desire of winning souls to the Redeemer. and that it is, moreover, within the reach of those The first situation in which Mr Heywood settled as whose occupations during the week may leave minister was at Coley Chapel, in the parish of Halifax. them but little leisure, either for the perusal of After he had preached for two years among the people, commentaries, or the careful examination of cate- with an evident blessing from the Almighty, he was at chisms.
length ordained as their pastor according to the Presbyterian form. Not long after he had commenced his
labours among the people of Coley, he was seized with BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF
a fever so severe that his life was despaired of. The THE REV. OLIVER HEYWOOD, A.B. state of his mind under affliction he thus beautifully This eminent nonconformnist divine was born, March describes :1629, in Little Lever, in the parish of Bolton. His
“How is it with thee now, O my soul, when the parents were pious and respectable ; and accordingly What sayest thou, trembling inhabitant, when thy house
casket that keeps this precious jewel is so cracked ? he, along with his eight brothers and sisters, were train- begins to fail, and the foundations of this tabernacle of ed up in the fear of the Lord. But, however judi- clay are felt to totter ? Art thou troubled ? Thy head ciously conducted, early education is not always suffi- was sick through a blind and perverse understanding, cient to restrain the wicked propensities of the human and thy heart faint through weakness in grace and heart ; and in the case of Oliver Heywood, the truth strength of sinning; now thy head doth acbe with pain, of this remark was strikingly exemplified. He himself and thy heart is sick with a grievous distemper. God bears testimony to the way wardness and improper con
will retaliate with a judgment suitable to the offence. duct of his youthful years.
Acknowledge the justice of awarding suffering accord
ing to thy sin, and admire God's goodness that it is not “ When,” says he, "one of my sisters found fault more severe ; praise him for his gentleness and pity ; with me for profane swearing, I replied, 'I had not improve this blessed opportunity to get thy heart nearer sworn so much as a neighbour's child with whom I used heaven and further from the world; long for thy house to play;' so foolish was 1, and ignorant. How fond was from above, and wait for it till it come, and watch over I of trifles! how backward to good exercises ! how for- thy heart. The alarm is sounded, the signal is given, ward to sinful practices ! how easily led to follow bad therefore lay down thy weapons, surrender thyself as examples ! I may say, childhood and youth are vani- the Lord's prisoner, he will not harm, but deliver thee. ty ;' yea, next akin to brutish stupidity and atheistical is not a happy deliverance better than a cruel slavery? blasphemy. When I was a child, I spake as a child;' Fear not God's call, it is but to bring thee to bimself, yea, rather like a devil incarnate. the desperate and canst thou be in an evil place when in God's prewickedness of my deceitful heart!”
sence, who is the perfection of happiness ? But stay, At length it pleased God to awaken his mind to a he comes not yet, thy time is not yet expired, thy sun sense of the importance of religion, and to call him ef- is not yet set; knowest thou that ? Granted; but will
it therefore follow that he will not come at all ? Will fectually " out of darkness into God's marvellous light.
it be any disadvantage to thee to be ready long before The instructions of his affectionate parents were not
death come? Surely not, but the contrary. What comlost upon him, but, by the divine blessing, they proved fort will redound to thee thereby, and what glory to the means of preserving him from the destruction into God!” which he was but too obviously rushing. To bis A short time after his restoration to health, he marmother he seems to have been more especially in- ried Miss Elizabeth Angier, daughter of a pious and able debted for the knowledge of divine things which he minister, whom Mr Heywood highly esteemed. For acquired in youth, and this he readily owned in after several years after this happy union, the sunshine of life. “ I may say,” to quote his words, “ I owe much prosperity seemed to gild his path. He was beloved by to her, as the instrument under God, of that saving his people, and in the full enjoyment of every domestic good I at first received; and I hope I shall never comfort. But uninterrupted happiness is not allotted forget the instructions of a mother,” lle early show- to mortals in this world. The truth of this remark, ed an inclination to prepare for the important and the faithful minister of Coley Chapel was doomed at highly responsible office of a minister of the Gospel. length to feel. Besides the death of his affectionate In his eighteenth year, accordingly, he was sent to mother, a few days after the birth of his second son Cambridge, where, besides prosecuting his studies with Eliezer, disturbances arose in his congregation, which diligence and success, he enjoyed the opportunity of rendered him very uneasy. The cause of this dissatisattending the faithful ministry of the celebrated Dr faction with Mr Heywood was an attempt, which he Hammond. The ministrations of this distinguished successfully made, to restore the celebration of the divine were much blessed to him, as well as to many Lord's Supper, which had been long neglected among other students at the same time. Several of these his people. Above one hundred and twenty persons pious young men were in the habit of meeting together applied on that solemn occasion, the greater number of frequently for prayer and mutual edification.
whom were admitted to the sealing ordinance. Some Mr Heywood was desirous to obtain a scholarship, persons, of improper character, intended to disturb the with the view of contributing towards his own support congregation during the service, but they were so struck at College ; and in all probability he would have ob- with the morning sermon that their courage failed. tained it, had he not been arrested in his studies by a Though foiled in this attempt, however, by the oversevere fever, which reduced him so low that he was powering influence of the Word of God, these enemies not expected to live. In bis sickness he solemnly vow- of the truth endeavoured, by the most malicious ined to the Lord, that if his life should be spared, he sinuations and calumnious assertions, to weaken the would dedicate it to the service of the sanctuary hands of their devoted pastor. And it was a source of
peculiar distress to him, that some who were most vio- | joy, however, was soon turned into weeping, for the lently opposed to him, were those to whom he had child born amid these troubles, died in the course of hoped his ministry had been useful. His reflections on three weeks from his birth. The mind of Mr He;the occasion show how deeply his mind was affected. wool, naturally ardent and affectionate, felt the buis
, “If God be with me, why doth all this evil come up- reavement deeply, and his distress was greatly agyraon me? If God be for me, why are men against me? vated by the harsh treatment to which his fidelity, in Hath not God said, that if a man's ways please the the exercise of Church discipline, now subjected him. Lord, he maketh even his enemies to be at peace with
The unchristian and outrageous conduct of his perse. him? Surely something inust be amiss, else God would not thus have permitted the devil and his agents to
cutors would exceed belief, were they not recorded in come in upon us. Have we not miscarried in the busi- his own words. ness; in matter, manner, or end ? Is not this a pun
“ At this time,” he says, men triumphed over us ishment ? Certainly there is cause for deep humiliation
with intolerable pride, threatened sequestration, shot on our part ; though the work was God's, the defects off a pistol under our window, and had once almost were ours; what is good was from heaven, and what driven me from my dear people. Once, indeed, I had was evil from ourselves. O my soul, never till now
resolved to go within a day or two, but being better didst thou feel the vigorous opposition of the prince of advised, I thought it best to abide the trial; for I knew darkness, especially in such open hostility, opposing the I was not guilty, no, not in the breach of their own power of godliness! He has been accustomed to come
law. Little, ali ! little did I think, that persons wlon under a visor, but now he comes in his own colours, God hath made instruments of my trouble would have and with mighty force strikes at the heart of religion.” proved so. A military gentleman in the neighbouriood, In addition to the troubles connected with his con
to whom my heart was much endeared as a Christian
friend, and who had expressed the like affection for tne, gregation, Mr Heywood became involved in the national commotions of the period. He was conscien
sent for me, and in private discourse obtained a full dis.
covery of my opinion about state concerns, and, wia tiously opposed to the arbitrary measures of Cromwell, some misinterpretations, divulged the same among the and earnestly desired the restoration of monarchy. soldiers and in a public meeting at the chapel. Others The disaffected in his congregation taking advantage of were sent on purpose to tempt me to speak, and cated me his sentiments, endeavoured to find an opportunity of in my words, whom I formerly judged as genuine iriends bringing upon him the hostility of the then existing These strictly marked me, and without my observativi
wrote down what might be thought an accusation again? government. An opportunity soon presented itself of
Some suspected me of having held correspondentes effecting their malicious purposes. In August 1659,
with those in Lancashire, and have been much a.r? an insurrection took place in Cheshire, headed by Sir for themselves, lest they should be unawares surprisu George Booth, afterwards Lord Delamere. The ob- in their houses, Others have watched all nighi, a ject of this plot was to put an end to the government kept an observant eye on my habitation, as if I wert of the Protector, and to restore the ancient family. their enemy, and contrived mischief against thema : Several of Mr Heywood's relations in Lancashire ap
whereas, the Searcher of Hearts knows, that sik. proved of the design ; and as his own sentiments were
things never entered my thoughts.”
About the commencement of his troubles at Coles, well known to be in favour of the restoration, though
Mr Heywood received from Sir Richard Houghton a he took no part in the Cheshire rising, his enemies were eager implicate him in the civil troubles which presentation, seconded by the urgent invitation of the
After much di it caused. The shameful manner in which some of his people, to the vicarage of Preston.
beration, however, and earnest prayer, le resolved to people acted he thus describes :“ They came to discourse with me, pretendedly in
remain in his present sphere of duty. Ilis distresses love and friendship, got what they could from me on
were, for some time, severe and harassing, but the tesa state affairs, and then, when they saw their opportunity, toration of the second Charles—an even: in which le threatened they had, in writing, a charge against me greatly rejoiced-brought bin a period of peace and uttered unawares by my own lips; and their own jeal- tranquillity. This season was but of short durati ousy helped them to invent other things, wherein they for in less than two years, he began to experience thee imagined I was guilty, though far otherwise. I may truly say, as in the presence of God, they laid to my guish the subsequent part of his life. These severe
trials for nonconformity which so remarkably distincharge things which I knew not,' and which had not entered into my thoughts. They wrested my words, and flictions, however, were preceded by a sore do nestie when I desired liberty to be my own interpreter, if it were calamity, the death of his beloved wife. His own fe contrary to their groundless surmisings, they charged me ings, and her character, are thus depicted by himself :with falsehood, and condemned me without trial.” “ What a sad breach hath the Lord made in my be
The suspicions of the government being thus excit- som comforts! O, my soul, he hath taken away ed, an excuse alone was wanting for bringing him to dear partner! the heaviest blow that ever I expartne punishment. A letter which he sent to his friends in
in my outward enjoyments. I may say wii Wa rada
*the Lord hath dealt very bitterly with me. IH Lancashire, announcing the birth of his third son, was
out full, and the Lord hath brought me home ack! intercepted; and, under the pretence that he was hold
empty.' We went with the whole of our family to the ing correspondence with the enemies of the govern- sit our native county, and in less than two months : ment, he was seized upon, and dragged away from his not only a member, but a main pillar thereot--the w.. afilicted wife and family. “ The soldiers,” to use his of my youth, a plant of grace, strong in faith, thuun own words, “ kept me one night, with the resolution weak in body. Her old nature was long decaying. I of sending me to York, but God prevented, and raised | been long adorning her soul with heavenly, green
her spiritual strength rapidly increased. The Lord its up some to be my friends, from whom little could be that she might be as a bride made ready for the ra* expected, who obtained my release.” Thus was this riage of the Lamb. I have no cause to lament be casa good man providentially delivered in a season of great dition, but my own; the loss is mine, the gain hers; trial, and restored to his beloved family and fock. His / and both unspeakable. She is now put into the enjo?"
ment of that which is not attainable here; she is with | nisters from coming within five miles of any place in Christ, which is best of all. Her many doubts and fears which they had acted as ministers. On the 24th of are lost in the beatific vision. Her sad complaints are changed for the triumphant song of Moses and the five-mile act, as it was termed, Mr Heywood com
March 1666, the day appointed for putting in force the Lamb; her prayers and tears, for joys and praises ; her sins and sufferings, for perfect holiness and happiness; menced his diary, containing a minute account of his her much lamented duties and performances, for unin journeyings at this interesting period of his life. Hlavterrupted communion with the Lord. She is removed ing left his two motherless sons in care of his faithful from a tempestuous sea to a quiet haven, where the servant Martha, he set out on his pilgrimage, scarcely weary are at rest, and the wicked cease from troubling. knowing whither he went. At the carnest entreaty of At the restoration of Charles II., the nonconform
his friends and relatives, he lingered in the neighbourists had good reason to believe that their conscientious hood, preaching by night in private houses. He took scruples would be respected by the government. The occasional journeys also into various parts of Yorkprelates, however, having been reinstated in their of- shire, Lancashire, and Cheshire. tices, exerted all their power and influence to force the
After having remained in a state of widowhood above clergy to a uniformity in ceremonies. On their own
six years, Mr Heywood married Miss Abigail Crompresponsibility they established ecclesiastical courts, to
ton of Breightmet, near Bolton, not far from his native which the nonconformist ministers were cited, and arbitrarily punished. In these troubles Mr Heywood did place. During all his wanderings
, and amid his fre
quent exposures to danger, this lady proved a source of not escape. During a whole year he was harassed with
great comfort and encouragement.
Feeling himself repeated citations for refusing to read the Book of Com-conscientiously called upon to preach the Gospel, unmon Prayer, and at length he was suspended from the
awed by the threats or the opposition of man, he con. cxercise of his ministry at Coley, and thus reluctantly tinued to prosecute his ministerial vocation wherever driven, even before the act of uniformity had passed, opportunity offered. For a few years he was permitted from the bosom of that establishment in which it had
to do so without any direct interference on the part of been his anxiety to labour as a faithful and conscien- the civil authorities. This forbearance, however, was tious minister. His reflections on that mournful occa
not always extended to him. On the 14th of March sion are remarkably pathetic.
“ Now I am as a dead man out of mind; my voice 1070, he was apprehended at Leeds, at a private meet. must no more be heard upon the mountains of Israel. ing, and carried before the Mayor, who treated him I am not only turned out of the pulpit, but out of the harshly, and ordered him to be contined in a dungeon. Church, and must neither speak nor hear God's Word. By the mediation of some of the respectable inhabitants I am cast out of the synagogue by men, yet the Lord of the town, he was set at liberty the next day. doth not cast me off : though I be as dead, yet through About this time the nonconformists began to indulge the mercy I am alive to praise my God, yea, alive to God prospect of a favourable disposition being manifested tothrough Jesus Christ. Though I be cast out of the vic wards them, on the part of the king. In this, however, sible Church-state, yet not out of the mystical body of Christ, who can and will take up those that are cast
they were disappointed. The conventicle act was reout by men. I am thrust out from communion with newed with severer penalties than before. But Mr a corrupt administration, yet, through rich grace, I may Heywood continued indefatigable in his exertions to enjoy communion with God and his saints in private : promote the honour of his master, as far as he posnone can banish me from the presence of the Lord. Osibly could. On one occasion the authorities enterthe days of liberty, the opportunities of salvation we
ed his house, and seized upon his goods, for having have enjoyed! when God's candle shone upon my head, contravened the act forbidding him to preach. This and when, through grace, my candle shone upon others; when, by the light of his love, I walked through the did not deter him from declaring the truth wherever he darkness of temptation. Remembering these things, could find an audience. Such was the severity of the I pour out my soul in me; for I had gone with the mul- | law, however, that his ministrations were conducted titude, I went with them to the house of God, with under cloud of night, in garrets, and secret chambers. the voice of joy and praise, with the multitude that Finding himself precluded from publicly preaching the kept holy-day. But those pleasant days of the Son of Gospel, Mr Heywood resolved to attempt the diffusion Man are gone for the present; and, behold a gloomy of the truth by means of his pen. At this period, accordday, yea, a dark and lonesome night.”
Not contented with his excommunication, warrants ingly, he published several works of a practical nature. were issued for the apprehension of his person, is he
The late Dr Fawcett records an anecdote of Mr Hey. should venture to appear in Lancashire. Thus kept in wood, which, as referring to his wanderings, may proa constant state of alarm, he was under the necessity of bably belong to that part of his life which we are now preaching only in private houses, and during the night. considering. And even on such occasions, more especially after the
One winter's morning, while it was yet dark, the
horse was saddled, and this good man set out, like conventiele act had passed, he felt himself in constant
Abraham, when he left his father's house, not knowing danger of being seized and imprisoned. At length he
whither he went. He went along in byc-ways for some resolved to procure an acquittal, if possible; and if that time, for fear of being see!. Having nothing in his could not be obtained, liberty to attend public preach- pocket to hear his travelling expenses, he committed ing without fear of disturbance. Both requests, how- himself to the protection of Providence. He determined ever, were denied; and he was compelled to worship at length to leave his horse at full liberty to go what in the utmost secrecy and retirement.
way he would; and thus travelled on till both were Mr Heywood's trials were, for some time, considerwearyTowards evening, the horse bent his course to
a farm-house, a little out of the road. Mr II, called at ably mitigated by the kindness shown him by his friends the door, and a decent woman came out to inquire wliat at Coley, Of this privilege he was also deprived, by he wanted. “I have reason,' said he, 'to make an an aci which was passed prohibiting nonconformist mi- apology for giving you this trouble, being an entira