great mass of that large and influential body of profess. | to commence business on his own footing. For a few ing Christians, he still felt a conscientious attachment years his range of practice was narrowly circumscribed, to the Church of England. He continued his atten- and it appears that nearly ten years elapsed before the dance on evening prayers at the parish church, and regular emoluments arising from his practice were equal often, in the subsequent part of his life, he reverted to the expenses of bis family. Little did his friends with pleasure to the advantage which he had derived anticipate at that time the reputation he afterwards acfrom these services. “ I often,” said he, “ look at the quired, and the long career of successful exertion which place where I was accustomed to sit, with great pleasure, was allotted to him. and never can forget the happy moments I then enjoyed. One circumstance which, strange to say, operated The winter season was peculiarly pleasant to me; as the powerfully against Mr Hey's early success in business solemn gloom, which seemed rather increased by the few was his decided religious character and connections. In candles then lighted, tended to sober the mind, and ex- the course of his apprenticeship, as already noticed, he cited a peculiar feeling not unfriendly to devotion. I was had become a member of the Wesleyan Methodist body, always sure of hearing two good sermons, one from a and he still remained in the same communion. In some prophet, and another from an evangelist ; consequently of the opinions of that denomination of professing I never came empty away.” This last remark refers to Christians he was far from coinciding, but the points the lessons read from the Old and New Testaments, of difference he did not consider of vital importance.

In the family of Mr Dawson, he conducted himself He admired the general doctrine and discipline, and with the strictest propriety; the only fault, indeed, therefore, even though to his worldly disadvantage, which they imputed to him, was that of being “ right- he persevered in holding fellowship and communion sous overmuch.” On this point Mrs Dawson took oc- with them. casion to remonstrate with him, and an opportunity Not more than two years had passed after his settlebeing thus afforded of explaining his views of divine ment as a surgeon at Leeds, when Mr Hey married Miss truth, the young man laid before her, from time to Alice Banks, the second of four daughters of Mr Robert time, the doctrines of Scripture. He read to her also, | Banks, a gentleman of Craven in Yorkshire. He now occasionally, the writings of pious men; but more par- established the regular worship of God in his family, ticularly, the invaluable work of Dr Doddridge, “ The morning and evening, at which the whole household Rise and Progress of Religion in the Soul.” The re- were expected to be present. On Sabbath evening he sult of these conversations was, that the young appren- adopted the custom of expounding part of a chapter in tice was made the honoured instrument of leading Mrs the Bible, or explaining some portion of the service in Dawson's mind to a right impression of the Gospel, and the Book of Common Prayer, or reading a plain practhroughout life she maintained a consistent Christian tical sermon to his family. He was regular and exemwalk and conversation.

plary in his attendance on public worship, and that he Having finished his apprenticeship with the appro- might have it in his power to be so, he always saw as bation of his master, and with credit to himself, he went many of his patients as possible on the Saturday; and to London, in the autumn of 1757, to complete his pro- as they knew his principles and habits, they did not fessional education. To most young men, such a tran- expect to see him, except in cases of necessity, on the sition would have been dangerous. The fascinating Sabbath. Much of his time on the Lord's day was spent allurements, the gay frivolities of the metropolis, would in private devotional exercises ; and besides instructing have withdrawn them from their studies, and thrown his family and servants in divine things, he paid great them into habits of idleness and dissipation. No such attention to the children of the Sunday Schools. As evil influence, however, was produced on Mr Hey's mind. an illustration of Mr Hey's views on the importance of The piety and prayers of the domestic circle in which Sabbath observance, we may quote a passage from the he had been reared, had left upon his heart an impres- published memoir by his friend Mr Pearson. sion which was never effaced. In London, therefore, dear friend, Mr Hey, had a peculiar reverence and as in Leeds, he was active in acquiring such knowledge love for the Sabbath. It was his opinion, that the as would be useful to him in after years. “I would manner in which a person habitually employed the hours spare no pains," he says in a letter to his parents, “ to of the Lord's day, would afford no unfair criterion of qualify myself for that state of life to which the Provi- his religious state and character. He observed, that dence of God has called me, and then trust Him with parents ought to let their children see, in their whole the success of my endeavours.” The consistency of deportment, that their own minds were deeply impresshis Christian character, often exposed him to the ridised with the sacredness of the Sabbath day. No worldcule of his fellow-students ; but by the uniform kind- ly, trifling, or unprofitable conversation, should be alness of his disposition, and the decided superiority of lowed, much less encouraged; but the day should be liis talents and information, he speedily succeeded in begun, carried on, and concluded, with a holy cheerfuldisarming their hostility, and they treated him with the ness. He mentioned the great importance and advanutmost attention and respect.

tage of parental instruction on this day; and the imDuring his stay in London, he was indefatigable in the pressions which had been made on his own mind, at an prosecution of his studies. The Sabbath he sacredly early period, by the admonitions given by his father, devoted to the service of God, usually attending divine who was scrupulously exact in his observance of the service three times, and devoting the intervals to pri- Lord's day; through whose example and conversation vate reading, meditation, and prayer.

“ He has been on divine subjects he had derived, under the blessing of often beard to say, that his Sabbaths were the happiest God, much of his reverence for the Sabbath in the subof his days, during his residence in London, and that sequent course of his life. He pursued a similar method the complete suspending of all his secular pursuits, pre- with his own children; and the excellency of the fruits pared him to resume his studies with renewed ardour produced by it, prove how abundantly the divine blessand alacrity.”

ing descended upon his pious labours." Having completed his medical education in London, A project was started in 1767 for the erection of an Mr Hey's father proposed to him that he should spend Infirmary at Leeds, as the wants of the town and neigha short time in Paris. This, however, he declined, and bourhood seemed to require it, and of this good work accordingly returned to Leeds to commence the exer- Mr Hey was one of the most active promoters. On the cise of his profession. Mr Dawson, who had learned to appointment of the surgeons to the establishment, he appreciate his talents and piety, kindly offered to receive was of course elected, the gentleman who proposed him him as a partner ; but after much deliberation, he re- remarking, "As for Mr Hey, we cannot do without him." solved, chiefly in deference to the opinion of his parents, In the following year he formed, in conjunction with

“ Our

the principal physicians and surgeons of the town, a | listened with patient attention during the discussion medical society for the discussion of professional sub- of the first and second heads, which related, chiefs, jects, and the purchase of medical books. This society to the importance of the Established Church, and the laid the foundation of an excellent professional library, original principles of the Methodists : but when Mr which still exists in connection with the Infirmary at Hey was proceeding to shew how they had departed Leeds.

from those principles, some indications of uneasines About this time a friendly intercourse commenced appeared among the preachers, and Mr Wesley remark. between Mr Hey and the celebrated Dr Priestley, which ed, that as there was much other business before then, continued for many years. This intimacy originated in Brother Hey must defer reading the remainder of his their common taste for chemical pursuits, and such was paper to another opportunity ;' this opportunity, box. the high opinion which Dr Priestley formed of Mr Hey's ever, never arrived; hence Mr Hey was accustomed to acquirements both as a professional man and a philo- say, that he did not leave the Methodists—they lef: sopher, that he suggested his admission into the Royal him.'” Society of London, an honour which was accordingly con- About this time, a Philosophical and Literary Society ferred on him in the year 1775. Though thus connected was formed at Leeds, of which Mr Hey was elected by a kindred love of science, these two gentlemen were president, and at its meetings be appears to have rał far from agreeing in their sentiments on matters of religion. various papers, chiefly on scientific and medical subjecti

. Dr Priestley, it is well known, was an avowed Socinian, He drew up also some pieces which were honoured and with the view of propagating his peculiar opinions, with a place in the transactions of the Royal Society of he published and circulated small tracts, plausibly and London, and he was an occasional contributor to the insidiously written, on the various doctrines of Chris- memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of tianity. Mr Hey was deeply impressed with the im- Manchester. portance of those doctrines which his friend was labour- Such was the high personal as well as professional ing to overthrow, and being dissatisfied with the replies character of Mr Hey, that his fellow-townsmen, anxious which had been published, he wrote a small tract in de- to slew him all respect, proposed to elect him alderma fence of the divinity of Christ, and another in defence of the borough of Leeds. As the pressing nature of his of the atonement. Both these tracts, but more espe- now extensive practice as a surgeon could scarcely adcially the former, obtained an extensive circulation, and mit of his acceptance of such an office, without some proved a most effectual antidote to the pernicious pub- relief from his professional duties, he wished to be eslications of the great advocate of Socinianism and infi- cused from undertaking the office until his eldest som delity.

Richard, then a student in London, should have comThough at the outset of his professional career Mr pleted his medical education. This request was readily Hey had to encounter many difficulties, he succeeded granted. Mr Richard Hey returned to his native town, at length in establishing himself in a very large and lu- well qualified, professionally, to assist his fatber, tłu crative practice. His reputation rose high as an operat- was forth with elected to the office of mayor. Withis a ing surgeon, and persons came from remote parts of few months, however, this son was seized with a rapid Yorkshire to Leeds, that they might be under his im- consumption, which proceeded so insidiously, that the mediate care. While thus advancing in public estima- day was fixed and the usual preparations made for his tion as a skilful and successful practitioner, he was dis marriage, before danger was apprehended, and to the abled from all active exertions by a severe accident which grief of his parents and all his friends, he was cut of rendered him for a time completely lame; and although in the twenty-fifth year of his age. he partially recovered the use of the affected limb, the This was the first of those numerous domestic heeffects were apparent during the remaining years of his reavements to which, by the inscrutable arrangements life. A dispensation of this nature, occurring at a period of Providence, Mr Hey was subjected. Richard was when the demands for his professional aid had become succeeded in his medical practice by his brother Willan, so numerous and pressing, could not fail to be felt but he had scarcely assisted his father two years, when, peculiarly severe, and more especially as his family in consequence of having sprained his ancle sererels, had become so large as to call for increased exertions was rendered so lame that for four years and a-half he on his part. Yet in these circumstances his patience could not walk without the assistance of crutches. His and resignation were remarkably conspicuous. To a father, however, placed him under the care of an eminent friend he once remarked, “ If it be the will of God surgeon at Oxford, by whose mode of treatment the that I should be confined to my sofa, and he commanded lameness was effectually cured. In less than five years me to pick straws during the remainder of my life, I after the death of his oldest son, Mr Hey's third dausta hope I should feel no repugnance to his good pleasure. ter, Alice, also died of an affection of the lungs. During

Mr Hey's recovery from lameness appearing remote her illness the good man thus wrote to his son Willar, and uncertain, he went to London in the spring of 1778, then in London: “ My fond wishes would fain seo E and consulted some of the most eminent surgeons of the amendment in your sister's health ; but her remora metropolis. By their advice he proceeded to Bath, hence will only be the speedier possession of eternal where he remained for a considerable time, and returned glory. I would rather bury all my children than see to Leeds, after an absence of four months, in good them departing from the way of truth and righteot health, but little improved in the power of using the ness, though in the highest prosperity.” injured limb. Being thus incapacitated from walking, Mr Hey was always desirous of improving every of he occasionally rode on horseback, but he was obliged portunity to impress his family with the unspeakerke to pay the greater part of his professional visits in a importance of vital religion. Thus, on the marriage of carriage.

his second daughter, Margaret, in the year 1797, to the In the year 1781, Mr Hey made a public separation Rev. Robert Jarratt, vicar of Wellington, Somersetfrom the Methodist connection. The mode in which shire, his children all met together at his house in Let's he conducted the matter was frank, open, and candid. and the following account is given by one who wa It is thus stated by Mr Pearson : “ He intimated to present : "On seeing so numerous a family around tir, Mr Wesley his desire of addressing the Conference, his mind was forcibly struck with the idea, (which indeed and offering some suggestions and advice to them; proved to be well-founded,) that he should neser mert declaring, at the same time, that if they rejected his again this large party within his own domestic archa proposals, he could no longer remain a member of He had then attained his sixtieth year, and thereiure the Methodist Society. Mr Wesley granted him per- deemed it a suitable opportunity of giving them sach mission to read his paper in full Conference ; they advice as might tend to regulate their conduct through

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life, and to impress upon the minds of the younger It were well if, in the medical profession, many indibranches the importance of remembering their Creator viduals such as Mr Hey could be found. In visiting the in the days of their youth.' He collected them toge- sick, how many precious opportunities might they, above ther in his parlour on Sunday evening, and addressed all other men, have, of imparting spiritual instruction, and them in a manner peculiarly solemn and affecting. He that too at a time when the mind is more susceptible of prefaced his discourse, by requesting them to consider religious impressions. Thus might the prudent and pious what he was about to say as his dying address to them.” physician be the means of saving the soul, as well as of

At this time Mr Hey's two sons, John and Robert, relieving the diseases of the body. were prosecuting their studies at Cambridge, with a view to the Church ; but while yet in the bloom of youth, they were cut down, under the influence of the same

SCRIPTURAL RESEARCHES. disease which had already committed such ravages in

No. VI. the family. These were severe trials of the faith and patience of the pious and affectionate parent. But he

MEMORIALS OF IMMORTALITY. did not sink into dejection under the mournful visita

BY THE Rev. James EsdAILE, tions. No: he was wont to say on such occasions, 'that his ultimate end respecting his children was an

Minister of the East Church, Perth. swered, inasmuch as he had trained them up to become Is the doctrine of the immortality of the soul taught in inhabitants of that kingdom into which, he trusted, the Old Testament Scriptures? No; nor in the New they had been mercifully received." As a striking Testament either, except in connection with the resurproof that Mr Hey could rise in faith above all the try- rection of the body. We have every evidence that ing vicissitudes of this mortal scene, it may be men- reason can supply, to satisfy us that the soul does not tioned, that he caused to be inscribed on the grave-stone consist of any combination of matter. We cannot of John, these emphatic words, “ O death! where is ascribe to it weight, divisibility, hardness or softness, or thy sting ?” and on that of Robert, “ O grave! where any other attribute of matter, and, therefore, we term is thy victory?”

it a spiritual substance; yet, at the same time, we can Amid these accumulated sorrows, Mr Hey continued scarcely conceive of its existing, and exercising its functo discharge his professional duties with uninterrupted tions, except in a material receptacle. All its feelings i activity and zeal. In the spring of 1800, he gave a and perceptions are conveyed to it, and manifested by

course of anatomical demonstrations, consisting of it, through the instrumentality of bodily organs; and

twelve lectures, at the Leeds Infirmary, and to that all that we hear in the mythology of the heathen, or in i institution the profits were allotted. A second course the superstition of the vulgar, about the shades of the

he delivered in 1803, and a third in 1805. In this lat- dead, and the ghosts of the departed, exhibits only a ter year, however, Mr Hey was called to endure a trial clumsy attempt to invest the soul with a kind of immore poignant than any with which he had yet been palpable body, whilst, at the same time, it indicates a visited—the death of his daughter-in-law, Mrs William belief, that it must occupy a sensible and perceptible Hey. She had been married about nine years, was the tenement of one kind or other. mother of five children, and was adorned with all the It is my intention to throw together a few hints, as graces which could endear her to her family and friends. contributions towards a history of immortality, in the For this amiable woman Mr Hey had a strong attach- form in which it is received by Christians, as connected ment, and her death inflicted a painful wound upon his with the resurrection of the body; to show that this is oft lacerated heart. He had become familiar with be- the earliest form in which it was taught, and in which reavements, but this was the severest stroke of all, and it continued to be held, by those who had the benefit of he mourned with a deeper intensity of grief than he divine revelation, till it was demonstrated to all the had ever mourned before.

world by Christ's resurrection from the dead. Mr Hey was now far advanced in years, and the re- When Adam came first from the hand of God, it was peated ravages which death had made in his family, impossible for him even to form a conception of death. tended, no doubt, to hasten on the infirmities of age; The living soul which was breathed into him by the but, assisted by his son William, he continued to visit Almighty, possessed inherent immortality; and when his patients with the utmost regularity, and, in 1809, God intimated that death might be incurred by disobehe gave a fourth course of anatomical demonstra- dience, it could only be considered as applying to the tions. It was not until he had completed his seventy- bodily frame, which had been reared out of the dust of the sixth year that he resigned his office of surgeon to the earth, into which it was again resolvable, or to the disLeeds Infirmary, when he had the happiness of seeing lodgement of the soul from the fair and commodious tenehis son immediately appointed his successor. He still, ment which had been assigned to it,-he could not however, took a lively interest in all that affected the suppose it possible that the soul itself could die. If welfare of the institution.

there could be any excuse for disobedience to a positive The visitations of death in the family of Mr Hey were command of God, the alleviation might be found in not yet ended. In August 1816, he lost his daughter, this, that Adam could not possibly understand the naMrs Jarratt, who died, from consumption, at Welling- ture of the penalty which was denounced, having never ton, leaving an afflicted husband and six children, some witnessed death, nor felt any of those infirmities which of them in infancy, In all the domestic afflictions teach men to fear and anticipate dissolution; much less which were allotted to Mr Hey in rapid and painful could be apprehend the extinction of that spiritual prinsuccession, he bowed with meek submission to the will ciple which had been imparted to him by the undying of Him who doeth all things wisely and well. A few Spirit of God. Nay, though the death of the body is months after Mrs Jarratt's death, he himself was laid now as certain to every man as the setting of the sun, on a bed of sickness, and though it pleased the Al- yet we may reasonab doubt whether the greatest promighty to restore him to health and usefulness, yet he fligates, whose highest wish it must be that the soul never recovered perfectly from the injury which his should be utterly annihilated, have ever been able to constitution sustained. Sometimes he would say, “I entertain even a hope that their souls shall cease to live. have that about me which will carry me to my grave. Adam, then, could only consider the death that was And soon was his prediction verified. In the spring of threatened as the penalty of disobedience, as applicable 1819 he was cut off in less than a fortnight's illness. Calm to his bodily frame. He knew that the soul could never tranquillity and composure characterised his dying mo- die, except, figuratively, in being separated from God. ments. He had lived in righteousness; he died in peace. Accordingly, when the sentence was pronounced, it affected the immortality of the body alone. “Dust thou | resurrection of Christ took place expressly for the pur. art, and unto dust thou shalt return,” was an announce- pose of establishing this important truth, for "Christ is ment that could affect only the corporeal structure ; risen from the dead, and become the first fruits of them hence all the promises of restoration refer to the resur- that slept;" I Cor. xv. 20; and “ If we believe that rection of the body, and its reunion with the immortal Jesus died, and rose again, even so them also who spirit.

sleep in Jesus will God bring with him.” 1 Thess

. To cheer man under the miseries of the fall, a pro- | iv. 14. mise was given, that the “seed of the woman should This is proof positive; and is attested by such evid bruise the head of the serpent." To understand what dence as cannot be adduced in support of


historical this implies, we must remember that the evil which the fact of ancient times, relating to the ordinary events of serpent introduced was sin and death; and the promise the world. There is a cloud of witnesses, who had evidently amounted to this, that one born of woman every opportunity of knowing the truth, and no indues should destroy these works of the devil, and bring life ment to tell a falsehood; their own doctrine excluded and immortality to light. The full import of this pro- the chance of worldly applause or worldly profit, for mise the fallen pair could not comprehend; but they they preached temperance and self-denial, the mortizo could not fail to know that it was a promise of mercy, tion of pride, and the subjugation of the feelings 10 a of reparation, and restitution, given to support them strict and inflexible rule, opposed to all the prejudices under the misery which they themselves had produced and leading propensities of human nature. There is a promise which refreshed the souls of believers dur- no possibility of resisting their testimony, except on the ing the lapse of four thousand years, and which was at supposition that they were wild enthusiasts. I step last completely fulfilled, when Jesus of Nazareth, born not to combat this opinion, but merely to say, tha: of a woman, and made under the law, triumphed over were it well founded, it would be all in favour of their the temptations and power of the devil, demonstrating veracity; for an enthusiast is always an honest maa; that he was the Lord of life, by his resurrection from he may be wrong in matters of opinion, but he is a the dead, and giving power to his disciples to cast out competent witness in matters of fact, for it is his ina. devils, and “to tread on serpents and scorpions, and gination that is affected, and not his senses; and te over all the power of the enemy."

wisdom of God has so ordered it, that every doctriz We may be certain, then, that all the righteous who of our holy religion is established by facts attested by lived during the ante-diluvian period, believed in the numerous and competent eye-witnesses, who sealed resurrection of the bod How was it possible that any their testimony with their blood. Shall small crida, one could have the spiritual feelings of Enoch, implied then, and petty unbelievers in modern times, pres the in the expression that "he walked with God," and not to impugn an evidence to which the wisdom of Greece have the conviction of a spiritual and immortal life? and the power of Rome were forced to succumb, wiec These feelings are not the ordinary produce of human they were in the very height of their splendour, weet nature. “ That which is born of the flesh is flesh," they had ample opportunities of investigating every and, without an extraordinary influence, will never look fact, and were at last compelled, in spite of all tber beyond the gratifications of the body, whilst “that which prejudices, to adopt a doctrine which subverted the reis born of the spirit is spirit," and must be conscious of ligion of their fathers, and desecrated those splendid a spiritual origin; being“ born of incorruptible seed,” it monuments of art and genius which had been dedicated must have the witness within itself, that it is as im- to the worship of false gods ! mortal as the eternal source from which it flows, and But it is not my intention to dwell, at present, of that it cannot be affected by the vicissitudes of the the decisive argument for the immortality of the soch world, or by the dissolution of the body. The natural and the resurrection of the body, furnished by the de man may think the apostle advances an assertion incap- monstrated resurrection of Christ ; my object is rather able of proof, when he says, “ If the spirit of him who to show the antiquity of the doctrine, and its universa? raised Christ from the dead dwell in you, he will quick- reception among those who believed in the law and the en your mortal bodies, by his spirit dwelling in you." prophets. Our Lord preached no new doctrine whea The spiritual man feels that this does not need a proof he declared the resurrection of the body. It was up: -it appears to him of the nature of a self-evident pro-versally received by the Scribes and Pharisees, and by position. But the history of Enoch presents to our all classes among the Jews, except the Sadducees

, she view another doctrine, never separated in Scripture were professed sceptics, and denied the reality of the from the doctrine of the soul's immortality, viz., the resurrection, and the existence of angels and spirits immortality, and, in the case of all who die, the resur- Acts xxiii. 8. Hence the Apostle Paul bears testimas rection of the body, for, when he was taken up into to the general faith of the Jews in the doctrine of the heaven in the same body in which he had lived on earth, resurrection; and in his pleading before Felix he sens it afforded a demonstration of that essential doctrine of “ I have hope toward God, which they themselves is Christianity, that men in the world to come, shall re-allow, that there shall be a resurrection of the dead, beeb ceive in the body the punishment or reward of the of the just and unjust.” Warburton, and some feu deeds done in the body in the present world. The who have followed his eccentric opinions, maintain that same fact is proved in the case of Elias, who was the doctrine of a resurrection only began to present taken up into heaven without tasting death, and by among the Jews during the period of the later print the resurrection of our Lord from the dead, and his phets, and deny that there is any allusion to it, or to ascension into heaven in the same body which had been future state, in the books of Moses. It must be asnailed to the cross, pierced with a spear, and confined mitted that allusions to these important doctrines are three days in the tomb.

scantily sprinkled throughout the Old Testament Sarp Here, then, we have three illustrious instances, in The reason obviously is, that among the most the cases of Enoch before the flood, of Elias under the eous and holy men, who lived under the Old Testants: law, and of Jesus, the head of the Gospel dispensation, dispensation, the knowledge of a future life was not to satisfy the righteous of the emancipation of their much the result of doctrinal teaching, as of pious 21 bodies from the power of death, and of the complete spiritual feeling. Their religion was felt in their hearts disconfiture of the arts of the devil. The two former and manifested in their lives, rather than lodged 3 instances may be considered as peculiar marks of favour their heads, or arranged in general propositions, to be to eminent prophets, and a doubt might be entertained contemplated and discussed at leisure. It is only when whether all the dead who die in the Lord will have the power of godliness ceases to influence the beari the same privilege of being exalted to glory. But the and the pleasures of the present life take an undue line



But a very

on the affections, that the views of the eternal world | applicable ; for he was arguing with the Sadducees, become dim, distant, and unimpressive ; and then men who admitted no part of Scripture but the books of begin to form abstract propositions on the subject, Moses, chiefly because they imagined that their favourand satisfy themselves when they are able to reason ite scepticism, in regard to the immortality of the soul, clearly on the doctrine in question, though the argu- the resurrection of the body, and a judgment to come, ments make little impression either on their reason or if not countenanced, at least, stood uncontroverted in their conscience. The Old Testament saints scarcely the books of Moses. reason at all ; they merely express their convictions and The passage from Job is indeed a very remarkable their feelings. It was not necessary for Job to say that one, and there are many who can scarcely persuade he believed in a life to come, when he could say of themselves that the doctrine of the resurrection, the God, “. Though he slay me, yet will I trust in himn;" demonstration of which is peculiar to Christianity, it is evident that his hope extended beyond the present should be so clearly announced in the Old Testament world. . And David most emphatically declares his be- Scriptures. They only can be staggered by this who lief of immortality, when he says that he will not fear forget that the resurrection of the body, next to the “though the earth be removed, and though the moun- belief in a God, and the hope of a Saviour, is the oldest tains be carried into the midst of the sea, Ps. xlvi. religious doctrine cherished by man, and that they who 2. In short, in the Old Testament saints we see the suffered and died in the defence of the truth, were all fruits of holy living, which never could proceed but supported by the hope “ that they might obtain a better from spiritual feelings and immortal hopes; and their resurrection.” Heb. xi. 35. confidence arises from a lively faith, and not from the The book of Job itself is a singularity in Scripture, cold deductions of logic.

where all is singular. The Septuagint appends a long We may be certain, then, that all the righteous under note to the end of the book, professing to give some the former dispensation felt the power of the world to account of Job, his wife, and his friends who came to come; and, for our encouragement, God has, marked comfort him. Of the book, it says that it was translathis high approbation of their conduct, by conferring ed from a Syrian or Syriac manuscript, found in the upon them many distinguished temporal blessings. land of Ausitis, meaning, no doubt, the Uz of Scripture;

But, in fact, the doctrine of the resurrection of the of himself, that he was the fifth from Abraham ; of his body is taught in the oldest book of the Old Testament, wife, that she was an Arabian ; and that Eliphaz was as clearly as it is in the New, and was as firmly be- one of the sons of Esau, and king of Teman ; Bildad, lieved, not only among the Jews, but among many of the king of the Saychæans, and Zophar, king of the Minnations of the East, as it is by the most orthodox of the present day, though none of them could have that over- All this is professedly not connected with the text, whelming evidence which enables Christians to rank but added for the sake of information, the authenticity the resurrection of Christ as "the first fruits of them of which we have no means of ascertaining. that sleep,” among the plainest subjects of historical de important addition is made to the text itself. The monstration, When the Sadducees put a captious and Hebrew text ends with the seventeenth verse of the sneering question to our Lord, about a supposed case of forty-second chapter, which is thus translated in our a woman, who had had seven husbands, and asked version, “So Job died being old and full of days;” to whose wife she should be in the resurrection, he con- which the Septuagint adds, “ but it is written that he founded their presumptuous folly by saying, “ In the will rise again with those whom the Lord raises." It resurrection they neither marry nor are given in mar- would be a matter of great interest to know where this riage. But not content with this, which they might addition was made, or whether it is not authorised by bave considered merely as an adroit escape, he pressed some manuscript of the Hebrew text, which, however, I them farther, and quoted the passage in which God an- have not seen affirmed. The addition, however, I should nounced himself to Moses as “the God of Abraham, of suppose, must be long prior to Christianity, and must Isaac, and of Jacob,” who had been dead some hundred intimate the sense which those who made the translayears before Moses was born, to show that God had tion, or the addition, had of the very marked passage, made an everlasting covenant with them which they formerly quoted, in regard to the resurrection. should live for ever to enjoy, “ for God is not the God The doctrine of immortality has never lost its influ. of the dead, but of the living." And the apostle draws ence over the human mind, except in the case of specua conclusive inference, expressed in strong language, lative unbelievers, or the most degraded sensualists; it from this passage ; for he argues that it would have is engraven on human nature, but the difficulty of formbeen no honour to God, and no advantage to those whoming an accurate idea of the invisible world led to very he professed to favour, merely to call himself their God, gross and absurd views on the subject. The wild wanand to give them promises which certainly were not derer in the woods, who lives like a beast of prey, fulfilled in this world; but he shows from their whole

" Thinks that, admitted to the equal sky: history that they looked for a better country, that is a

His faithful dog will bear him company. heavenly, and that the excellence of their faith consisted And the current opinion among the Romans, as set in living under the power of the world to come, “Where-forth in the sixth Eneid of Virgil, was of the same fore God is not ashamed to be called their God, for he character. They believed that the souls in Elysium hath prepared for them a city.” Heb. xi. 16.

were permitted to indulge in the same pursuits, exceptBut this is by no means the strongest argument which ing, of course, sensual enjoyments, in which they dethe Old Testament furnishes for the resurrection of the lighted when in connection with the body. But among body. Our Lord might have quoted the direct testi- the more meditative and speculative people of the East, mony of the prophet, “ Many of them that sleep in the the doctrine of immortality assumed a novel aspect; dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, perceiving that the body mouldered into dust, believing and some to shame and everlasting contempt.” Dan. in a state of retribution, and incapable of forming a conxii. 2. Or he might have quoted the remarkable pas- ception of the soul, except in connection with some sage from Job, “I know that my Redeemer liveth, and material vehicle, they imagined that the souls of the that he shall stand at the latter day upon the earth and departed passed into the bodies of different animals, of though after my skin worms destroy this body, yet in a nobler or more degraded nature, according to the memy fiesh shall I see God.” Chap. xix. 25, 26. Or herits or demerits of the human beings whom they had might have quoted the sixteenth Psalm, " Thou wilt animated: and I believe that, at the present moment, not leave my soul in hell, nor suffer thy Holy One to see this is by far the most general opinion as to the existcorruption.'

But all this would have been totally in- ence of the soul, after it is separated from the human

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