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RELIANCE ON HUMAN MERIT AS A can compass its whole length and breadth in GROUND OF SALVATION.

their daily rounds.

On being called to visit the sick-bed of a perBY THE Rev. HENRY Duncan, D.D.,

son of this description, I have generally found him Minister of Ruthwell.

self-satisfied, and at ease as to his spiritual condiAmong professing Christians there is too often tion, regardless though he might be of God and found a total perversion of the true ground of sal- duty in his whole character and conduct, presenting vation as derived from the Word of God. Some thus the awful and pitiable spectacle of a man phrases and expressions perhaps they may employ, tottering blindfold and unconscious on the brink borrowed from Scripture or a catechism early of a yawning gulf, ready to devour him. When committed to memory, which seem to indicate an I have set before him his condition as a sinner, acquaintance with scriptural principles; but these, although he might own the truth of the general on further conversation, are too frequently dis- statement, he seemed scarcely sensible of its praccovered to be in their mouths, words without any tical application to himself, and if pressed as to distinet and intelligent meaning. If they speak of particular sins, was sure to discover the unsoundtheir faith, it is at least on their works they rest ness of his spiritual views, either by evading the -not as an evidence of their faith, which is the subject altogether, or by palliating his transgresscriptural view of the subject, but as the means of sions with some qualifications and abatements; or their acceptance with God, as the labour by which what was, perhaps, a more hopeless symptom still, they expect to earn a right to the happiness of by laying his delinquency to the charge of human

A belief that they can obtain heaven by frailty, and thus soothing his conscience with the their own deservings, is deeply seated in their persuasion that he was not worse than others. hearts, and to Christ crucified they look not as “ Yes, sir," he would perhaps reply, “ I confess their substitute and propitiatory sacrifice, but as a myself a great sinner--we are all miserable sinmitigator of the sternness of the moral law, who, ners; but I trust in the Saviour of sinners, for they vainly imagine, has diminished its obligations my conscience does not charge me with any great and its penalties, and thus brought a saving obe- and grievous transgressions ; I have not been a dience to its acquirements, within reach of the fal- thief, or a liar, or a drunkard, or a blasphemer; len offspring of Adam. On this false doctrine of the sin of perjury, or of adultery, or of murder, the Romish Church they build all their hopes of does not lie on my soul ; neither does my consalvation ; and in what mazes of deception are science accuse me of having been an undutiful they bewildered by this one fatal error !

son, or an unkind husband or father; I have reWhen the unscriptural principle is once admitted gularly attended the public worship of God, and that the law of God has, by virtue of the cross, have sometimes prayed to him in private ; I have been accommodated to human frailty, what an inlet even occasionally read the Bible in my family, is made to the loosest morality and the most pre- especially on the evenings of the Sabbath. I trust, sumptuous expectations ! of the extent of obe- therefore, that all is well with me, for I have a dience necessary to salvation each individual is merciful God to deal with, who has sent his own thus left to judge from the view he entertains of Son to save sinners such as I am.” his own ability to obey; and that ability again he The


which is thus made of the utter estimates according to his actual performance; so want of all Christian knowledge and spiritual exthat the standard of duty, instead of being held up perience, at the time when both are most required, in its native height, as that to which we ought is deeply afflicting ; and were it not that a Chrisconstantly to aspire, without ever being able fully tian minister must never despair—that even till to reach, is brought down to the measure of every the very striking of the twelfth hour he must hope man's character, and the law of God, so exceeding against hope, he might be induced to leave the Lroal and so absolutely perfect, is contracted and wretched and deluded sufferer to his blinded judofrittered

away, till the most careless and worldly ment and seared conscience,

iniquity ?”

Is it by such deeds as these, my friends, that bed I have witnessed. The pious sufferer referred you can purchase a right to eternal happiness? Is to his past life indeed, but it was not to take comit by a mere abstinence from gross and flagrant fort to himself from the temptations to evil he had sins to which, it may be, you have never been resisted, or from the good deeds he had performed, strongly tempted, or from which, at all events, as if these were meritorious in the sight of heaven, you have been deterred more by the fear of man and could entitle him to that eternal happiness for than by the love of your God and Saviour ; or is which he so earnestly longed. He confessed—and it by heartlessly walking the formal round of out- while he made the confession, his whole counteward devotion, by giving the service of the lips nance and manner bore testimony to the depth of and withholding the inward worship of the spirit, his contrition—that he was an unprofitable serthat you hope to please God and open the gate of vant~a sinner whose transgressions against light heaven? You know it cannot be. And yet and warning had been frequent, and aggravated, what better claims have you to offer ? More re- and without excuse; and be therefore owned, that gular in the performance of duty, than at some if the promises of the Gospel had been made to de former period of your life, you may have been; pend, either in whole or in part, on his own rightmore sincere, more earnest, more pious ; but after eousness, there would have remained for him noall, do not the very best services of the very best thing but a fearful looking for of judgment, and tery of you all come infinitely short, and if your deeds indignation. But when from his own deservings

, of righteousness were weighed against your sins, he turned to the consideration of what his Saviour would they not be as the small dust of the balance ? had done, and taught, and suffered for sinners, O then is it not vain—is it not impious to trust and professing his belief in the all-sufficiency of to these for acceptance and favour in the sight of the salvation which had been accomplished on the that God “who is of purer eyes than to behold cross, appropriated to himself the promises of the

Gospel, what a different expression of countenance Think you that any efficacy can be added to marked the changing feelings of his heart! He the merits of the Saviour by such merits as yours ? relied on the merit of labours not his own—he Suppose your sins were blotted out, and you stood looked to the virtue of a sacrifice of which all to be judged only by the talents you had occupied other sacrifices are but the type—and in the fulness —the opportunities you had improved—the piety of his heart exclaimed, “ If God spared not his you had cherished—the lessons you had dutifully own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shail learned under the discipline of providence-let he not with him also freely give us all things?" | conscience say if even then your deeds of righteous. “ It is God that justifieth, who is he that conness would deserve the blessing of heaven, or could demneth ? It is Christ who died, yea, rather who is indeed once be named along with the righteous- risen again.” “ If, when we were enemies, we were ness of him in whom dwelt the fulness of the God- reconciled to God by the death of bis Son, much head. Even the holiness you possess is not the more being reconciled shall we be saved by his life." fruit of your own labour, it is the gift of God. These blessed assurances cheered and elevated What do you call your own, which you have not his soul. Sometimes, indeed, I have seen him received ; and what have you received which you oppressed by a sense of his own worthlessness, and have not either neglected or misemployed ? Alas, trembling when he thought of the folly and vanity the fond dream of human merit, I repeat, is a which betrayed his deep remaining corruption; dangerous delusion, which you must cast away but at other times placid, contented, and joyfui— from you, before you can justly glory in the illu- at peace with the world—at peace with his own mination poured on the soul by your Protestant conscience at peace witn God:-with the world, fathers, when they burst from the thraldom of because, in the spirit of Christian charity, he forpriesteraft, and drew aside the veil which a gloomy gave his enemies, and loved all mankind—with superstition had cast over the light of heaven. his conscience, because he inwardly felt a growing

How different are the sentiments which Scrip-conformity to the divine will— with God, because ture puts into the hearts of those who freely and he knew that in Christ Jesus he was a reconciled candidly devote themselves to its study !--how Father to believers, and did not impute unto them different the language which they employ when their trespasses. they communicate with each other, or with their Having mentioned the period of sickness as a pastor, on the things which concern their ever- time of trial, in which Christian privciples lasting peace.

The death-bed of him whose un- called into peculiar action, and the real characderstanding and heart have been subdued under ter of these principles is exhibited to a discernthe teaching of the Gospel, exhibits a scene at ing eye, I am naturally led to take notice of adonce humble and dignitied, solemn, and full of other circumstance connected with this subject

. peace! It is the consummation of a life spent not I allude to the anxiety which is felt by many only unprofitably in the school of God's providence; when laid on a sick-bed, to see and converse with the last act of discipline to chasten the remaining their spiritual instructor

, and to obtain the benefit corruptions of his fallen nature, and restrain and of his prayers. What I object to is, the spirit too regulate his rebellious passions; the last lesson of frequently manifested in the time and manner knowledge and experience, to enlighten his mind, soliciting these visits, and in the unhappy effects and train his soul for immortality. Such a death. I which they are sometimes perverted to produce.


It is instructive, though distressing, to observe heritance of the saints in light. Thus is the good the usual practices which are too often prevalent seed sown in the beaten wayside or stony soil during the progress of an alarming disease. In of a worldly heart, and either springs not at all, the first period of illness, when the patient is con- or withers as it springs. The dying man is apfined to bed or to the house, neighbours drop in palled and bewildered, but not humble an after the hours of labour, and the sick man's cham- trite-he ieels that danger is near, the most drearlber becomes a convenient place for retailing all ful of all dangers, but his unprepared mind knows the news and evil reports of the parish. His mind not, and may not now be taught how to avoid it. is led away from the consideration of his spiritual | In the days of his health he has slighted the serinterests, and is frequently polluted, or at least vice of God, or walked the round of ordinances unprofitably filled with matters of worldly con- without faith and without edification ; and, when cern, and tales of scandal. His family, from a at last the terror of impending destruction leads mistaken kindness, think it necessary to provide him to seek for refuge in unaccustomed acts of for his amusement, often without regard to his devotion, divine grace, long offered in vain, is then edification; and, indeed, nothing is more common denied ; there is no avenue open by which his than to find, among those who surround the sick- heart can be penetrated; and all his efforts begin bed of a friend, the utmost anxiety to withdraw and end in a bodily exercise which prosteth little his thoughts from solemn reflection. It is con- -an unhallowed reliance on outward forms, not sidered right to prevent the agitation of his mind, less superstitious nor more availing than the and to avoid alarm, by abstaining from every pompous ritual of the Romish Church. thing which might induce him to think of his spi- The inefficacy of that attention to religious ritual interests. By degrees, however, his malady duties, to which the worldly are driven by the imbecomes more serious-symptoms appear which mediate fear of death, is but too fatally proved by seem to intimate the approach of a fatal crisis. the conduct of many, wbo, under the discipline of Friends and relations from a greater distance now this fear, having been induced to apply for spiritual arrive, and accounts of their good or bad fortune, aid, have afterwards been unexpectedly brought and of the circumstances of their families, and the back from the verge of the grave, and exhibited events of their neighbourhood, give new employ- the real state of their hearts, the sincerity of their

ment to the mind of the patient. An elder, mean- vows, and the fruit of their devotional exercises, : while, or some person fluent in prayer, pays an in the course of a prolonged life. How frequently

occasional visit ; and for the first time, perhaps, do we see individuals of this description, as soon during many days, or, it may be during many as the immediate terror of death is removed, castyears, the voice of pious supplication and praise ing away from them the feelings and impressions is heard beneath that roof. Worldly conversa- of divine things, which for a time they have chetion, however, proceeds, and worldly feelings are rished, returning with redoubled eagerness to their cherished, interrupted from time to time by short worldly occupations, and displaying, as formerly, intervals, in which more serious thoughts intrude, all the coldness of unregenerate hearts ! and the Bible is opened, and for the first time Of such persons it is impossible not to conclude perused, with some passing anxiety, and sense of that their penitence was hollow, and that, if their its value. Still the disease goes on, and the pa- sickness had been unto death, they would, nottient begins visibly to sink ; while the doubtful withstanding all their fair appearances, have peranswers of the medical attendant confirm the ished in their sins. I dare not assert that a deathdaily increasing fears of the family, and the sup-bed repentance is always unavailing; for of such pressed sighs of a wife, a mother, or a child, and a repentance there is one instance on the Scripthe tear wiped away by stealth from the care-worn ture record, though only one; but I do say, that cheek, open

the unwilling eyes, and strike convic- on such repentance it is presumptuous to detion to the heart of the sufferer. He perceives at pend; and that those professing Christians who last that the king of terrors is at hand ; nor can delay the season of serious thought till it is forced he conceal from himself that he is unprepared for upon them at the last hour, are in a state of exhis approach. His spiritual instructor is now sent treme danger. * for in haste; and when he arrives, his voice sounds ominously on the ear of the unhappy man, as if BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF JOHN ELIOT, the messenger of the Gospel had come to extinguish in his heart the last ray of hope; for that Ga which he has hitherto rested for support is LITTLE is known of the early life of this devoted misa earthly hope alone. But die he must ; and he born in the year 1604. He received his education at

he appears to have been a native of England, seeks in this visit a passport to a better world. the University of Cambridge, where he prosecuted his He listens to his pastor's exhortations and prayers, studies with great success. On leaving the University, raiher as if they were to open the gate of heaven he obtained a situation as usher of a school at Little by the power of enchantment, than as they in Baddow, superintended by Thomas Hooker, who afreality are, the appointed means of enlightening terwards became one of the most distinguished divines the darkened understanding, and renewing the de- Mc Eliot experienced a decided change in his whole sen

of New England. It was while at Little Baddow that praved will, and, through the operation of the

From a Series of Letters by Dr Duncan, printed and circulated Holy Spirit, rendering the soul meet for the in

among his Parishioners, but never published,


timents and feelings. An interest in Christ and his sal- was met by Waban, " a wise and grave Indian," and vation was now with him the one thing needful ; and so several of his friends, who conducted him to a large deeply impressed did his mind become with the import- wigwam, where he had an opportunity of proclaiming ance of religion, that he counted it his duty to devote the Gospel to a considerable number of poor Indians. himself to the work of preaching the Gospel to his fel- His second meeting with them was still more interlow-men. But as he felt that the views which he en- esting, and during the concluding prayer, an event tertained were such as would not then be tolerated in occurred which is well worth mentioning. "I cast the Church of England, he resolved to set out for Ame- my eye on one,' says one of Mr Eliot's friends, who rica ; and, accordingly, he embarked for New England was hanging down his head weeping. He held up in the summer of 1631, and arrived at Boston in No- his head for a wbile,--yet such was the power of vember of the same year.

the word on his heart, that he hung down his head Before leaving his native country, Mr Eliot had again, and covered his eyes, and so fell wiping and agreed with a number of his Christian friends who in. wiping of them, weeping abundantly, continuing thus tended to cross the Atlantic, that in the event of their till prayer was ended; after which he presently turns doing so previous to his settlement over any other con- from us, and turns his face to a side and corner of the gregation, he would become their pastor. This engage- wigwam, and there falls a weeping more abundantly by ment he afterwards fulfilled. On their arrival in New himself; which one of us perceiving, went to him, and England they planted a colony about a mile from Bos- spake to him encouraging words, at the hearing of which ton, erected a town which they called Roxbury, and he fell a weeping more and more: so leaving of him, he formed themselves into a church, of which Mr Eliot was who spake to him came unto me, being newly gone out appointed minister. In the discharge of his pastoral of the wigwam, and told me of his tears ; so we resolved duties he was remarkably conscientious and faithful, so to go again both of us to him, and speak to him again. that he was at once respected and beloved by his people. We met him coming out of the wigwam, and there we “ He would sound the trumpet of God,” says Dr Ma- spake again to him, and he there fell into a more ther, “ against all vice, with a most penetrating liveli- abundant renewed weeping, like one deeply and inness, and make his pulpit another Mount Sinai, for the wardly affected indeed, which forced us also to such Aashes of lightning therein displayed against the bowels of compassion, that we could not forbear weer breaches of the law given from that burning mountain. ing over him also,--and so we parted, greatly rejoicing There was usually a special fervour in the rebukes for such sorrowing.'' which he bestowed on carnality. When he was to Before the third interview with them, Mr Eliot four! brand the earthly-mindedness of Church-members, and that the Powahs or Indian priests had strictly forbiddea the allowance and indulgence which they often gave the people to listen to the instructions of the Englis.. themselves in sensual delights, he was a right Boaner- The interference, however, of these wicked imposto. ges,-he spoke as many thunderbolts as words.” was of no avail. The people still flocked to hear the

In the education of the young, Mr Eliot took a par- devoted missionary, and many of them expressed a w ticular delight, establishing schools, superintending them to have their children put under his care, that they when formed, and composing catechisms of elementary might be educated in the knowledge of Christian... instruction. When he entered a house, he was accus- Encouraged by the success which thus attended his ido tomed to call for the young people that he might lay his bours, Mr Eliot applied to the General Court of t:hands on them, and bless them. “ I cannot forget the colony in behalf of those who wished to be placed unic? ardour,” says Dr Mather, “ with which I once heard his tuition. His application was successful; land 1725 him pray at a Synod held in Boston, ‘Lord, for schools granted that they might build a town and enjoy the every where among us! That our schools may flourish! Christian instruction which they so much desireu. That every member of this assembly may go home to From that hour civilization commenced among the leprocure a good school to be encouraged in the town dians. A town was erected, surrounded by a stoli where he lives! That before we die we may be happy wall, and containing a great number of neat comfortable to see a good school established in every part of the wigwams. The women learned to spin ; the men were country!” Such was the benevolent spirit by which instructed in husbandry and the more simple mechani

. this pious man was actuated in his endeavours to bene- cal arts; and, in short, the whole settlement assumed fit the community to which he belonged.

an aspect of industry and activity. The first settlers in New England were placed in cir- Mr Eliot's exertions were promptly seconded by the cumstances of peculiar difficulty, which called for their local government, who passed several acts for the lufutmost exertions to procure a sufficient temporal sub- ther improvement and civilization of the Indians. T;" sistence, and at the same time to promote their spiritual change in consequence soon became apparent, eren improvement and edification. While thus struggling, how- the most careless observer. Mr Whitfield, who pa? ever, for their own preservation, they were by no means a visit to the town which these Indians had reared, was regardless of the poor ignorant savages by whom they particularly struck with astonishment at their appeai were surrounded, and whom they saw perishing for lack ance, and declared that, from their correct bebavila of knowledge. In their benevolent endeavours to instruct and decent clothing, he could scarcely distinguish thick them, they were not a little encouraged by an act passed from the English people. by the General Court of Massachusetts in 1646, tending Nor were the beneficial effects of Mr Eliot's labours to facilitate the propagation of the Gospel among the In- limited to the settlements where they were first beat". dians. It appeared that about the time when this act The Indians in various parts of the country me? was passed, Mr Eliot's mind was deeply affected with anxious to enjoy the same advantages. the deplorable condition of these ignorant heathens, and Christianization and civilization went hand in hand, as at length, after much consultation with his brethren, so rapidly did the desire for instruction spread, that th: and earnest prayer for the Divine direction, he resolved missionary found it difficult, even with the assistance to dedicate himself to the work of a missionary among some converted Indians, to comply with the numero them. To qualify himself for this important task, he invitations which poured in upon him from all quarzeni lost no time in availing himself of every means of ac- to come and communicate the glad tidings to various quiring their language ; and such was his success, that tribes of Indians. And in scarcely a single instant in a very short time he was able to address them in was the invitation made in vain. The devoted Eu* their own tongue. The place at which he preached his wandered from place to place, scattering the seed of difirst sermon to them, was situated about four miles from vine truth with unsparing hand.“ I have not beca his house, at Roxbury; and when he approached it, he dry night nor day," he writes, “ from the third

The work

of the week to the sixth, but have travelled from place consisting of “three fair streets;” two of which stretchto place in that condition; and at night I pull off my ed along the Boston side of Charles River, and one boots, wring my stockings, and on with them again, along the other. They were now constituted into a and so continue. The rivers also were raised so as regular community; and, by a solemn act of covenantthat we were wet in riding through. But God steps ing, they dedicated themselves to the Lord. The Inin and helps me. I have considered the exhortation of dians having thus formed a civil and religious commuPaul to his son Timothy, ' Endure hardness as a good nity, the Honourable John Endicott, governor of Massoldier of Jesus Christ,' with many other such like me- sachusetts, resolved to pay a visit to Natick, with the ditacions."

view of inspecting their real condition. The inquiry Animated by the pure motives of the Gospel, he bold- was in the highest degree satisfactory, and he declared, ly encountered the manifold hardships and difficulties, that “ he could hardly refrain from tears for very joy, and even dangers to which he was exposed; but in the to see the diligent attention of the Indians to the Word spirit of his great Master, he counted not his life dear of God.” unto himself, that he might accomplish the benevolent The next object to which Mr Eliot turned his attenmission which he had undertaken. Intelligence of the tion, was the formation of a Christian Church among wonderful success which every where attended his exer- the Indians. For this purpose, he continued to visit tions soon crossed the Atlantic,and attracted considerable them weekly –

-to catechise their children—and to inattention in England. Parliament was induced to take struct all, both young and adults, in the elements the matter under consideration, and an act was passed of divine truth. At first his wish to form a Church encouraging the evangelizing of the Indians, and sup- among them was frustrated; but at length, he had porting those engaged in the work. Large sums of mo- the happiness, with the approbation of the New ney were in consequence collected in England, under England ministers, of seeing a Church formed at Nathe authority of the Commissioners appointed by Par- tick. The individuals composing it having first dediliament. For these benevolent exertions on the part of cated themselves to the Lord, and then to one another his countrymen, Mr Eliot was particularly grateful, and in a holy covenant, were baptized and admitted to the he conveyed his obligations to them in terms of the Lord's Supper. About this time, the charter of the Sowarm est affection,

ciety for Propagating the Gospel in New England havEn couraged by the kindness and liberality of his ing expired, strong exertions were made to prevent its friends in England, he made application to them in be- renewal; but by the divine goodness, these unhallowed half of the schools which he was anxious to establish. efforts were frustrated, and a new charter was issued Neressity alone compelled him to take this step. “I by Charles II., bearing date the 7th February 1651. have not means of my own," he said ; “ I have a fa- At the head of the new corporation thus appointed mily of many children to educate ; and therefore I can- stands the celebrated name of the Honourable Robert not give over my ministry in our Church, whereby my Boyle. family is sustained, to attend the Indians, to whom I In September 1661, Mr Eliot had the high pleasure give, and of whom I receive nothing." The instruc-of seeing an edition of the New Testament completed tion of the young, and the translation of the Scriptures in the Indian language, and printed at the expense of into the Indian language, appear to have been the great the Society in England. This was followed in two objects upon which he had set his heart. But he was years by an edition of the Old, published under the not inattentive to the temporal comfort of the poor In- same benevolent patronage. Thus, was at length acdians. Desirous of instructing them in the arts of ci-complished, after much labour and unwearied exertion, vilized life, he submitted to his friends a proposal about an entire version of the Bible, in the language of the sending mechanics from England for that purpose. In North American Indians; and when we reflect that suggesting this plan, the ultimate object which Mr Eliot John Eliot was among the first that ever completed lad in view was to erect a town, in which the Indians such a work, we cannot but regard it as reflecting the belonging to the settlement might live comfortably. highest nonour upon his Christian zeal and diligence, in

While thus unwearied in his labours among the In- the cause of missions. The translation of the Bible dians, Mr Eliot felt that he could scarcely give that atten- was followed by that of the Psalter, several copies of tion to his own pastoral duties at Roxbury which their which were bound up with the Bible, and then by circumstances required. For some time his brethren in several smaller religious works, which were extensively the ministry had kindly lent him their assistance; but circulated among the Indians. at lengih it was judged expedient, that a colleague That the great work in which Mr Eliot was engaged should be appointed ; and accordingly the Rev. Samuel might be carried forward with still greater efficiency, Danforth was chosen to fill that office. The connec- he endeavoured, by all possible means, to induce others tion which Mr Eliot thus formed was attended with to embark in the same holy enterprise. He was soon great advantage to the congregation, and great comfort joined, accordingly, by several able and successful minto himself.

isters; but what more than all other things tended to In the mean time, the Society for Propagating the strengthen and encourage the heart of the apostolic Gospel in New England, which had been sanctioned Eliot, was the high privilege which he enjoyed of seeby the authority of the British Parliament, gave all the ing his eldest son enter upon the same work. encouragement to the devoted missionary, which their bore,” says Dr Mather, “his father's name, and he had circumstances would warrant. But they themselves his father's grace.” He laboured much, both among the were unhappily in considerable difficulty. Their mo- English and the Indians; but his labours were of short tives and feelings were misrepresented, and they were duration, for he was cut off in early life, and in the assailed by a multitude of objections from many who midst of his usefulness. had even professed themselves favourable to the scheme. About two years before his son's death, Mr Eliot On hearing of this unfortunate opposition, Mr Eliot published an Indian Grammar, which he dedicated to lost no time in despatching a letter to England, exhi- the honourable Robert Boyle as President, and to all biting a faithful view of his progress, and of the im- the other office-bearers and members of the Society in provements which, by the divine blessing, were gradu- England for Propagating Christian Knowledge in New ally taking place, both in the temporal and spiritual England. With the view of still farther improving the condition of the once savage Indians.

understanding of the Indians in general, and of the The change which was effected in the outward as. teachers and rulers in particular, Mr Eliot, about this pect of the Indian settlement was soon remarkably time, established a lecture at Natick, in which he exstriking. A town was built, which they called Natick, plained the leading doctrines of theology and logic.

“ He

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