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sesses them. Cain's feelings were earthly and selfish : , that is, he directed them to employ this species of it is evident, that he was afraid of an invasion of his clothing. Now, whence had they those skins? The birtbright; and his jealousy on this subject was not permission to eat animal food had not then been grantallayed even on the assurance of God, who said to him, ed to man; and we cannot suppose that the animals “ unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over were killed, merely for the purpose of furnishing clochhim."
ing to the tirst human pair,—that is a refinement of What was the cause of this jealousy? We can only comparatively modern times, when the innocent aniconjecture ; yet, I think, there are tolerable grounds mals are persecuted into the remotest wildernesses and for forming an opinion. Great, beyond conception, fastnesses of the earth, merely for their skins, to furmust bave been the misery and disappointment of nish trappings of vanity to the luxurious and the Adam and Eve, when they witnessed and felt the ter- wealthy. rible consequences of their transgression ; which they But Adam and Eve were clothed in the skins of ani. must have felt with a degree of acuteness which never mals which had been offered in sacrifice ; that, in the can be experienced by any of their descendants. We death of the victim they might see the heinousness of cannot know the miseries of sin as they did, for it is sin, and, in the shelter and comfort wbich they derived inherent in our nature from the commencement of our from wearing their spoils, might learn, that, instead of existence, and its power is increased and strengthened being clothed with sin, as with a gai ment, they could chiedy by its insidiousness in concealing its malignity. derive security and hope from the blood of atonement. But our first parents had known the happiness which No ordinance can be conceived so effectual for preresults from perfect innocence, when there was neither paring the world for the doctrine of atonement through sin, nor sorrow, nor pain ; and they had enjoyed uninthe blood of Christ, as the institution of sacrifices. terrupted communion with God, which we can taste Had such a practice been unknown, the doctrine of only for short periods and at distant intervals. All atonement, through Christ, would have appeared strange these advantages they lost by the fall ; but they could and startling, and it would have been said, “how comes not lose the recollection of them; and this recollection it that nothing similar to this has been heard of since would tend to einbitter their misery. One promise, the foundation of the world ?” But when we find the however, was given them to support them under the doctrine of atonement by blood forming a fundamental miseries of the fall; and that promise was, that “the article in all Religions, whilst human renson could give seed of the woman should bruise the head of the ser. no adequate explanation of the practice, and then perpent.” We may naturally suppose that they would ceive the extraordinary nature of the Christian sacrifice, consider their first son as the promised seed; and this both in regard to its evidence and its efficacy, we have supposition is confirmed by the name which Eve gave no difficulty in recognising sacrifices as symbolical proto ber first-born, whom she called Cain, (which means phecies, published and read among all nations, to pregain, or acquisition,) saying, “I have gained a man pare them for trusting in that great sacrifice, which from the Lord.”
alone can take away the sins of the world. This child of their hopes, and expected conqueror of We must not imagine that the heathen nations de. the serpent, would be made acquainted with their expec- rived their practice of sacrificing from the Jews; no tations, and would grow up in the confidence of effecting people on earth had less influence than they in dissemitheir emancipation from the misery which sin had nating the doctrine and practice of sacrifice over the brought into the world. In process of time, therefore, world. The sacrificial regulations were given to them when the two brothers had attained to such an age as when they sojourned in the wilderness, and when they authorised them to worship God by sacrifice, Cain took were expressly forbidden to hold intercourse with the the lead, by the prerogative of birth, to present an of- surrounding nations, with which they were in a state fering unto God. Abel followed his example,-but of constant bostility. But this was not the commencewith a different spirit, and with a very different result ment of the practice among them, it was merely an auto his services,- for they were accepted, whilst Cain's thoritative republication of an ordinance which had were rejected. How dreadful must have been the dis- existed throughout the world, ever since the fall of appointment of the latter! The cherished hopes, the man, that the Jews might recognise its (livine origin, as fond anticipations, the ambitious aspirings instilled by coming to them through the hands of their great leader his parents' instructions, and eagerly embraced by his and legislator, who was guided, in all bis proceedings, own mind, were laid prostrate in the dust, and he stood by the dictation of heaven ; and we shall find that the as a rejected suppliant, in the presence of a brother, sacrifices under the law, were the same as those which his inferior by birthright, but now a formidable and were in use before the law was given, with the excepfavoured rival.
tion of a few, such as the Passover, which had an imI dwell not on the tragical consequences which fol. mediate reference to the bistory of the Jews. Cain lowed these transactions, my object being merely to and Abel, for instance, offered the fruits of the earth, direct attention to these first recorded acts of religious and the firstlings of the tiocks, and these were recogworship. I do not, however, suppose that they were nised offerings, not only under the law of Moses, but the first sacrifices that ever were offered. There is among all the heathen nations. The next sacrifice, of strong presumptive evidence that Adam sacrificed be- which we have any account, was offered by Noah, fore the birth of Cain and Abel; and that his offering when he was rescued from the waters of the food; he was of the same kind with that of the latter, viz., 2 “ builded an altar unto the Lord, and took of every propitiatory sacrifice made by blood. This may be in- clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burntferred from the following circumstances :-)
- Immediately offerings on the altar.' Gen. viii. 20. These were on their fall, our first parents “knew that they were naked, considered as acceptable sacrifices among all nations. and were afraid." To hide their shame, “ they sewed Abraham is the next person, renowned for piety, who fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons." Gen. is recorded as worshipping God by sacrifice ; for be ii. 7. This was a simple and an elegant contrivance ; built an altar at Bethel, “ and called upon the name of and after their example, all their descendants have so the Lord :" this place became sacred to him and his covered their defects by decorations, as to make their descendants ; they delighted to repair to it to offer sacrivery infirmities the foundation and ground-work of fices unto God; and well might they do so, when God vanity. But God taught then a different lesson. Im- honoured it so far as to call himself “The God of Bethmediately after pronouncing the sentence against them, el!” Abraham, by the direction of God, offered the very it is said, “ Unto Adam also, and his wife, did the same sacrifices which were afterwards enjoined by the Lord God make coats of skins, and clothed them;" law of Moses. He took a heifer, and a she-goat, and
a ram, and a turtle-dove, and a young pigeon; the ani- | tirely with a reference to sacrifice ; for it was only mals he cut into pieces, but he left the birds entire.-after the food that permission was given to Nouh anú Gen. xv. 9, 10. Compare this with the legal rule of his descendants to eat the tlesh even of clean aniinals ; *sacrifice given by Moses, and it will be found that the and all those which were used in sacrifice, were alsó practice here described, is ordained as the regular law used for human food, to intimate, that both soul and of sacrifice.-Lev. i. 10–17. From this it will appear, body should be pure; or, as it is expressed in Scripthat the same victims, and the same rules of sacrifice, ture, " that we should cleanse ourselves from all filha were prescribed to Abraham, which were afterwards ness of the flesh and of the spirit; and perfect holienjoined to Moses, at the distance of four hundred and ness in the fear of the Lord.” And, moreover, the twenty-three years.
offering of clean animals to God was intended to teach But it may, perhaps, appear a little remarkable, that us that we must serve God with our substance, that nations decidedly hostile to the Israelitish people, we must be ready to part with a portion of that which should, nevertheless, offer the same victims, and ob- he has allotted for our food, as a token of gratitude, serve the same rites of sacrifice. Balaam, and Job, and and a confession that all that we have is his, and that David, though living in different countries, and in differ- it is only of his own that we are giving unto hin ent ages, and under different dispensations, neverthe- We may, therefore, recognise in the universal practice less, offer the very same sacrifices unto God. When of sacritice the intimation of a universal law, binding David went to bring the ark from the house of Obed- on all mankind, to surrender a part of their substance Edom, the event was celebrated with the greatest so- for the service of the altar, and the worship of God; lemnity: and the king, and the Levites, offered seven and another reason for offering only clean animals war bullocks and seven rams unto the Lord.-1 Chron. this, that the offerers themselves partook of the sacri. xv. 25, 26. The same sacrifice was offered by Job, in fices, as a token of their communion with the Deity, behalf of his friends : Take unto you now seven bul- to whom the offering was presented ; and hence, they locks, and seven rams, and go to my servant Job, and were not permitted to offer on the altar what could offer up for yourselves a burnt-offering.”—Job xlii. 8. not be used by themselves as food.
This offering by the man of Uz was, perhaps, prior The distinction of animals into clean and unclean is even to the giving of the law to Moses; for the book not purely arbitrary; it is founded in nature, and has a of Job has all the marks of the very highest antiquity. meaning and a moral. That it is founded in nature He lived at a period when the paternal and the priest is apparent from this, that the animals themselves rely characters were combined; and he offered up regu- cognise distinction by their habits and instincts; and it lar burnt-offerings in behalf of his children. This is rare that a beast of prey will choose to feed on an proves that he either lived before the law was given, animal of its own class or kind: the clean graminive. or, at least, that he had no connexion with the com- ous and frugivorous beasts and birds are almost univermonwealth of Israel.* If it is alleged that he was a sally selected as food by the rapacious tribes, whilst they good man, and that God imparted his will to him, the shun those of their own kind and character. Since, fact is admitted ; but then, I infer from this that nei- then, the animals used in sacrifice from the beginning i ther sacritice, nor the rule of sacrificing, ever were in the world, and generally among all nations, are only the vented by man; and that, wherever the practice and meek, gentle, and useful, we are entitled to inter, the rites existed, they were both dictated by God. that mildness, gentleness and benevolence are the qua.;Hence the general uniformity which prevailed on these ties which God requires in his worshippers: and as the points ainong all nations; and hence Balaam, a wicked rapacious and blood-thirsty animals are rejected ia man, who was reluctantly withheld from cursing Israel, sacrifices, so the man of violence, cruelty and blood, is did not venture to deviate from the prescribed rule, an abomination in the sight of God. except hy attempting to make his conformity more con- Even the rites and ceremonies, then, of the sacrificial spicuous hy a sevenfold number of altars and victims ; law, read us an important moral and religious lessen; conceiving, as the ignorant and superstitions have al- and as Moses was enjoined to forin the visible tater. ways done, that there is merit in excess where the end nacle according to the pattern which he had seen on and object are considered to be good. On this princi- the Mount, so we may be certain that every part of the ple, he said to the king of Moab, “ Build me here altar service was intended to convey an impordaint seven altars, and prepare me here seven oxen and | lesson to mankind. Hence, in reference to the sacrifi-Num, xxii. 1.
cial animals, we are enjoined to imitate the meekness From the facts that have been stated, we see the an- of the lamb, and the gentleness of the dove ; whilse the tiquity, and the universality, and the general uniformity murderous strength of the roaring lion, and the sange of sacriticing which prevailed among the early branches cruelty of the ravening wolf, are employed as figures, of the hunian family; whilst it is impossible to say to represent the qualities in human nature most abhorrent which (or whether any of them) borrowed from to God. We see, then, the inoral congruity of offering others. It was, in fact, a primeval rite, appointed by to God the animals which his word authorises us to God, to keep open an intercourse between man and his consider as emblematical of the mild, peaceable, ChrisMaker, and to typity that great sacritice offered by tian virtues; and of rejecting those whose habits are Him " who is the way, and the truth, and the life," characteristic of violence, impurity, or guil.. The song through wbom alone we can come unto God. The was rejected as the utmost abomination, on account of distinction of animals into clean and unclean, which its filthy habits, to show that indeceney is an odiouz prevailed before the flood, must have been made en- deformity in a being bearing the image of Christ; arid * There is every probability that Joh lived even before the time
that want of decency is more than want of sense, as it is of Abraham, and, thi retore, could not have borrowed the practice the sure sign of moral turpitude, and of a grovelung and rule of sacrificing froin him. We may judge of the period when
earthly mind. he liver, by the longevity which he attained. There was a gradual clown to its present standard. years, and we know of none who came after hin who exceeded that
CHRISTIAN TREASURY. a:c, except Isaac, who lived to !).
The Prevalence of Idolatry. This is the grand și ag'e was when he was in the height of bis prosperity, the richest man
of nature. Every unregenerate man ascribes to the in the East, with seven sons and three daughters; but we are infor med, that after all his misfortunes, when a family and possessions creature divine prerogatives, and allows it the bigbest wala again given to him, he lived in the enjoyment of these blessings room in his soul; or, if he is convinced of misery, he for 140 years.-- Jov. xlii. 16. The Septuagint makes Job to have
We may infer from these facts, and the data men- flies to it as bis Saviour. Indeed, God and his Christ tionce above, that he both lived longer and earlier than Abrahan. shall be called Lord and Saviour, but the real expectwo
curtailinent of the catent of huinan life after the flood, till it yunk
Abraliam reached the age of 175
But we have reason to think, that Job must have been considerably older : we know not what his
livet 210 years.
tion is from the creature, and the work of God is laid | Christ, whom he hath sent. Apart from Christ, thou
upon it. Pleasure, profit, and honour are the natural canst not know nor see him with truit and comfort, but da man's trinity, and his carnal self is these in unity. It the Gospel Revelation (which is the Revelation of God
was our first sin to aspire to be as gods, and it is the in Christ), gives thee a lovely prospect of him; his
greatest sin that is propagated in our nature from gene- glory shines in the face of Jesus Christ.-HOWE. in ration to generation. When God should guide us, we Whom have I in Heaven but Thee ?-Yea, but you di guide ourselves ; when He should be our sovereign, we
will say, how might David truly demand, Whoin bave rule ourselves; the laws which he gave us we find I in heaven but thee?" Is there none to be had in hea
fault with, and would correct, and, if we had the mak- ven but God? Are there none that walk in the streets prating of them, we would have made them otherwise ; ) of the celestial Jerusalem that are paved with gold ?
when he should take care of us, (and must, or we pe- Do none dwell in those glorious tabernacles that are of the rish,) we will take care of ourselves; when we should not made with hands? Do those twelve precious gates independ on him in daily receivings, we had rather have
serve only to beautify the holy city? Do none enter in If our portion in our own hands; when we should submit
at them ? Surely, if those dark and low rooms are so to his providence, we usually quarrel at it, and think well filled, it is not likely that those large, fair, and Ewe could make a better disposal than God hath made ; lightsome upper rooms are void ! The sky is not more 1 when we should study and love, trust and honour God, richly decked with glistening stars, than the throne of
we study and love, trust and honour our carnal selves. God with celestial lights. Beyond question, there are # Instead of God, we would have all men's eyes and de- | innumerable arınies of cherubim and seraphim, arch
pendence on us, and all men's thanks returned to us, angels and angels, saints and martyrs; yet the faithful and would gladly be the only man on earth extolled soul hath none of these, or rather none of these have and admired by all. Thus, we are naturally our own her, but he whom they all serve, who bath vouchsafed idols. But down falls this Dagon, when God does
to make her his spouse : in none but him hath she afonee renew the soul. It is the chief design of that great fiance, him she serveth as her loril, obeyeth as her king, Tork to bring the heart back to God hiinself
. He con- honoureth as her father, and loveth as her husband, vingth the sinner that the creature can neither be his and in this respect may truly say, " Whom have I in to God, to make him bappy, nor his Christ, to recover heaven but thee?” When Cyrus took the King of Ar
han trom bis misery, and restore him to God, who is menia, and his son Tigranes, their wives and chikiren, his happiness. God does this, not only by his Word, prisoners, and, upon their humble submission, gave them but by providence also. This is the reason why afilic- their lives and their liberty, on their return homme, as tion so frequently concurs in the work of conversion.
they all began to commend Cyrus, some for his personArruments which speak to the quick will force a hear
age, some for his power, some for his elemeney, Tiing, when the most powerful words are slighted. If a granes asked his wife, what thinkest thou ? is be not a finner make his credit his god, and God shall cast him comely and a proper man, and of a majestic presence ? i to the lowest disgrace, or bring him, who idolized his
Truly,” said she, “ I know not what mamer of man reces, into a condition wherein they cannot help him, he is, for I never looked on him!" What!" inquired U cause them to take wing and fly away, what a help he, “ where were thine eyes all the while ? L'pon is here to this work of conviction! If a man make plea- whom didst thou then look ?” “I fixed my eyes,' file his god, whatsoever a roving eye, curious ear, a said she, “ all the while upon him (meaning her busFriedy appetite, or a lustful heart could desire, and
band,) who, in my hearing, offered to Cyrus to lay Gou should take these from him, or turn them into gall down his life for ny ransom!” In like manier, op wornwood, what a help is here to conviction! question the devout soul, whether she be not captivatden God shall cast a man into languishing sickness, ed with the cherubim and seraphim, angels, or saints, and indict wounds on his heart, and stir up against hiin her answer will be, that she scarcely ever cast a look Liown conscience, and then, as it were, say to him, on them, because her eyes were never off him, who not
Try if your credit, riches or pleasure can help you. only offered, but laid down his life for her, and iali-
On the Efficacy of Affliction.– Many who have wait. ---Djour departing soul in your body, or save you ed year after year on the preaching of the word; who Pe mine everlasting wrath, or redeem your soul from
have looked on communion afrer communion, while malilanes? Cry aloud to them, and see now whe
the blessed symbols of redemption have been distribut. these will be to you instead of God and Christ.”
ed among the faithful, who have gone away from these vlow this works now with the sinner! Sense acknow
holy things with minds uninstructed and unmoved, bines the trutii, and even the flesh is convinced of the
whom the fetters of inattention have bound; in whom 1. Hure's vanity, aud our very deceiver is undeceived.
every power and sensibility has been benumbed," who -AXTER
have had ears, but heard not; eyes, but saw not; many W kero is Satisfaction to be found ?_The hungry crav- such have often experienced, how effectually even a at sou that would fain be bappy, but knows not how, single visitation of calaunity becomes the means of dis
id not spend its days in making uncertain guesses and solving the bands of this sinful torpor. How often has Ist attempts and trials: li may fix its hovering the threatening of death served to cast the light of such gats, and upon assurance here given, say, I have a convincing commentary on the doctrines of repentsw lound at last where satisfaction may be had; and ance and faith, as not even the highest eloquence of
ve only this to do, to bend all my powers hither, and human illustration could ever elicit. And attendance 15.3.44] this one thing, the possessing myself of this bless- on a sick-bed, and the sight of an expiring friend, and
; earnestly to endeavour and patiently to wait the hearing of those last breathings of Christian faith, fit. Happy discovery! Welcome tidings! which raise the departing soul above even the mortal 2)w which way to turn my eye and direct iny pursuit. struggle ; those words which would soften the grief of will no longer spend myself in dubious, toilsome wan- separation, by expressing the sad hope of the meeting 1995, in anxious vain inquiry: I have found, I have hereafter ; how often have these brought religion for
! blessedness is here. If I can but get a lively, ward to the most careless eye, in all its native importinscious sight of God, I have enough,---shew me the ance and solemnity. What an incalculable power does her and it sufficeth. Let the weary wandering soul the call to repentance, and the proposal of mercy rethink itself and return to God. Ile will not muck ceive, when the near view of the eternal world teaches ce with shadows as the world hath done. This is the need of livine forgiveness, and the value of divine Ercial life, to know him, the only true God, and Jesus favour.-MUIR,
Submission to the will of God.-Fenelon, Archbishop A MOTHER'S DEATH.
of Cambray, when his illustrious pupil, the Duke of BY THE Rev. STEVENSON M'Gill, D.D., Burgundy, lay dead in his coffin, and the nobles of his Professor of Theology, University of Glasgow.
court, in all the pomp of silent sadness, stood weeping
around, came into the room, and fixing his eyes on the Far from each busy scene, I meditate,
corpse, broke out in these words : “ There lies my be. Sad, yet not sorrowing, on the hour of death
loved prince, for whom I had the affection of the ten. The death of thee, my parent, lost so late
derest parent'; nor was my affection lost—he loved me Thy death so sweeten'd by thy Christian faith! with the ardour of a son! There he lies, and all my And thee, O world ! I gladly leave behind,
worldly happiness lies dead with him; but, if the turn. To seek retirement's calm and silent road;
ing of a straw would call him back to life, I would not, Sublimer thoughts engage my chastened mind;
for ten thousand worlds, be the turner of that straw, in And, from the grave, iny soul ascends to God opposition to the will of God.” Ascends through Him, on whom I place my trust,
Providential Escape.— There was a small court Who lieals the wound by which my heart was torn;
between St Antholin's Church, and that part of the And, while my tears fall o'er my Mother's dust, rectory-manse, in which the late Henry Venn's fat ber's
My mind is soothed--I weep_but do not mourn. study was situated. This had been roofed and tiled Yes—sweet the thoughts which fill my glist'ning eye;
over ; and here he used to play, when he was able to Soft as the dew-drops are the tears I shed;
say bis lessons, till his father was at leisure to hear him. And, while I feel affection's broken tie,
One day, being perfect in his lesson, he, as usual, asked I love to think on the departed dead.
leave to play, but was refused; as this leave had rarely
before been denied, and his father did not appear to be No anguish'd thought attends my Mother's grave; at leisure to bear him, he concluded that his request liad Past days remind me only of her love;
been misunderstood, and again asked permission to play, And, through her faith in Him who came to save,
but was immediately and peremptorily refused. Soon I see her now among the bless'd above.
after, his mother came into the room, and secing him And with her there, I hope my Lord to join,
looking out of the window, while his father appeared Free from my griefs and all my worldly cares; deeply engaged in writing, she asked, of ber own accord, Her hope, her path, her portion, shall be mine; whether he might not be allowed to play, but her reNor vain for me shall be her dying prayers.
quest was also refused. She thought this extraordinary, She was through life my fond but faithful friend ; but her surprise was changed into astonishment and
More than myself, she felt my griefs and joys; gratitude, when, a few minutes after, the whole roof Yet still she kept before me life's great end
fell in, and would have crushed her child to death, bad The Christian's calling, and the Christian's prize.
he been playing there, as was requested. His father
acknowledged that he had no particular reason, at the Lofty, though tender, was her virtuous mind;
inoment, for denying the wonted permission, but, baving Upright and generous, candid as the day;
once refused, thought it proper to persist in the refusal. True while she loved, unflattering while kindTo noblest aims she pointed still my way.
Danger of Daubing with Untempered Mortar.-In s
very interesting and instructive little work, entitled, In youth's sweet days she heard her Saviour's voice ;
“ African Light," published by Waugh and Innes, EdinWith deep devotion gave herself to God;
burgh, the author, Mr Campbell, the South African Through chequer'd life, felt still religion's joys ;
traveller, gives the following illustration of Ezek. ii. Through good and ill, still held the heavenly road.
10 and 11, where the prophet speaks of the danger aris Her course was long-in peace she saw its end, ing froin daubing with untempered mortar.“ In cous
And look'd beyond the vale with lively faith ; tries destitute of coal, bricks are only either sun-dried, She saw the glory of the promised land,
or very slightly burnt with bushes and branches of And feared no evil in the shades of death.
trees, laid over them and set on fire. Such are ready Low in the grave I laid her honour'd head,
to moulder if exposed to moisture, and entirely to melt And thought of all the scenes thro' which she pass’d; away if exposed to heavy rain dashing against them. The young and aged number'd with the dead
To prevent such a catastrophc, all the houses in the The valued friends with whom I once was bless'd. Cape colony are daubed, or plastered, over with fire THE
mortar, made from ground sea-shells. I felt myself a stranger on the earth ;
Should only a
small hole remain unnoticed in the plaster, a powerful Saw Jordan's gloomy waves before me rollEternal things in all their speechless worth
rain will get into it, and probably soon be the destruction And solemn grandeur, rose before my soul.
of the whole building. Well do I remember one deluge
of rain that turned a new house of three tioors absolutely Prostrate I fell before the sacred throne;
into a mass of rubbish, and brought down the gable of With humble prayer, renewed my sacred vows; a parish church, besides injuring many other buildings, And, trusting in my Saviour's grace alone, Look'd to the mansions of my Father's house.
Published by JOHN JOHNSTONE, at the Offices of the SCOTTIS And now I love the calm and silent shade ;
CHRISTIAN HERALD, 104, High Street, Edinburgh, and 19: Giss.
ford Street, Glasgow ;-JAMES NISBET & Co., and R. H. Mocak To rise in faith beyond the bounds of time;
London ; D. R. BLEAKLEY, Dublin; and W. M'COYR Bes: With softened heart, to think upon the dead,
and sold by the Booksellers and Local Agents in all the Tors And elevate my soul in thoughts sublime.
and Parishes of Scotiand; and in the principal Towns in a Yet, while I see the wondrous ages roll,
Subscribers in Edinburgh and Leith will have their copies de
livered at their own residences regularly, by leaving their acte The plan of grace fulfilling all its ends ;
with the Publisher, or with John Lindsay & Co., 7. South St AWith every scene which rises on my soul,
drew Street.- Subscribers in Glasgow will, in like manner. hare
their copies delivered, by leaving their addresses at the Publik I see the forms of my DEPARTED FRIENDS.
Office there, 19, Glassford Street.
Subscription (payable in adrance) per quarter, of twelve veets The weary traveller in a trackless land,
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Printed at the Steam-Press of Ballantyne & Co., from the Stereo And see their friends in every thought of home. type Plates of Thomas Allan, & Co.
land and Ireland.
differ from mere acquaintances, with whom we ON THE CHOICE OF COMPANIONS.
have intercourse only in the way of business, or By the Rev. ALEXANDER LEITH Ross FOOTE, in the occasional courtesies of life. The former One of the Ministers of Brechin.
are higher in our friendship; they are more in
timate, less numerous. We have, in general, many We believe all enquirers into the nature of man, acquaintances, but, comparatively, few companions. agree in assigning to him this quality, that he is Intimate friendship will not extend over a large a social being. There may, indeed, be a few mis- surface,—it will not divide into small and numeanthropes, a few selfish beings, who dislike and rous portions. Thus we see that companionship shun human intercourse. You do not admire such has its foundation in nature. It is natural for us unamiable characters ; you pity them as destitute to have companions. There is, perhaps, no one of the finer feelings of humanity, or as doing vio- who has not companions, or who does not desire lence to them, but you do not suffer these excep- to have them. You cannot fail to have observed tions to shake your confidence in what seems to be, how the truth of this is exemplified in the young; on the whole, a general law of our nature. It is how early and invariably they choose companions this principle that brings men together into com- whom they love as brothers. The tendency, in munities, more or less large, according to circum- fact, requires to be checked rather than excited. stances, and continues to keep them together. It Companionship is found to be one of the grand may be said, perhaps, that necessity, more than charms of human existence in all ages and in all choice, is the foundation of human society, as we circumstances. are so dependent on each other, that we could not And here we feel ourselves bound to pause and live in solitude, even if we would, and that we acknowledge the goodness of our Creator in conmust live in society, even though contrary to our ferring upon us this tendency, which so much eninclination. This is, indeed, so far true; necessity, larges the sphere of our enjoyment and improveour natural wants and weakness, and our natural ment. In this as in every other part of the condependence, thence resulting, have no small share stitution of our nature and of the world around in constituting and preserving human society. us, we see that “he is good and doeth good.” But we deny that it is the sole or even chief foun- And being thus constituted, it is evident that it is dation of it.
We maintain that though each in- not only natural for us to have companions, but dividual had within himself resources for his sub- lawful ; and not only lawful, but a duty. When sistence, he would be wretched in solitude ; that, good companions are to be obtained, it is a posithough placed in the choicest spot imagination tive duty to resort to them, because we may be erer conceived, though the sun ever shone upon quite sure the beneficent Author of our constituhiin, and balmiest gales ever fanned him, and though tion would not have conferred upon us a tendency for him nature poured spontaneously from her lap which could answer no good end. the richest of her fruits, he would still sigh for the It is time, however, after these general remarks, intercourse of his fellows, and seek it, not from to proceed to the illustration of the influence which necessity but from choice.
companions exert over one's character. It is the Not only, however, does this principle lead to declaration of the wise man, that “ he that walkthe formation of society in general
, but of the more eth with wise men shall be wise, but the comintimate connections that exist in it. It is this panion of fools shall be destroyed,” and, like every principle, to come nearer our present topic, that other Scripture statement, it is consistent with ads to companionship, which is the selection, universal experience ; so much so, that you are tom the mass of society, of a few individuals whose irresistibly led to form an opinion of a man from ompany we more highly relish, and more fre- the company he keeps ; either, you suspect he is uently resort to,-in whom we place greater con- already like them, or he is in a fair way of becomdence; between whom and us there exists a ing so, and you are generally right. This influloser identity of feeling and pursuit. Companions ence arises from a well known principle of our na