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tershire. Here, in honoured and literary retirement, under the roof of pious hospitality, lived Henry Hammond; and here, just as the altars he loved were restored, and when he would have received the first honours due to his learning and virtues — he
died in peace.
As Westwood Park was so distant from Longleat, in Wiltshire, and as Dr. Hammond lived in domestic privacy till death, we might naturally be disposed to question the accuracy of that information which attributes any part of Thynne's education to Hammond.
We shall therefore trace the connection between these families. The first Lord Coventry by two wives had issue - one son and one daughter by his first wife; by the second, four sons and four daughters. Dorothy, the younger, was married to Sir John PACKINGTON, of whom we have spoken ; and Mary, the second daughter, to Henry FREDERICK THYNNE. This shows, at once, the connection between the families of Westwood Park and Longleat, and the circumstances under which the grandson of Frederick Thynne was enabled to derive the advantage from such a director of his studies as Hammond: but it shows more, for it throws accidentally an interesting light on a subject of literary enquiry. In the present day, a question has arisen, “who wrote Εικων Βασιλικη ?” * And may we not ask
* After all the discussion on this subject, there are some facts on which I shall make a few observations:
" WHO WROTE THE WHOLE DUTY OF MAN?” One object of inquiry throws light, accidentally, on another.
First, the father of that Lord Dartmouth who wrote the notes to Burnet, (Legge,) was constantly with King Charles, and never had any doubt on the subject. This is expressly said by his son. (Notes to Burnet.) I have no doubt he mistook the Icon for the Diary.
Second, it is admitted that in the second edition of this work there was a prayer taken from Sir Philip Sydney's Romance !
No fabricator would exhibit Charles, in his uttermost distress, pilfering a prayer from a romance-book, which alone would destroy all idea of his sincerity or real religion among Puritans! But the King, who read such works, might have transcribed a beautiful prayer, which suited his own sorrows, and afterwards forget its source.* Other undoubted prayers exist of the King.
As to King James having told Burnet that Gauden wrote this work, James could know nothing further than what Gauden told him, and he would readily give ear to any story against the authenticity of a record which condemned himself, and testified so strongly his father's attachment to the Church of England. Charles wrote undoubtedly a Diary, and some prayers. Did, then, Charles write the Icon ? Certainly not, it appears.
All the antithetic and affected passages I have no doubt are Gauden's. But Charles wrote memoranda of his sorrows; and I believe, if the suspiria Regalia had been published as written by the Lover of Shakspeare, they would have been far more affecting.
Of the book found at Naseby, Major Huntingdon says,
* This prayer, at his execution, the King gave to Juxon ; but it was published in the second edition of Icon. If Gauden had any hand in the publication of the second edition, the inference is obvious, that he did not write this Prayer,
It is well known that this work, so popular at the time, as having succeeded the “Fiduciary” system, that is, “ faith without works," was first published with a preface by Hammond, which is retained in all the editions. It has been attributed to Lady Packington, to whom, for so many years, Hammond was spiritual guide.
Now, when we consider that Hammond lived under the hospitable roof of the virtuous lady to whom it has been attributed, — when he directed her studies,—when he wrote the preface, — when it was sent anonymously for publication to his friend Dr. Fell, -and, above all, when it is compared, in language, in design, and virtuous intent, with the " Practical Catechism," I think it will not be doubted who was the real author; to whom, indeed, it has sometimes been attributed - and when we shall be asked, “who wrote THE WHOLE DUTY
“ The chapters were (as he well remembers) written by the hand of Sir Edward Walker, but much corrected with interlineations by the King's own hand; THE PRAYERS BEING ALL WRITTEN BY THE King's OWN HAND; which, he says, he VERY WELL KNEW to be." —Relation of Major Huntingdon to Sir William Dugdale, June 1679. My friend Mr. Todd, whose arguments are invincible, thinks Huntingdon’s testimony doubtful; but I shall have an opportuuity of saying more in another place. See Appendix.
See Hallam's note: but Mr. Hallam does not advert to what Huntingdon says expressly of the Prayers in the King's hand-writing." Were there any PRAYERS in Walker's History?
connecting it with those circumstances, and with the acknowledged “Practical Catechism," published first anonymously in 1655, may we not answer, “Henry Hammond, in his retirement at Westwood Park;" Hammond, in the Puritanic vocabulary, “SCANDALOUS and malignant!"
The same virtuous character taught the same virtuous principles to his pupil Thomas Thynne, -instilled the same pious and ingenuous feelings,excited the same attachment to the Church of England, - and recommended his being placed at Christchurch, where, under Morley, the first Dean after the Reformation, formerly Canon with Hammond, his academical studies were superintended. Fell,succeeding Morley as Dean, took the same anxious care of the education of the young noblemen and gentlemen in this illustrious seminary. From Morley, the friend of Hammond, we shall give reasons for supposing that Fell received particular instructions respecting the noble and amiable heir of Longleat, who, by Morley, the late Dean, had been already introduced to the acquaintance and friendship of Ken, of New College.
* This work has been always vituperated, from that time to the present, by pietists of a certain class. Rowland Hill says, "it has no heart-work."
+ This was the Fell, alas ! who complied with the King's command to deprive Locke of his Studentship! an act for which no virtues will compensate.
From some novel and interesting circumstances connected with the biography of Ken, we shall shew this more clearly as we proceed. We may presume from his character that Ken regularly pursued his academic studies from 1656 to 1662, when he took his first degree. But, as this was not till after the Restoration, we shall, in the next chapter, take a cursory retrospect (from the time of Ken's birth) of that gloomy reign of fanaticism, so fatal, for a time, to the Episcopal Church — a fanaticisin which realized all the attributes, with some exceptions, that imagination confers on demoniacs which at last sunk down, wearied with its own tumultuary conflicts. This gloomy period was naturally succeeded by the most open libertinism, during which the Clergy still shone as exemplary lights, in a libertine generation ; witness Beveridge, &c. the founders of the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge. At the Restoration, the most beautiful daughter of the Reformation, the Church of England rose up again - next to the Word of God, venerating her sublime and affecting Liturgy - retaining her decent vestments — her sublime choir service—her intrinsic spirit of piety (of which Ken was a most illustrious example) — equally remote from the dogmas of human infallibility, or the rhapsodies of frantic enthusiasm.