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her as the type of elegance and good taste. The admiration for small feet made rapid progress; it was admitted that, at last, a criterion of beauty had been discovered, and as people have always a passion for new follies, the Chinese ladies sought, by all possible methods, to follow the fashion. Those who were already of mature age, however, resorted in vain to bandages and various means of compression. They found it impossible to suppress the legitimate developments of nature, and to give to their basis the elegance they so much desired. Young ladies had the consolation of obtaining some success, but not to the extent they wished. It was reserved for the succeeding generation to witness the complete triumph of little feet. Mothers devoted to the new mode did not fail, when a daughter was born to them, to compress the feet of the poor little creature with tight bandages that bindered their growth; and the results of these measures having appeared highly satisfactory, they were generally adopted throughout the empire."--Huc, vol. ii., p. 403.

We have already got a glimpse at the capital of the principal silk country of China, Hoo-chow-foo, in the somewhat homely descriptions of Medhurst : Let us now look at it from Mr Fortune's point of view:

“ According to Chinese accounts, this city is about six miles in circumference, and contains about a hundred thousand families. Both of these statements are probably exaggerated, as the walls did not appear to me to be more than three, or, at most, four miles round. As I was anxious to see something of the interior of the city, I sent one of my men to procure a sedan chair, for the day was excessively warm. The chairmen soon made their appearance, but as their demands for hire were so exorbitant, I refused to comply with them, and determined to walk-a proceeding which, although not so comfortable, would enable me to see more of the shops and people. Entering at the south gate, I proceeded in a northerly direction, and examined all the principal streets on my way. Thousands of people followed me as I went along. They were very uproarious, but good-humoured withal, and appeared delighted with the opportunity of seeing a “Pak Quei-tze," or white devil, a term by which foreigners are designated in this civilized part of the world. Although this term was sometimes used in a tone of contempt or insult, showing that those who used it fully understood its meaning, yet generally it was not so. Upon one occasion some friends of mine remonstrated with some of these polite people, and endeavoured to explain to them that the term was one to which we were not exactly entitled, and that it was not very agreeable, In reply, the Chinese expressed surprise and regret for having used the term, and thus given offence, but innocently asked if we were not white devils; and if not, what we were, and by what name they should call us!

“ Alone as I now was, and surrounded by thousands of Chinese in one of their inland cities, it was absolutely necessary to keep my temper under the most complete control. În circumstances of this

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kind, if one laughs and jokes with the crowd, and takes everything in good part, all will generally go well, for the Chinese are, upon the whole, good-humoured and polite; but if he, by any chance, loses his temper, he will most certainly get the worst of it, and most likely will be hooted and pelted with stones. I had had some experience in the management of Chinese crowds, and therefore continued to be in the sweetest possible frame of mind in the midst of the thousands who followed me through the city, as if I had been a wild animal or white devil' indeed.

As I threaded my way slowly along, in addition to the dense erowds that followed and preceded me, every window and doorway was crowded with curious-looking faces, all anxious to get a view of the foreigner. It was curious to mark the varied expression in the different countenances. In some, there was a look of contempt, in others, wonder was strongly depicted, but in the vast majority, there was wonder, mingled with fear, as if I was in reality a being from another world. Keeping onward in a northerly direction, and diverging now and then to the right or left, according as an object of interest met my eye, I arrived at last at the north gate of the city. Here I ascended the ramparts in order to get a good view. Outside the walls I observed a large dense suburb, with a pretty pagoda, and a canal leading through it in the direction of the T'ai-bu lake. Throwing my eyes over the city, the roofs of the houses seemed nearly all of the same height. Indeed, this is a striking characteristic of all Chinese towns wbich I have visited. One rarely sees any difference in the height of the houses, except when a temple, a pagoda, or a watch-tower disturbs the monotony of the view. I believe the Chinese have a strong prejudice against one house being raised higher than the others.

“ It was a lovely evening, the 18th of June. The sun was just setting behind the high mountain ranges to the westward, and although the day had been oppressively warm, the air was now comparatively cool and enjoyable. I was in the midst of most charming scenery; and although only about two miles distant from a crowded and bustling city, everything was perfectly quiet and still. Overhead, the rooks were seen returning home for the day, and here and there, on a solitary bush, or in a grove of trees, the songsters of the woods were singing their last and evening song of praise. Mulberry trees, with their large rich green leaves, were observed in all directions, and the plantations extended all over the low country, and up to the foot of the hills. The hills here were low and isolated, and appeared as if they had been thrown out as guards between the vast plain, which extends eastwards to the sea and the mountains of the west. For the most part, they were covered with natural forests and brushwood, and did not appear to have ever been under cultivation. In some parts their sides were steep, almost perpendicular, while in others the slope was gentle from their base to the summit. Here and there some rugged looking granite rocks reared their heads above the trees, and were particularly striking.

“ Looking to the hills, there all was nature pure and unadorned, just as it had come from the hands of the Creator ; but when the eye

rested on the cultivated plain-on the rich mulberry plantations—on the clear and beautiful canals studded with white sails, the contrast was equally striking, and told a tale of a teeming population, of wealth and industry.

“I remained for three days amongst these hills, and employed myself in examining their natural productions, and in making entomological collections. In some grassy glades in the wood, I frequently came upon little bands of natives engaged in making thrown silk. A long narrow frame-work of bamboo of considerable length was constructed, and over this the threads were laid in the state in which they came from the reel. At the end of the frame, collections of these threads were attached to a number of round balls about the size of marbles. A rapid motion was communicated to the balls by a smart stroke between the palms of the hands. The workmen went along the line of balls with the quickness of lightning, striking one after the other, and keeping the whole in motion at the same time, until the process of twisting the silk was completed.”—FORTUNE, pp. 350, 358.

In the concluding chapter of his book, Mr Fortune discusses our recent collision with the Chinese, in the notorious affair of “ The Arrow” lorcha. The calm and judicious statements of the character and occupations of those who employ lorchas of the "Arrow” class, should suggest to our Foreign Office the necessity of giving positive orders to our representatives in China to discontinue countenancing them. All who know China, and take an interest in the people with whom we now have such close mercantile relations, protest, equally with Mr Fortune, against permission being given to vessels of this kind to sail under British colours. But, this view of the “Arrow" does not lead our author to the conclusion, that we should now withdraw from the whole affair, as if we were entirely in the wrong. On the contrary, his knowledge of the Chinese character, and his clear apprehension of the merits of this case, lead him to urge the vigorous prosecution of the war, until we obtain a settlement perfectly satisfactory to Europeans. All who look hopefully on China, as a field of missionary operation, must long for the time when the way to the homes of the three hundred and sixty millions of its inhabitants shall be opened up, and, as they remember their moral and spiritual degradation, they will cordially sympathise with Mr Fortune's concluding remarks, and earnestly desire their speedy realization.

“But putting on one side the case of the unfortunate lorcha ‘Arrow,' about which our doctors differ,' there seems to be little doubt but our relations with the Cantonese were upon a most unsatisfactory footing, and that sooner or later the good understanding' existing between us would have been disturbed. It was only a question of time, and it has been decided somewhat prematurely, perhaps, by this supOur Present Dispute with China.

105

posed insult to the English flag and infraction of treaty rights. Our relations with the people and government of Canton, can never be considered on a satisfactory footing, until we have a full and complete understanding with each other. They must be brought to look upon us as a nation, as highly civilized, and as powerful as themselves. Until this is accomplished, we may have a disturbance at any time; our commerce may be stopped, and what is of far more importance, the lives of our countrymen living in this remote region, may be placed in imminent danger.

" Whether we were right or wrong, therefore, at the commencement of this unfortunate dispute, it is now absolutely necessary for us to carry it through until our relations are placed upon a firm and satisfactory basis. It may seem fair and plausible for persons ignorant of the Chinese character, to talk of justice and humanity,-finesounding words no doubt,,but totally inapplicable to the present state of things.

" In order, therefore, to be humane, in the strictest sense of the term, to prevent future war and bloodshed, to give the Cantonese a true estimate of our character, to render the lives and property of our countrymen secure, and to prevent those vexatious interruptions to our commerce, we must carry out what we have begun with a firm and determined hand. With a nation like the Chinese, particularly about Canton, this is true humanity and mercy.

“ In conclusion, let us hope that the day is not far distant, when this large and important empire, with its three hundred millions of human beings, shall not remain isolated from the rest of the world. The sooner the change takes place the better will it be for the Chinese, as well as for ourselves. Trade and commerce will increase to a degree of which the most sanguine can form but a very faint idea at the present time. The riches of the country will be largely developed, and articles useful as food, in the arts, or as luxuries, at present unknown, will be brought into the market. It cannot be true that a vast country like China, where the soil is rich and fertile, the climate favourable, and the teeming population, industrious and ingenious, can produce only two or three articles of importance, such as silk and tea for exportation. There must be many more, and these will be brought to light when the country is fully and fairly opened to the nations of the west.

“ But when this is accomplished, a boon of greater value will be conferred upon the Chinese, than anything connected with the extension of their commerce. The Christian missionary will be able without fear of restriction, to proclaim the 'glad tidings of great joy' to millions of the human race, who have never yet heard the joyful sound.

“Objects such as these,—the placing of our relations on a firm and satisfactory basis, the prevention of unequal wars where much blood is necessarily shed, the extension of trade and commerce, and the free and unrestricted dissemination of the Gospel of Christ,—are worthy of the consideration of the highest statesmen and greatest philanthropists of our time.”-FORTUNE, pp. 430, 439.

Art. V.-1. Report by Her Majesty's Commissioners appointed

to inquire into the state of Lunatic Asylums in Scotland, and the existing Law in reference to Lunatics and Lunatic Asylums in that part of the United Kingdom. With an Appendix. Presented to both Houses of Parliament by command of Her

Majesty, 1857. 2. A Bill for the Regulation of the Care and Treatment of

Lunatics, and for the Provision, Maintenance, and Regulation of Lunatic Asylums, in Scotland. Prepared and brought in by the LORD-ADVOCATE and Sir GEORGE GREY. Ordered

by the House of Commons to be printed 18th June 1857. For a long series of years have the medical superintendents of our public asylums,—or, as is the fashion now to designate them, chartered asylums—in their annual reports regarding these institutions, with singular ability, fidelity, and fearlessness, exposed the deficiencies, anomalies, and inconsistencies in the Lunacy Laws on the one hand, and the faults of commission and omission connected with the treatment of the insane—and especially the pauper insane-of Scotland, on the other. They have pointed out the extent and tendency of the prejudices which exist, especially in country and remote districts, regarding asylums and their inmates : the degree to which restraint, physical force, and terrorism are suggested or dictated by mistaken kindness, ignorance, or brutality in the treatment of the insane : the comparative curability of insanity in its earlier stages and under appropriate treatment, and the importance of early treatment, both in regard to the chances of cure of the patient and to the pocket of the rate-payer; the dangers of delay in confirming and aggravating the disease, and in constituting the patient a permanent instead of a temporary burden on parochial boards : and the suicides, homicides, and other disasters both to the individual and to society, resulting from premature removals in opposition to medical advice. They have shown conclusively that detention or custody, not cure or restoration, are too frequently the mainsprings of action in parochial boards, whose treatment of the insane is more apt to be influenced by motives of short-sighted economy, than by those of humanity; they have raised their voices indignantly against the practice of “farming” out the insane poor, without regard either to comfort or cure, and against the wholesale exodus of pauper patients from public asylums to private houses and workhouses. They have explained the danger of the desire and necessity for profit, on the part of the proprietors

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