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in of common grounds, our Archers for want of roome lo shoote abroad, creep into bowling allies and ordinarie dicing-houses neerer home, where they have roome enough to hazard their money at unlawfull games.

Among the amusements more peculiarly belonging to the metropolis, and which better than any other exhibits the fashionable mode, at that time, of disposing of the day, we may enumerate the custom of publicly parading in the iniddle aisle of St. Paul's Cathedral. During the reign of Elizabeth and James, Paul's Walk, as it was called, was daily frequented by the nobility, gentry, and professional men; here, from ten to twelve in the forenoon, and from three to six in the afternoon, they met to converse on business, politics, or pleasure; and hither too, in order to acquire fashions, form assignations for the gaming table, or shun the grasp of the bailiff, came the gallant, the gamester, and the debtor, the stale knight, and the captain out of service; and here it was that Falstaff purchased Bardolph ; " I bought him," says the jolly knight, “at Paul's.”+

Of the various purposes for which this temple was frequented by the loungers of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Decker has left us a most entertaining account, and from his tract on this subject, .published in 1609, we shall extract a few passages which throw no incurious light on the follies and dissipation of the age.

The supposed tomb of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, but in reality that of Guy Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, appears to have been a privileged part of the Cathedral :

“ The Duke's tomb,” observes Decker, addressing the gallant, “is a sanctuary; and will keep you alive from worms, and land rals, that long lo be feeding on your carcass : there you may spend your legs in winter a whole afternoon ; converse, plot, laugh, and talk any thing ; jest at your creditor, even to his face; and in the evening, even by lamp-light, steal out; and so cozen a whole covey of abominable calch-polls."

Such was the resort of the male fashionable world to this venerable Gothic pile, that it was customary for trades-people to frequent its aisles for the purpose of collecting the dresses of the day.

"If you determine to enter into a new suit, warn your tailor to attend you in Pauls, who, with his hat in bis hand, shall like a spy discover the stuff, colour, and fashion of any doublet or hose that dare be seen there, and, stepping behind a pillar to fill his lable books with those notes, will presenlly send you into the world an accomplished man; by which means you shall wear your clothes in print with the first edition.”'

The author even condescends to instruct his beau, when he has obtained his suit, how best to exhibit it in St. Paul's, and concludes by pointing out other recourses for killing time, on withdrawing from the cathedral.

“ Bend your course directly in the middle line, that the whole body of the church may appear to be yours; where, in view of all, you may publish your suit in what manner you affect most, either with the slide of your cloak from the one shoulder : and then you must, as 'lwere in anger, suddenly snatch at the middle of the inside, if it be taffeta at the least; and so by that means your costly lining is belrayed, or else by the pretty advantage of compliment. But one note by the way do I especially woo you lo, the neglect of which makes many of our gallants cheap and ordinary ; that by no means you be seen above four turns; but in the fifth make yourse! away, either in some of the semsters' shops, the new tobacco-oslice, or amongst the booksellers, where, if you cannot read, exercise your smoke, and inquire who has wril against ibis divine weed, &c.'

After dinner it was necessary that the finished coxcomb should return to Paul's in a new dress :

“After dinner you may appear again, having translated yourself out of your English cloth into a light Turkey grogram, if you bave that happiness of sbisting; and then be seen, for a turn or Survey of London, 1618, p. 162.

# Henry IV. Part ïi. act i. sc. 2. The Gull's Horn-book, 4to. 1609. p 99. $ The Gull's Horn-book, p. 101, 102, ** Ibid. p. 95, 96.

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two, to correct your teeth with some quill or silver instrument, and to cleanse your güms with a wrought bandkerchief: it skills not whether you dined, or no; that is best known lo your stomach ; or in what place you dined; though it were with cheese, of your own mother's making, in your chamber or sludy.” *

The fopperies exhibited in a place, which ought to have been closed against such unballowed inmates, rival, if not exceed, all that modern puppyism can produce. The directions which Decker gives to his gallant on quitting St. Paul's in the forenoon, clearly prove, that the loungers of Shakspeare's time are not surpassed, either in allectation or the assumption of petty consequence, by the same worthless class of the nineteenth century:

“In which departure," enjoins the satirist, “if by chance you either encoupler, or aloof off throw your inquisitive eye upon any knight or squire, being your familiar, salute him pot by his name of Sir such a one, or so; but call him Ned, or Jack, &c. This will set off your estimation with great men : and is, though there be a dozen companies between you, 'tis the better, he call aloud lo you, for that is most genleel, to know where he shall find you at two o'clock; tell him at such an ordinary, or such ; and be sure lo name those are dearest, and whilber none but your gallanls resort. ” +

A still more offensive mode of displaying this ostentatious folly, sprang from a custom then general, and even now not altogether obsolete, of demanding spurmoney from any person entering the cathedral during divine service, with spurs on. This was done by the younger choristers, and, it seems, frequently gave birth to the following gross violation of decency:

“ Never be seen to mount the steps into the quire, but upon a high festival day, lo prefer the fashion of your doublet; and especially if the singing-boys seem to take note of you; for they are able to buzz your praises above their anthems, if their voices have not lost their maiden heads : but be sure your silver spurs dog your heels, and then the boys will swarm about you like so many wbite bullerflies ; † when you in the open quire shall draw forth a perfumed embroidered purse, the glorious sight of which will entice many countrymen from their devotion to wondering : and quoit silver into the boy's hands, that it may be heard above the first lesson, although it be read in a voice as big as one of the great organs.” S

The tract from which we have taken these curious illustrations, contains also a passage which serves to show, that London, in the time of our poet, was not unprovided with exhibitions of the docility, sagacity, and tricks of animals; and this, with similar relations, will tend to prove that the ingenious Mr. Astley, and the Preceptor of the learned pig, had been anticipated both in skill and perseverance. Decker, after conducting his “mere country gentleman" to the top of St. Paul's, proceeds thus :

“ Hence you may descend, to talk about the horse that went up; and strive, if you can, lo know his keeper; take the day of the month, and the number of the steps ; and suffer yourself to believe verily that it was not a borse, but something else in the likeness of one : wbich wonders you may publish, when you return in the country, to the great amazement of all farmer's daughters, that will almost swoon at the report, and never recover till their bans be asked twice in the church.

This is the dancing-horse alluded to by Shakspeare in Love's Labour's Lost (act. i. sc. 2); an English bay gelding, fourteen years old, and named Morocco. He had been taught by one Banks, a Scotchman, and their fame was spread over a great part of Europe; “ if Banks had lived in older times,” remarks Sir Walter Raleigh," he would have shamed all the inchapters in the world ; for whosoever was most famous among them, could never master or instruct any beast as he did.” It was the misfortune, indeed, of this man and his horse to be taken for enchanters; while at Paris, they had a narrow escape, being imprisoned for dealing with the devil, and at length liberated, on the magistrates

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* Gull's Horn-book, p. 97, 98.
† They are thus called, from wearing while surplices.
** Gull's Horn-book, p. 104.

+ lbid. p. 97
Ś Gull's Horn-book, p. 99, 100.

discovering that the whole was merely the effect of human art; but at Rome they fell a sacrifice to the more rivetted superstitions of the people, and were both burnt as magicians; a fate to which Ben Jonson adverts in the following lines:

" But amongst those Tiberts, who do you think there was?

Old Bankes the juggler, our Pythagoras,
Grave tutor to the learned horse. Both which,
Being, beyond sea, burned for one witch,

Their spirits transmigrated to a cat." Nor were the feats of this sagacious horse unrivalled by the wonderful acquirements of other animals. The praise of Morocco is frequently combined by the poets and satirists of the age, with an account of the extraordinary tricks of his contemporary brutes : thus John Taylor, the water-poet, places Holden's camel on a level with Banks's horse:

“ Old Holden's camel, or fine Bankes his cut;" and Bishop Hall, in his satires, brings us acquainted with a sagacious elephant, to which he kindly adds a couple of wonders of a different description; a bullock with two tails, and a fiddling friar. He is describing the metamorphosis which London had produced in the person and manners of a young farmer, and adds,

The tenants wonder at their landlord's sonne,
And blesse them at so sudden coming on,
More than who vies his pence to view some trick
Of strange Marocco's dumb arithmetick,
or the young elephant, or two tail'd steere,

Or the rigg'd camel, or the fiddling frere.":t The catalogue of wonders, monsters, and tricks, may be augmented by a reference to Ben Jonson, who, in his “Bartholomew Fair,” among other spectacles, speaks of a Bull with five legs and two pizzles, Dogs dancing the morrice, and a Hare beating the tabor. Act v. sc. 4.

But of all the amusements which distinguish the age of Shakspeare, none could vie in richness, splendour, or invention, with the costly spectacles, called Masques, and Pageants. The frequency of these exhibitions during the reigns of Elizabeth and James is astonishing, if we consider the immense expense which was lavished on their production; the most celebrated poets and the most skilful artists often assisted in their formation ; nor was it uncommon to behold nobility, or even royalty itself, assuming the part of actors in these romantic entertainments.

What a gorgeous and voluptuous court could effect, in seconding the efforts of consummate skill, through the medium of machinery, decoration, and dress, may be collected from the numerous Masques of Ben Jonson, who seems to feel the inadequacy of language to express the beauty, grandeur, and sumptuousness of the devices employed on these occasions. Thus, in his “Hymenæi, or the Solemnities of Masque and Barriers at a Marriage,” he manifestly labours to paint the scene, and, at length, professes himself unequal to the task of conveying the impressions which it had made upon him.

Hitherto,” says he,“ extended the first night's solemnity, whose grace in the execution left not where to add to it, with wishing : I mean (nor do I court them) in those, Thal suslained the bobler parls. Such was the exquisite performance, as (beside the pomp, splendor, or wbat we may call apparelling of such presentmenis), that alone (had all else been absent) was of power lo surprise with delight, and steal away the spectators from themselves. Nor was there wanting whatsoever might give to the furniture or complement; either in riches, or strangeness of the habils, delicacy of dances, magnificence of the scene, or divine rapture of musicke. Only the

• Ben Jonson's Works, 1640. Epigrammes, p. 46
+ Chalmers's English Poets, vol. v. p. 274. col. 2. Satires, book iv, sat. 2.

envy was, that it lasted not still; or, (now it is past) cannot by imagination, much less descriplion, be recovered to a part of that spirit it had in the gliding by.'

Nothing, indeed, shows the romantic disposition of Elizabeth, and, indeed, of her times, more evidently than the Triumph, as it was called, devised and performed with great solemnity, in honour of the French commissioners for the Queen's marriage with the Duke of Anjou, in 1581. The contrivance was for four of her principal courtiers, under the quaint appellation of " four fosterchildren of Desire,” to besiege and carry, by dint of arms, " The Fortress of Beauty ;” intending, by this courtly enigma, nothing less than the Queen's Majesty's own person. The actors in this famous triumph were, the Earl of Arundel, the Lord Windsor, Master Philip Sidney, and Master Fulk Grevil. And the whole was conducted so entirely in the spirit and language of knighterrantry, that nothing in the Arcadia itself is more romantic.

The example of the court was followed with equal profusion by the citizens, and various corporate bodies of the capital, who contended with each other in the cost bestowed on these performances. In 1604, when King James and his Queen passed triumphantly from the Tower to Westminster, the citizens erected seven gates or arches, in different parts of the space through which the procession had to proceed. Over the first arch

“ Was represented the true likeness of all the notable houses, lowers, and steeples, within the citie of London—The sixt arche or gate of triumph was erected above the Conduit in FleeleStreete, whereon the Globe of the world was seen to move, elc. At Temple-bar a seaventh arche or gate was erecled, the fore-front whereof was proportioned in every respect like a Temple, being dedicated to Janus, elc. — The cilie of Westminster, and dulchy of Lancaster, at the Strand, had erected the invention of a rainbow, the moone, sunne, and starres, advanced belween (wo Pyo ramids.”

In 1612-13, the gentlemen of the inns of court presented a masque in honour of the marriage of the Elector Palatine of the Rhine, with the Princess Elizabeth, of which the poetry was the composition of Chapman, and the machinery the invention of Inigo Jones. The expense of this pageantry amounted, according to Dugdale, † to one thousand and eighty-six pounds, eight shillings and eleven pence, and was conducted with uncommon splendour.

“ First rode,” relates Howe, “ fiftie choyce gentlemen richly atlyred, and as gallantly mounted, with every one his footemen lo allend him ; These rode very stately like a vauntguard.” Next to these appeared an antique or mock-masque. After them came two chariols triumphal, very pleasant and full of state, wherein rode the choyce musicians of this kingdome, in robes like to the Virginian priests, with sundry devises, all pleasant and significant, with two rankes of torches : Then came the chiese maskers wilh great Stale in white Indian babit, or like the great princes of Barbary, richly imbrodered with the golden sun, with suteable ornaments in all poynts, about their nccks were russ of seathers, spangled and beset with pearle and silver, and upon their heads lofty coronels suitable to the rest." I

Nor were these fanciful and ever varying pageants productive merely of amuse• The Workes of Benjainin Jonson, folio. 1640. Masques, p. 143.-Of the costly magnificence of this spectacle, an idea may be formed from that Lurds," describes the poet, "had

part of it taken frobichelates to the attire of the actors : “ that of the

from the antique Greek statue ; mixed with some moderne additions : which made it both gracefull and strange. On their heads they wore Persick crowns that were with scroles of gold-plate turned outward, and wreathed about with a carnation and silver net lawne ; the one end of which hung carelessly on the left shoulder; the other was tricked up before, in severall degrees of folds, between the plates, and set with rich jewe and great pearles. Their bodies were of carnation cloth of silver, richly wrought, and cut to expresse the naked, in manner of the Greek Thorax ; girt under the brests with a broad belt of cloth of gold imbroydered, and fastened before with jewels : Their Labels were of white cloth of silver, laced, and wrought curiously between, sutable to the upper balfe of their sleevest; whose nether parts, with their bases, were of watchet cloth of silver, chev'rond all over with lace. Their Mantils were of severall colour'd silkes, distinguishing their qualities as they were coupled in paires; the first, skie colour; the second, pearle colour; the third, flame colour ; the fourth, tawny: and these cut in leaves, which were subtilly tack'd up, and imbroydered with Oo's, and between every ranck of leaves, a broad silver lace. They were fastened on the right shoulder, and fell compasse down the back in gracious folds, and were again tyed with a round knot, to the fastening of their swords. Upon their legs they wore silver greaves.” P. 143. + Origines Judiciales, p. 346, edit. 1671.

# Stowe's Annales, p. 1006. edit. 163).


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