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nately, considered as ornaments of conversation, and adopted by both sexes, in order to give spirit and vivacity to their language; a shocking practice, which seems to liave been rendered fashionable by the very reprehensible habit of the Queen, whose oaths were neither'diminutive nor rare; for it is said, that she never spared an oath in public speech or private conversation when she thought it added energy to either. After this example in the highest classes, we need not be surprised when Stubbes tells us, speaking of the great body of the people, that, “if they speake but three or four words, yet they must be interlaced with a bloudie oath or two."
These abominable expletives appear to have formed 10 small share of the language of compliment, a species of simulation which was carried to an extraordinary height in the days of our poet : thus Marston, describing the finished gallant, says,
“ Marke nothing but his clothes, His new stampt complement; his cannon oathes;
Marke those.” * Decker, apostrophising the courtiers of his day, and playing upon a term of Guido's musical scale, exclaims, “You courtiers, that do nothing but sing the gamut A-Re of complimental courtesy ;" * and Shakspeare, painting this
“ sweet, sweet poison for the age's tooth,
“My dear sir,
Act i. sc. I. “What a deal of synamon and ginger is sacrificed to dissimulation,” observes Sir William Cornwallis in 1601. 0, how blessed do I take mine eyes for presenting me with this sight! O Signior, the star that governs my life is conteniment, give me leave to interre myself in your arms!-Not so, sir, it is too unworthy an inclosure to contain such preciousness,” &c. This, and a cup of drink, makes the time as fit for a departure as ca
bc.” A peculiar species of compliment existed among the scientific and literary characters of our author's times, in permitting those who looked up to them with reVerence and esteem, to address them by the endearing appellation of Father; adopting them, in fact, as their literary offspring, and designating them, in their works, by the title of sons. In conformity with this custom, Ben Jonson adopted not less than twelve or fourteen persons for his sons, among whom were, Cartright, Randolph, Brome, etc. ; and the practice continued to be observed until the end of the seventeenth century; for in 1676, Charles Cotton dedicated his Complete Angler to his “most worthy father and friend, Mr. Izaak Walton, the elder;" and says in the body of his work, " he gives me leave to call him Father, and I hope is not yet ashamed of his Adopted Son."
This complimental paternity Shakspeare has introduced in his Troilus and Cressida, where Ajax, addressing Nestor, says, — "Shall I call you father?" to which the venerable Grecian replies, “Ay, my good son.”
To this sketch of manners, we shall add a brief account of some customs, which
• Scourge of Villanie, 1599. book ii. sat. 7.
+ Gull's Horn-book, p. 15.
more peculiarly belong to the province of Police, commencing with the inaugural ceremonies attendant on the Lord Mayor's entrance on the duties of his office. The pageantry and magnificence which once accompanied this periodical assumption of power, may be estimated from the following description, taken from a manuscript written in 1575:
“ The day of St. Simon and Jude he (the Mayor) entreth into his estate and offyce: and the next daic following he goeth by water to Westmynsler, in most Iryumphlyke manner. His barge beinge garnished with the armes of the citie: and nere the sayd barge goeth a shyppbole of the Queenes Matie, beinge trymed upp, and rigged lyke a shippe of warre, with dyvers peces of ordinance, standards, penons, and targells of the proper armes of the sayd Mayor, the armes of the Cilie, of his company; and of the maurchauols adventurers, or of the staple, or of the company of the newe trades ; next before hym goelh the barge of the lyvery of his owne company, decked with their owne proper armes, then the bachelers barge, and so all the companies in London, in order, every one havinge their owne proper barge garnished with the armes of their company. And so passinge alonge the Thamise, landeth at Westmynster, where he talielh his othe in Thexcheker, belfore the judge there (which is one of the chiefe judges of England), which done, he returneth by water as asorsayd, and landeth at Powles wharse, where he and the rest of the Aldermen take their horses, and in great pompe passe through the greate streele of the citie, called Cheapside. And fyrsle of all cometh ij great estandar one having the armes of the cilie, and the other the armes of the Mayor's company : next them ij drommes and a Qute, iben an ensign of the cilie, and then about lxx or Jxxx poore men marchinge ij and two togeather in blewe gownes, with redd sleeves and capps, every one bearinge a pyke and a target, wheron is paynted the armes of all them that have byn Mayor of the same company that this newe mayor is of. Then ij banners, one of the kynges armes, the other of the Mayor's owne proper armes. Then a selt of hautboils playinge, and after them certayne wyfllers, in velvell coles, and chaynes of golde, with while staves in their handes, then the pageant of tryumphe rychly decked, whereuppon by certayne fygures and wrylinges, some matter touchinge justice, and the office of a majestrale is represented. Then xvj trumpeters, viij and viij in a company, havinge banners of the Mayor's company. Then certayne wylllers in velvet cotes and chaynes, with while staves as aforesayde. Then the bachelers ij and two logeiher, in longe gownen, with crymson hoodes on their shoulders of saltyn ; which bachelers are chosen every ycare of the same company that the Mayor is of (but not of the lyvery), and serve as gentlemen on that and other festivall daies, to wayle on the Mayor, beinge in norber accordinge to the quantelie of the company, sometimes sixty or one hundred. After them xij trompelers more, with banners of the Mayor's company, then the dronime and fute of the citie, and an ensigne of the Mayor's company, and after, the wayles of the cilie in blewe gownes, redd sleeves and cappes, every one havinge his silver coller about his neck. Then they of the liverey in their longe gownes, every one havinge bis hood on bis leste shoulder, halse black and halle redil, the nomber of them is accordinge to the grealnes of the companye wbereof they are. After them followe Sherilles oflicers, and then the Mayor's oflicers, with other oslicers of the citie, as the comon sargent, and the chamberlayne ; next before the Mayor goelh the swordbearer, having on his headd the cappe of honor, and the sworde of the citie in his right hande, in a riche skabarde, sell with pearle, and on his left hand goeth the comon cryer of the citie, with his great mace on bis shoulder, all gill. The Mayor hathe on a long gowne of skarlel, and on his Jelle shoulder, a hood of black Velvet, and a riche coller of gold of SS. about bis necke, and with him rydeth the olde Mayor also, in his skarlet gowne, hood of velvet, and a chayne of golde about his neck. Then all the Aldermen ij and ij logether (amongst whom is the Recorder), all in skarlet gownes; and those that have byn Mayors, have chaynes of gold, the other have black velvelt tippells. The ij Shereffes come last of all, in their black skarlet gownes and chaynes of golde.
“ In this order they passe alonge through the cilie, lo the Guyldhall, where they dyne that daie, to the number of 1000 persons, all at the charge of the Mayor and the ij shereses. This feast costelh 4001., whereof the Mayor payelh 2001., and cche of the Sheresles 1001. Immediately after dyner, they go to the churche of St. Paule, every one of the aforesaid poore men, bearrynge stale lorches and largelis, wbiche lorches are lighted when it is lale, before they come from evenynge prayer.
Had the police of the city been as strictly regulated, as were the ceremonies
A brefte description of the Royall Citie of London, capitall citie of this realme of England. (City arins. Wrytten by me William Sinytbe citezen and haberdasher of London, 1575.” MS. “ This compilation," says Mr. Haslewood, “forms a quarto volume of moderate thickness, and was intended for publication." - British Bibliographer, vol. i. p. 539-512.
attending the inauguration of its chief magistrate, the inhabitants of London, in Queen Elizabeth's days, would have had little cause of complaint, with regard to personal protection; but, though the Statutes of the Streets were numerous and rigid, and sometimes ridiculously minute, for No. 22 enacts, that “no man shall blowe any horne in the night, within this citie, or whistle after the houre of nyne of the clock in the night, under paine of imprisonment,” yet they were so ill executed, that, even in the day-time, disturbances of the most atrocious kind were deemed matters of common occurrence. Thus Gilbert Talbot and his wise, writing to the Earl and Countess of Shrewsbury, consider the following acts of violence as trilling matters:
"On Thursday laste (Feb. 131h, 1587), as my Lorde Rylche was rydynge in the streales, ibere was one Wyndam that slode in a dore, and shotte a dagge at him. thynkynge to have slayne him; but Cod provyded so for my L. Rylche, ibat this Wyndam apoynlynge his servante y mornynge to charge his dagge wtb 11 bullells, the fellow, doubtinge he mente to doe sum myschese whil, charged il only wth powder and paper, and no bullett; and so this L's lyse was thereby saved, for otherwyse he had beene slayne. Wyndam was presently taken by my L. Rytche's men, and, beynge broughle before the Counsell, confessed his intende, but the cause of his quarrell I knowe not; but he is comylled to the Towre. The same daye, also, as Si John Conway was goynge in the streetes, M' Lodovyke Grevell came sodenly uppon him, and stroke him on the hedd ww a sworde, and but for one of Si John Conway's men, who warded the blow, he bad cult of his legges; yet did he hurte bim sumwhat on bothe his shynns : The Councell sente for Lodovyko Grevell, and have comylted him to the Marchallcye. I am forced to trouble yo' Honors wth iheses tryfynge matters, for I know no greater." *
Yet a suflicient number of watchmen, constables, and justices of the peace was not wanting. Of these, the first were armed with halberds, which, in Shakspeare's time, were called bills, and they usually carried a lanthorn in one hand, and sometimes a bell in the other, resting the halberd on the shoulder. + Notwithstanding these oflicial characters, however, the peace of the city was frequently more effectually preserved by the interference of the apprentices, than by that of the appointed guardians of public order; for it appears, from Shakspeare's dramas, that the cry of Clubs! was a signal for the apprentices to arm themselves with these weapons, and quell the disturbance. Thus in King Henry the Eighth (act v. sc. 3), the Porter's man says:—“I hit that woman who cried out, clubs! when I might see from far some sorty truncheoneers draw to her succour, which were the hope of the Strand;" and in Henry the Sixth, Part the First, even the Mayor of London is represented, on occasion of a quarrel between the partizans of the Duke of Gloucester and the Cardinal of Winchester, as threatening to call in similar assistance:
“ I'll call for clubs, if you will not away.”—Act i. sc. 3. We cannot wonder that the inferior officers of the Police should be slack in the performance of their duty, when we recollect, that the Justices of the Peace, in these days, especially those resident in the metropolis, were so open to bribery, that many of them obtained the appellation of Basket Justices; nor did a member of the House of Commons hesitate, during the reign of Elizabeth, to describe a justice of the peace as “an animal who for half a dozen of chickens would readily dispense with a dozen penal laws." I
Many customs of a miscellaneous nature might with ease be extracted from the dramas of our poet; but to give them any relative bearing or concatenation would be nearly impossible, and a totally insulated detail of ininute circumstances would prove tedious to the most persevering reader. Enough, we trust, has been collected to throw no feeble light on the general manners and modes of living, of
Lodge Illustrations, vol. ii. p. 206. + The costume of the Watchinan is thus represented in the title-page to Decker's “O per se 0,” &c. 410. 1612.
D'Ewes's Journals of Parliament, in Queen Elizabeth's Roign, p 661, 664.
the period under consideration, especially if it he recollected that the full picture is to be formed from a combination of this with the similar chapter, in a former part of the work, on the costume of rural life.
On the Diversions of the Metropolis, and the Court-The Stage; its Usages and Economy.
Of the diversions of the metropolis and court, some were peculiar, and some were shared in common with the country. “The country hath his recreations,” observes Burton, “the city his several Gymnicks and exercises, feasts and merry meetings.”—“What so pleasant as to see some Pageant or sight go by, as at Coronations, Weddings, and such like solemnities, to see an Embassadour or a Prince met, received, entertained, with Maskes, Shews, Fireworks, etc,:* and an old dramatic poet, of 1590, gives us a still more copious list of town amusements:
Let nothing that's magnifical,
Pageants and school-feasles, beares and puppet-plaies. “Every palace," continues Burton, "every city almost, hath bis peculiar walks, cloysters, terraces, groves, theatres, pageants, games, and several recreations;" I and we purpose, in this chapter, giving some account of the leading articles thus enumerated, but more particularly of the stage, as being peculiarly connected with the design and texture of our work.
As the principal object, therefore, of the present discussion will be the amusements usually appropriated to the capital; those which it has in common with the country shall be first enumerated, though in a more superficial way.
Of these, card-playing seems to have been as universal in the days of Elizabeth, as in modern times, and carried on, too, with the same ruinous consequences to property and morals ; for though Stowe tells us, when commemorating the customs of London, that “from Al-Hallows eve to the day following Candlemasday, there was, among other sports, playing at cards for counters, nails, and points, in every house, more for pastime than for gain,” yet we learn from contemporary satirists, from Gosson, Stubbes, and Northbrooke, that all ranks, and especially the upper classes, were incurably addicted to gaming in the pursuit of this amusement, which they considered equally as seductive and pernicious as dice.
The games at cards peculiar to this period, and now obsolete, are, 1. Primero, supposed to be the most ancient game of cards in England. It was very fashionable in the age of Shakspeare, who represents Henry the Eighth playing wat primero with the duke of Suffolk;” (Act. v. sc. 1.) and Falstaff exclaiming in
Anatomie of Melancholy, fol. 8th edit. p. 171. col. i. 大。 Tho Pleasant and Stately Morall of ihe Three Lordes and Three Ladies of London," &c. London, 1590. Vide Strutt's Sports and Pastimes, Introduct., p. xxviii.; and Beloe's Anecdotes of Literature, vol.i. p. 350, 351.
# Anatomie of Melancholy, p. 172. col. i. S“ Schoole of Abuse," "Anatomie of Abuses,” and “ Treatise againt Diceing, Card-playing” &c.
the Merry Wives of Windsor, “I never prospered since I foreswore myself at primero." Act iv. sc. 5.
The mode of playing this curious game is thus described by Mr. Strutt, from Mr. Barrington's papers upon card-playing, in the eighth volume of the Archæologia:
“ Each player had four cards dealt to him one by one, the seven was the highest card in point of number that he could avail bimself of, which counted for lweniy-one, the six counted for sixteen, the five for fifteen, and the ace for the same, but the two, the three, and the four, for their respective points only. The knave of heals was commonly fixed upon for the quinola, which the player might make what card or suil he thought proper; is the cards were of different suits, the highest number won the primero, if they were all of one colour be that held them won the flush."
2. Trump, nearly coeval in point of antiquity with primero, and introduced in “Gammer Gurton's Needle,” a comedy, first acted in 1561, where Dame Chat, addressing Diccon, says, –
“ We be fast set at trump, man, hard by the syre; " and we learn from Decker that, in 1612, it was much in vogue :
“ To speake,” he remarks,“ of all the sleighis used by card-players in all sorts of games would but weary you that are lo read, and bee but a thanklesse and unpleasing labour for me to set them down. Omilling, therefore, ibe deceipts practised (even in the fayrest and most civill companies) at Primero, Saint Maw, Trump, and such like games, I will, &c.”+
3. Gleek. This game is alluded to twice by Shakspeare; † and from a passage in Cook's “Green's Tu Quoque,” appears to have been held in much esteem :
“ Scat. Come, gentlemen, what is your game?
it is then proposed to play either at twelve-penny gleek, or crown gleek.
To these may be added, Gresco, Mount Saint, New Cut, Knave out of Doors, and Rull, all of which are mentioned in old plays, and were favourites among our ancestors.
Tables and Dice, enumerated by Burton after cards, include some games unknown to the present day; such as tray-trip, mum-chance, philosopher's game, novum, etc.; the first is noticed by Shakspeare in Twelfth Night, and appears, from a note by Mr. Tyrwhitt, to have been a species of draughts; the second was also a game at tables, and is coupled by Ben Jonson in the “ Alchemist” with tray-trip; the third is mentioned by Burton, and is described by Mr. Strutt from a manuscript in the British Museum.—“ It is called,” says the author, "• a number fight,' because in it men fight and strive together by the art of counting or numbering how one may take his adversary's king and erect a triumph upon the deficiency of his calculations ;" and the fourth is introduced by Shakspeare in Love's Labour's Lost (Act v. sc. 2); “it was properly called Novum quinque," remarks Mr. Douce, “ from the two principal throws of the dice, nine and live ;-was called in French Quinque-nove, and is said to have been invented in Flanders.”
The immoralities to which dice have given birth, we are authorised in considering, from the proverbial phraseology of Shakspeare, to have been as numerous in
* Sports and Pastimes, 4to. 1810, p. 291, 292,
+ Belman of London, sig F 2. I Midsummer Night's Dream, act iii. sc. I. Romeo and Juliet, activ. sc. 5. $ In the Compleat Gamester, 2nd edit. 1676, p. 90, may be found the mode of playing this game.
The first of these games is mentioned in “ Eastward Moe, printed in 1605, aud writien by Ben Jonson, George Chapman, and John Marston; the second in the “ Dumb Knight," the production of Lewis Machine 1608; the third in " A Woman killed with Kindness," written by Thomas Gleywood, 1617, where are also noticed Lodam, Noddy, Post and Pair, a species of Brag, Knave out of Doors, and Ruff, this last being something like Whist, snd played in four different ways, under the names of English Ruil, French Ruiti, Double Ruff, and Wide Ruff. ---Vide Ancient British Drama, vol. ii. p. 414, 445.