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District of Massachusetts, to wit : BE IT REMEMBERED, That on the ninth day of June, A.D. 1826, in the fiftieth year of the Independence of the United States of America, WALTER BALFOUR, of the said District, hath deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof he claims as Author, in the words following, to wit: “ An Inquiry into the scriptural doctrine concerning the Devil and

Satan : and into the extent of duration expressed by the terms Olim, Aion, and Aionios, rendered everlasting, forever, &c. in the crmmon version, and especially when applied to punishment. By Wale ter Balfour.”

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, “An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts and Books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned ;" and also to an act entitled “ an act supplementary to an act entitled an act for the en couragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books, 10 the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned, and extending the benefits ihereof to ihe arts of designing, engraving and etching, historical and other prints.'"

JOHN W. DAVIS,

Clerk of the District of Massachusetts.

CONTENTS.

PART I.

Page. Introduction Sect. I. Common opinions of the Devil and Satan briefly stated

13 SECT. II. Remarks on Genesis 3. showing that the serpent which deceived Eve was not a fallen angel

19 Sect. 111. All the texts in the Old Testament where the

original word Shaitan, or Satan, occurs, consid-
ered

35 Sect. IV. The opinion that the Devil or Satan is a real being,

with other connected opinions, shown to have
their origin in heathenism

64 Sect. v. All the passages in the New Testament where the term Satan occurs, considered

98. Sect. vi. All the passages where the original word Diabolos, or Devil, is used, considered

116 Sect. VII. All the passages considered in which the terms Devil and Satan are used synonimously

151 Sect. VIII. All the texts considered where the Devil is sup.

posed to be called the evil one, the tempter, the
great dragon, the serpent, and old serpent, the
prince of this world, the prince of the power of
the air, and the god of this world

169 Sect. IX. Facts stated, showing that the Devil is not a fallen angel, or real being

180 SECT, X. Objections considered

190 Sect, XI. Concluding remarks, pointing out the evils which

have arisen from the common opinions entertaine
ed of the Devil and Satan

196

205

238

PART II.
SECT. I. All the texts noticed where Olim occurs in the

Old Testameat, but is rendered by words which

do not express or imply eternal duration SECT. II. All the passages noticed where Olim is used, and

rendered by words which convey the idea of

endless duration
Sect. 111. All the texts where Olim occurs, is rendered by

words which convey the idea of endless duration,
and applied to punishment, particularly consid-

ered
SECT. IV. Geoeral remarks on Aion and Aionios, as used in

the New Testament SECT. v.

All the places noticed where Aion and Aionios are

rendered ages, course, tiever, forever, evermore,
eternal, everlasting; but which have no relation

to punishment
Sect. vi. All the places where Aion and Aionios are render-

ed world, considered
Sect. vir. All the places where Aion and Aionios are used to

express the duration of punishment, particularly
considerod, in whatever way rendered in the

common version
Sect. VIII. Concluding remarks on Olim, Aion and Aionios,

throughout the Bible, whether applied to God,
to life, or punishment

247

258

269

311

340

INTRODUCTION.

IN presenting the following pages to the public, were any apology necessary, I would make it in the words of Professor Stuart to Dr. Miller. He says, p. 12, 13. of his Letters, “It is just as much our individual duty now, to bring every principle of the creed of the Protestant churches to the test of the divine word, as it was the duty of the Reformers to bring that of the Catholics to the test of Scripture. This position is absolutely certain; unless we can prove that the formers of the Protestant symbols were inspired. If they were not, they may have erred in some things; and if so, it is important to us, if possible, to know in what they have erred. But how shall we, or how can we know this, unless their creeds are subjected, anew and repeatedly, to the test of the Scriptures?

“ Will it be said, that the dwarfs of modern days only exhibit their pride and self conceit in attempting a comparison with those giants of yore? If it should, my answer would be; That dwarfs as we are in modern days, we stand, at

least, upon the shoulders of those ancient giants, and must needs have a somewhat more extended horizon than they. To speak plainly, the whole word of God represents the paih of the church, like that of the just, to be as light, which shineth more and more unto the perfect day. The kingdom of God always has been, and still is, progressive. Glory is bursting in upon the church, in various ways intimately connected with making her light to shine still more brightly. Is she yet perfected in doctrine ? Are all the treasures of the divine word yet unlocked? Are her fairest days past, and her brightest constellations set, to rise no more? The thousand years,' of glory yet to come, will supply a ready answer to these questions.

“ So long as we profess to be Protestants, and of course, profess to believe that the Bible is the sufficient and only rule of faith and practice, so long, if we act consistently, we believe in the symbols of faith which we receive, only because we find them supported by the Scriptures. It is not only lawful then to put them to the test; but it is an imperious duty for every man to do it, who is able to do it. ''I here may be a show of modesty and humility in receiving what others have believed, without examination and without scrutiny; but in every case, where there is ability to investigate and bring to the Scripture test, a failure to do it must arise from undue regard to the authority of fallible men, or from mere inaction-from absolute sloth.”

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