ftood than those of Russian, Turkish or A. by the regular payment of workmen,' by 1, nothing by the indepedence of America. rabic. And thereby the time will be no. the reduction of the interest of money, and Her immenie capitals have created a monted caretully, when a native of this land, especially by the possession of new mar. ied dependance, which, in a commercial on being asked who he is, and whence he kets.

relation, replaced the supremacy she had came, began to answer, in one word, that None but rich individuals can undertake loft in the government. The increale of he was a Frede, instead of using the tedi. those flow and: expensive speculations, capital in America, trees it in some degree ous circumlocution, that he was

a citi.

which often give the superiority to a man from that dependancy, and by furnishing zen of the United States of America." ufacture. A poor merchant cannot un her with the means of extending her comAnd in like manner notice will be taken dertake long voyages, returns from which merce, and even to offer capitals to other of the association of FREDONIA with Mace are slow; they are reserved for the weal. nations, which know how to calculate the donia and Caledonia, as a word equally po- thy, who can give credits long enough to value of the markets which she offers to tent and melodious in found.”

tempt foreign nations to give his articles manufactures and to the luxury of Europe. the preference over those of other nations, It will be readily granted, that Colonies which expect a quick return for their's. beyond the seas, add nothing to the force

The want of capitals in France, is fuch, of a nation, these are, on the contrary, State Paper.

that no manufacturer has at his command a weak points, which are guarded at a very quantity of articles sufficient to answer the || great expense, both in men and money ;

demands ; and consequently no foreigner || especially if they be in hot and unhealthy LOUISIAN A.

can be sure to obtain from his French cor climates.
respondent wherewith to make his returns The question, therefore, is reduced to

without retarding his vefsel in port, or, at this, Has France a superfluity of men and MEMORIAL,

least, without being obliged to take a con. money great enough to justify the settling ON THE QUESTION, WHETHER IT BE, AD. liderable quantity of articles of interior of a new colony? VANTAGEOUS FOR FRANCE TO TAKE quality, picked up in a number of different Those which France already possesses POSSESSION OF LOUISIANA.

manufactories ; so that it he commits any in the West-Indies and at Cayenne, are

fraud, no one can be charged with it. more than sufficient for her wants, and Presented to the French Government by Mr. Liv. This.renders the character of a manufactu. even the wants of all Europe, if they INGSTON the American Minister at Paris." rer of very little importance in the eyes of were cultivated so as to produce all they a French workman.

are capable of. But how are they to be TRANSLATED BY MR. NANCREDE, Hence when a foreign vessel, elpecially cultivated ? Experience has proved that FOR I HE BOSTON PALLADIUM. if owned at a great distance, sells her car. the inhabitants of hot climates never work

go in France, she is ordered to take nothing from want : Force alone cannot supply THIS question presents itself in two but wines or brandies, because they are the the two great spurs to labor in northern points of view ;--First, in the relation of only articles which the owner is sure to climates, hunger and cold, which nature commerce and manufactures : -Second procure in sufficient quantities in the fix. has placed in those fevere climatec. ly, in those of the positive or relative force ed time.

slavery alone can fertilize those colonics, of France.

In England, on the contrary, he will find and llaves cannot be procured but at a Colonies do not excite interest for their

all sorts of goods, in one hour, from one great expence. own sake, but only as respects the influ.

manufacture, the reputation of which The Spanish part of Hispaniola was al

would suffer, if the whole supply were not most uncultivated for want of laves. It ence they may have on a nation ; and as one man alone is more useful by remain.

of the fame quality with the sample. is now poslefied by France ; and, to rening at home, than two by removing at a dir.

This consideration will ever induce a for der it of advantage, it will be necessary to tance, a wise pation does not seek to colon.

eigner to apply to an English, in preference | lay out immense capital in faves, in buildize until she has a superabundance of popto a French merchant, for a purchase of ings, and in improvements of uncultivat

ed lands. Others will be necessary to ulation, which he cannoi usefully employ l goods of the same kind. Hence cargoes in any other way.

are fold in France, and the proceeds carried make up for the lofles of the French part

to England, there to be sold for articles of that, not to mention the other Islands. Though very conliderable, the popul2..

which France mighi fupply, if her manu. tion of France is very far froin having

Where are those capitals to be found ?

factures were rich enough to an wer every Men who travel into distant and unheal. reached the term which renders colonies

demand, in a short time, without compelthy climates are seldom wealthy.--Those necessary : Her soil, climate, and locai fie

ling the purchaser to have recourse to a riches muft therefore be found in France, uation give her, as a commercial, and espe. ll great number of manufactures,

or in some country that has a superfluity of cially as a manufacturing nation, great ad.

This inconveniency can only be remov. vantages over all the nations of Europe: led by increasing the capitals of manutac

capital. If they are found in France, it

can only be to a certain degree at the ex. The spirit of invention, the taste and indus.

tures. It would be too great a deyiation pence of internal manufacturers. It may, try of its inhabitants, place her in the firft

from my fubjce, to point out the means of however, appear advantageous, in a national Tapk. But those advantages are wonders obtaining those capitals ; but it is evideni, point of view, to encourage the use of fully abridged by the want of capitals suf. ficient to make use of them. A rival na

that they must be considerably le llened by ! ihe riches of France for that object;

the forming of a Navy, at the expense of confidering the extreme fertility of the tion, greatly inferior in every one of these particulars, has, by the effc& alone of an

manufactures, or by using the capitals ot' French Wen. Indies, and their present

the nation in diflant countries. It is be situation of culture, those funds will soon immense capital, obtained the fuperiority, ll yond doubt, that capitals open new channot only in commerce, but also in manú

yond doubt, that capitals open new chan. "yield a profit. But as long as money will factures, and these advantages, by increar

nels ; for norbing is more' natural for mer. command so high an interest ; so long as

chants whose capital is-Small, than to con the interior of the Republic Diall offer ing the national fortune, furnish it with the

tent themselves with acting the part of Bro- monied men a icmice of speculation, and = neans of maigtaining that very superioris. | kers or Commission-Merchants, to those property shall lie in fo few hands, it will be

Capitals increase the number of many who can fapply them with goods on credo dificulí to induce the majority ch them to faclories, by the introdulion of machines, ll it ; and forthis very reason; England loft / dispofless themselves of this capital to send

it at a distance, and run the risk of the in- || probably hereafter will be able to dispose || ing of forests requires too great outsets for regrity of their agents, and all those whom in a long series of years.

any one brat the owner of the land. recent examples have taught them to But if to all this, we add the immenle Who then will cultivate Louisiana with drcad.

possessions in Guyanna, her productions, faves ? Who is the citizen willing to bel.

and the capitals necessary to carry the low large capitals upon so precarious a Foreign coin was formerly introduced

whole of it to its full value ; it we add the into France through the United Proven

property with a prospect of a diftant re. settlemeats necesary to be made in India,

turn ? ces: but the present state of the Batavia if the design be to bring into the ports of It

may be asked, why does it not happen Colonies, and the loll's they have fuftain.

France that variety of articles which invite in the southern States ? It is auswered, et by the war, leave but little hope, that

firit, because none are foutherly enough to mich may be used in the reltoring of exchanges, and give commerce its due ac.

tivity, we shall find that one century at least be wholly free from the colds of winter, French Colonies. will pass away before France may wani

which render savage life very difficult to The United States postess considerable pofleflions of that kind.

men, born in hot climates ; and fecondly, capitals in money, and productions necel. But as France has, like other countries, because the southern States are moftly fur. sary to the restoration of the Illands. No but a confined capital, the only question is, rounded by the sea, and by mountains, the great credit, in money, will probably be where shall this capital be places? fall it whole population of which is wbite, and given to the planters ; but with suitable be here? in the West Indies ? at Cayen. which cut off the conimunication between encouragements, there is no doubt they ne ? in India, or at Louisiana ? For it is the flaves and the vast forests of the interiwill be able to obtain those productions | obvious that what will be placed in one of or parts. which must, were it not for that circum chose seulements will be at the expenle of Bui let us suppose all these difficulties Itance, be paid for in cash, and the com another; it is equally fo, that the national overcome, what commercial advantages mercial speculations of the United S:ates


ditures will increase with her colo. can France derive from the settlement of will extend to the French Illands, when nies'; and that, in case of war, the points this colony ? The productions of Louiliz. the public and private credit of France of attack and defence will be multiplied in na being the same with those of the Westthall have been restored, and when expe the faine ratio.

Indies, no advantage is to be reaped, for the rience hall have convinced the people how Able ftarelinen have questioned wheth Islands, being well cultivated, will suffice unwise it is to establilh a revenue upon er colonies were useful to a country fiiu. for the wants of France, and even all Ed. foreign trade, while it is in fact collected ated like France; but my design is not to rope.

The introdution of those from from their own citizens. At Hifpaniola, examine this theory. "France has colo. Louisiana, would only leffen the price a duty of 20 per cent. is paid upon arti. nies ; lhe has invited her citizens to go without adding any thing to the value, and cles introduced by strangers.-This duty and carry their riches to them ; honor re France would be obliged, to prevent the is in fact paid by strangers, and it happens Il quires that she keep and proteet them; but ruin of those who had emplo; ed their that fraud, and the bad administration of The is under no obligation to create new funds in the colonies, to imitate the Custom-Houses, is, as usual, a source of ones : to multiply points of defence ; to Darch, who deftroy their spices anà reas, vexation for foreign merchanis. But it is fqiander away ihe capitals she wants at when the quantity of these commodities in the planter who fu niihes the money, for home and abroad. How could the poffel. || Europe is large enough to cause a depre. this tax is always added to the price, and e. con of Louiliana be useful to her ? In the ciation of their value. ven an interest is advanced upon it as a first place, its cultivation is to be carried

The productions of Louhians, which do compenlation for the vexations which the on, as in all warm countries, by ilaves ; captains experience in their commerce. the capitais fpert in buying them, or the

not grow in the West Indies, are only What then is ihe effect of that operation, if flaves themselves, would have been carried

luinber, and perhaps rice ; but it is cer

tain that those productions, considering the not to take from the planter one-fourib to the Iilands, it this new channel had not part of the inoney which he had so much opened. This rivalry will raise the price lunsalubrious climate, will not cover the

difficulties of procuring them in a butant difficulty to get from France ? Or other. of flaves for the planters, and bay thus wise to stop, by that means, partly the re much retard the feitlement,

outlets, or, at leift, will not vield the fame establishment of the capitals which alone On their arrival at Louiliana, the flaves || profits, as would be procured by railing can render the lands finally productive ? will be employed in the barren pccupation

ihem in the Islands, io procuring the same I say finally, for it is folly to believe that of telling the large foreits with which this

or other and more valuable articles. that they will vield to France a compensa

inmense country

covered, a labor buc The proof of this is found in the United gion for her actual outfets, unless it be af. little suited to llaves, for it requires being

States. It is not from Georgia nor Southter a great many years. I will even say, I long accustomed in the axe, and force and Carolina, that the West Indies are supplithat unless the ports of Hispaniola are on activity are seldom found in flaves. They ed with lumber, but chiefly from the North. pen to every vessel loaded with articles of must be cloche?, fed and maintained du. ern States, where forests are more scarce necessicy, unless the inhabitants have ilie ! ring whole yeais before any profit can be

and more valuable than in the South. zight of buying clicap and selling 'dear, by

derived írom them. What I am about to The cause of this is, that the supplying of encouraging the rivalry between the tel- l relato may serve to determine that period. lumber, the mills necessary to prepare them lers and purchasers, unless every sort of In the Norihern and Middle States of A. for sale, all these are the work of free vexation is removed, and strangers receive' merica, the usual term of a quit-rent lease

merica, the usual term of a quit-rent leafe hands, which are satisfied with a moderate every possible security for their capitals in in the new lands is ten years free from price. the Ilands, ages will pass away before His. rent, and after this the leffee pays 12 buch I shall presume further to lay down, paniola will cease draining France of its els of wheat for every hundred acres for however paradoxical it may seem, that it is riches and strength without offering her a ever. It is, therefore, obvious, that the not advantageous for France to supply herny equivalent return.

first ten years are confdered as a time of self with lumber, even if she could procure

expense, during which term the owner re it from. Louisiana. I have two reasons to It is therefore, evident, that if France quites no payment. But in the Southernofer _What lumber the northern States had no other pofTeflion beyond the seas, cx.

States, new lands cannot even be given out fupply her colonies with is paid for in tro. cept her islands, it might easily place all

on those terms, because the white planterlasses and some rum. The first article the capital of which the now cai, 'and

fets higher value on his labor, and the clear cofts the planter nothing, for, were it not

for that, this would be an uselels produc,


NEIV.YORK GAZETTE, July 14. tion of his fugar, and the second is but a The Executive have received official very moderate expense for distillation. If information that a Treaty was signed on

Last evening we received the following it were conlumed in America, molafle's the goth of April, between the Ministers

from our Philadelphia correspondent. would be thrown away as useless, and this Plenipotentiary and Extraordinary of the

“I have just received a Barbadoes pa. was the case when America was a British

United States and the Minister Pienipoten. per of the 26ih uli. containing the official colony, because French commerce does tiary of the French gorernment, by which

account of the conqueit of St. Lucia by ille not offer any other market for that com. the United States have obtained the full

British forces under the command of Li. modity. right to and fovereignty over New-Or

Gen. Grinfield, in which the British loitin [TO BE CONTINézd.] leans, and the whole of Louisiana, as Spain

killed, wounded and missing, 138 men,

of polle!led' the fame.

whom four were field officers. The place

was defended with great spirit and obfinacy. [National Intelligencer.]


At 8 o'clock this morning arrived the The Ship Diana, Capt. Hunter, arriv- || schr. Suppiy, express, from St. Lucia, with ed at New York the 7:6 inft. in 39 days dispatches from Lt. Gen. Grinfield, an

from Newry. By her we have received nouncing the important Conquest of that Be it our weekly task,

Irish papers to the 28th May. War ap island, which is communicated from the Lt. To note the passing tidings of the times. pears to be the order of the day, and the Gen. in a letter to his Excellency the Rt. >>>>>>20<<<CCC

din of arms resounded from one end of the Hon. Lord Seaforth, from which the fol.

kingdom to the other. The opposition. i lowing is an Extract :Thudson, July 19, 1803. ifts strongly approbate the measures adopt,

St. Lucia, 22d June, 1803. ed by the government, and have agreed “ I am lure it will give your Lordship PROCEEDINGS ON CROSWELL'S INDICI MENT. to support the war. Several captures have pleasure to hear that St. Lucia est a nous, Last week the indictment against Harry

been made by the Britith, and orders have and taken in the most handsome manner Croswell for publishing the annexed para.

beea sent by that governinent to take all within twelve hours after the landing.-

Dutch reffels. General Viator with an We last night drove in the enemy's Out graph, was tried at the Circuit Couri held at Claverack. On Monday, the queflion the Batavian Republic. Auftria and Prusarmy of 80,000 men, has taken charge of Posts and took the Town of Caftries. I

then offered the Commandant a capitula. whether the truth could be given in evi

tion, which he refused as a soldier and dence as a justification, was decided in the fia, by their active preparations, seem de. negative by Chief Justice Lewis. On Lord Nelson had failed to take the com.

termined to protect their neutrality: man of honour. This morning at four Tuesday the cause was advocated by Mr.

the assault began, and before five we were Attorney-General Spencer, and his Foot Cornwallis was to have lis fleet augment

mand of the Mediterranean flect, and in pofleffion of Morne Fortune. Our loss --and very ably defended by Mr. Van led to 21 lail of the line. It appears from

in officers, wounded, particularly of ranli

, Vechten, of Albany. and Mr. Van Nes

lias been great, but I hope many if not of this city. Judge Lewis, in his charge, i ple in England are actuated by one fpirit,

varicus accounts that the main of the peo all will be restored to a service, to which confined the jury to very narrow limits.

they have added Luftre." and are determined, by flocking to the · He stated, that the only enquiry for them

standard of iheir country, to rever?ge the to make, was, whether Crolwell was the insults they have received, and check the

be Kneil. publisher of the paragraph, and whether the inuendoes were truly let herth. The growing ambition of Bonaparte. jury retired about seven o'clock on Tue.

[Com. Auv.] day evening, and returned a verdict of

There is a letter in town from a nobleGUILTY, ai eight the next morning. As the whole transaction is to come before the

man of the first rank and most honorable Sapreme Court in Auguit next, we deein veracity in England, which says a negoc ait improper to enlarge on the subject at

tion of the most inportant nature was latepreseat." A fair and correct statement will I ly carried on between Bonaparte and Louis

the XVIII. King of France, through the be laid before the publie in 'due fcafon.

medium of the King of Prussia. Bonaparte The following is the paragraph which propoled to his Moft Chriftian Majesty,

In this county, about 6 o'clock on Wednesday gave rise to the indictment :

morning last, much lamented by every true friend " that if he would for him and his heirs re.

of his country, THE LIBERTY OF THE PRESS. “ Holt fays, the burden of the Federal nounce all right and title to the crown of

The wound which caused this lanientable event, was song is that Mr. Jefferson paid Callen- France, Bonaparte would on his part make

inflicted in January last, with an uncouth & rusty old “ der for writing against the lare admin

instrument, forged some centuries ago in Engiand, most ample provision for his moft Chrif: * iftration. This is wholly false. The tian Majefly.” To this overture, Louis

and now weilded by a high offcial character and

twenty-four of his associates. Among the physi“ charge is explicitly this :--Jefferson | XVIII. replied with the temperate dignity ,

cians who were consulted in the case, opposite o. * paid Callender for calling Wöhington becoming a Monarch, " that it Monsieur " à traitor, a robber, and a petjurer- Bonaparte would return to his allegiance,

" that it Monsieur | pinions existed ; and the culy condition of cure was,

that the victiin should never again utter a word of

truth, on which a distant voice was heard to ex" For calling Adams'a hoary headed in.

and assist in the restoration of his lawfu! claim that the reniedy ras isorse than the disease, and "cendiary; and for most grossly Oan. sovereign to the throne of France, all that the Liberty of ibe Press expired with many strug" dering the private characters of men,

gles, but without a groan. has passed 'should be forgotten--and his *** who he well knew were virtuous.+ majesty would moit anıply reward him.” " These charges, not a democratic editor It is likely from his overture of the Corfin

ERRATA.-- In a part of the impression of this " has yet dared, or ever will dare to meet can Conful, that he feels fomething like an week's Balance, the following errors escaped, which " in an open and manly discussion.' equity of redemption, sublisting in the

the reader, is desired to correct :--page 228, col. 2d, The other indi&tment is to be tried at against his own titlesto the

fur - diffuse," read svffuse ; col. 3d, for “ Curaish.

ed," read burnished, for Earless" read peerlese, for the next circuit.

sluvereignty of France. [Dublin pap.] “ professes” read possesses.

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[The following Odes, composed for, and sung at

Lee, (Mass.) on the late anniversary of our Inde. pendence, are inserted by request.]

Round these climes of setting day, Mitred Peace extends her sway, Guard, O Guard the Heavenly prize, Choisest blessing of the skies.

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THE Rev, Timothy Alden, of this town, having "invented a new and useful improvement for expediting the manufac. ture of Common Salt," received by the mail of Thursday evening, a Patent for the invention, from the President of the United States.

The design of this invention is to accel. erate the spontaneous evaporation of water from which the common salt is to be made. To this end that the united powers of the sun and wind may operate to the greater advantage, it is proposed to create an ar. tificial shower. For effecting this object. several different methods are prescribed.


Well may a Nation join to greet

This glorioas, all-auspicious day : And sons of freedom joyous meet,

And celebrate their natal day.



Vhiist Despots stern their sceptres wield,

And subjects tamely bend the knee, The cherub Peace becomes our shield,

And bids us ever to be free.

sons of freedom join, Exert your tuneful lays, Let Gratitude with love combina

And songs and honors raise.

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Miss Honoria Gibbons, of Bath, lings! fwectly, that she has captivated the brother of a Nobleman, who it is laid, talks of mat. rimony. Shenfione remarks that marrying a IV oman for her voice, is like eating a Lark for its singing ! But-every man to his talle!

[Port Folio.]

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To City Subscribers, Two Dollars and fifty cenis, payable in quarterly advances.

To Country Subscribers, who receive their paper at the office Two Dollars, payable as above.

those who receive them by the mail, Two Dollars, exclusive of postage, payable in advance.

A handsome title-page, with an Index or Table of Contents, will be given with the last number of each volume.

Advertisements inserted in a conspicuous and handsome manner, in the divertiser which accone, panies the Balance.

Complete files of the first volume, which bare been reserved in good order for binding, are for sale -Price of the volume, bound, Two Dollars and fi. ty cents-unbound, Two Dollars. The whole day be sent, stitched or in bunules, to any post office in the state, for 52 cents postage ; or to any post-office in the union for 78 cents.

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Question. W

Driginal Ellars.

in the French republic, who fired with the || feel myself a fiave--a grovelling worm of holy zeal of liberty, sacrificed millions of the dust.

human vi&tims at her shrine. Hither the products of your closet-labors bring,

Q. Wherein consists the liberty of poEnrich our columns, and instruct mankind. Q. What are the works of liberty, | litical opinion? which manitest her existence ?

A. The liberty of political opinion FOR THE BALANCE.

A. The works of liberty, which man. con Gifts in this, that every man, nay, that

ifest her existence, are very many and ve. every woman and child, in the United A POLITICAL CATECHISM. ry wonderful to tell. In Republican || States, have free perinission to think as the

France, above all countries, the works of leaders of the democrats think :- and I

liberty have appeared, in numbers and boldly aver, and will maintain it, that aHAT is liberty ? sublimity, such as to excite a most pleal

ny act or edi&t, that should contravene Answer. Liberty is an angel ; she is

ing astonishment :-there a pretty prosti- this liberal construction of the liberty of the first-born of heaven ; she is a goddess; tute, dressed in white, was enthroned in a

political opinion, would be an act of "poand all who refuse to worship her, are untemple as the representative of the god

litical intolerance," both " despotic and dess, and was worshipped by that enlight. | wicked.” worthy to breathe the vital air.

ened people-There there was paid a due l. Is this goddess visible ?

Q. What are the peculiar privileges tribute to the goddess liberty; not of silver A. She is always invisible to man in

belonging to those whole political opinions and gold, but of the lives of miriads of civil society ; eye hath not seen her ; nor

are perfeâly orthodox ? men, women and children.-How avgift can civilised man fully conceive what she was the scene, when liberty, in the full

A. They are cherished in the bosom is. The savage, ah, the Javage, only, || exercise of her prerogatives, erected a

of our holy church; all their moral ofkoows her charms, and quaffs bowls of

fences are blotted out, or covered with thousand Bastiles ; when blood flowed nectar from her hands.*

the mantle of charity ; their follies and from guillotines, like rivers ; when the

weaknesses are never marked against them: Q. Since liberty is invisible, how is it groans and wailings of reprobates, met known that she really exists ? with the mockery and derision they de

-to them exclusively belongeth the privA. Her existence is known by a fu. served; when the waters of the river Loire | iledge of eligibility to offices of all grades,

from the highest to the lowest.

were discoloured with blood and choaked pernatural, or rather a preternatural affla. tus or inspiration ;--and it is also known with human corses; when fans-culottes

Q. What are the penalties to be in

Aiated on those who fall into a licentioulfrom the works of her hands.

took rank of nobles, and rent the air with
shouts of vive la liberté ! Ca ira was

ness respe@ing political opinion, so far Q. Have some men been favoured with extraordinary measures of this aflla. refounded over the widespread gallic re

forth as to presume to think for them

selves ? tus or inspiration ? gions ; caira was responded, in this coun

A. They are to be excommunicated ; A. Yes ; there have been apostles of I try, by every friend of the equal rights

of man.- Ab, that was a glorious day ! || they are to be anathamitifed ;-all their liberty-sublimated souls, who panted with -Never was liberty so triumphant; nev

former services are to be buried under a unutterable fervor for a near communion er were her works so manileft.

torrent of holy execration against their a. with the goddess ;- such were the French philosophifts ; such also were Robespierre,

Q. What are your ideas of the liberty bominable heresy :-—they are to be chased of political opinion.

from whatever offices they had held ; and Marat, Danton, and hundreds of others,

their removal from office is to be instant

A. I glory in it as the birth-right of * See the writings of Rosseau, thc Abbe Raynall, every free-born American ; it is dearer || ly followed by gibbetting their characGodwin, &c.

than life itself ;-tripped of that, I thould


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