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this amendment was under consideration That the territory thus ceded, shall i fore the Supreme Court of the United in the house, information was asked for form a state when it shall contain 60,000 States, in a suit against the state of Georwhat purpose these gun-boats were in free inhabitants.

gia, but which was terminated by an a. tended ? It was suggested that they were The state of Georgia, by an act passed | mendment of the constitution, relative to not necessary for the Mediterranean fer June 1802, have ratified the agreement of the suability of states. The controversy vice, and not calculated to supply the the commissioners, which has become ob. was afterwards referred to the Secretary place of revenue cutters. In reply, it was ligatory also on the United States. In this of the Treasury, Secretary of State, and intimated they were to be employed, it feflion an act has passed the house of repre- || Attorney General as commissioners on necessary, on the Mislissippi : Upon this fentatives, and is now before the senate, Georgia claims, who reported that " there intormation the amendment was agreed to. | for opening a land office in this territory. , was no equilable claim either for the -Thus we see that the gentlemen who in This bill prescribes, that a lurveyor be ap. land or compensation from the United January, manifested the amicable disposi- | pointed by the President, who shall survey | Stales." The other class of claimants tion of relying on declarations of " fenfi. all the lands in the territory to which the confsts of those companies which engaged bility," and the magnanimity of an ag Indian title has been extinguished, into in the celebrated Georgia speculation un. grefsing neighbour for redress of injuries townships of six miles Square each, which der the act of the legislature of that state, done us—who at that time refused pe shall be subdivided into sections of 640 a of 1795, but whose bright prospects were remptorily even to consider whether pre cres, and half sections of 320 acres each ; cut off by the refcinding act of the leparations for defence, if necefTary, should plats of which surveys shall be filed with the sature in the subsequent year, and who not be adopted ; seem now, so far as we registers in the territory, and with the Sec. received back the purchase money. Thejë can judge from this measure, to incline retary of the Trealury. That the President com

companies now apply to Congress for to the opinion, that acts may be efficacious | by proclamation, shall appoint a day, on 8,500,000 dollars, for which they pro. where words will fail : And that vairing which all the faid land shall be offered for pose to relinquish all THEIR CLAIM. with perfect confidence for negociation to sale to the highest bidders, in lots of sections

We are obliged to omit Mr. Stanley's " vindicate our injuries," may be beau. and half sections ; but no sale shall be made tiful in theory but dangerous in practice. at less than two' dollars per acre. The statement of these claims-- The above we

hope will suffice. Edit. U. S. Gaz.] At the last session of Congress, the Pre lands unsold at the expiration of three fident communicated the articles ot agree. weeks, shall be disposed of by the registers Upon these claims the commissioners re. ment and cession entered into between the of the land office, at the same price (2 dol port “ that they feel no hesitation in declarcommissioners appointed on the part of the lars per acre) and in the same manner as ing that the title of these claimants can. United States, and the commissioners on the United States lands north west of the “ not be supported." But they add, that the part of the fate of Georgia, by virtue Ohio are disposed of. The terms of sale in

" the interest of the United States--the of an act passed May, 1800-for the ami both cases are :

“ tranquility of future settlers, and various cable settlement of limits with the state of That the purchaser shall pay at the rate

“ equitable considerations render it expeGeorgia. By these articles Georgia cedes of fix dollars for every section he may pur

“ dient to enter into a compromise on reato the United States all her right to the ju. chase for surveying expences--he Sha!l de

" fonable terms." They therefore fub. risdiction and foil of the territory lying on posit one 20th part of the purchase money,

mit a plan of indemnity io the claimants, the Mislilippi, south of the fate ot Ten to be forfeited, it within 4o days he fail to

viz.-That the residue of the five million nesse, north oi the Spanish provinces of pay one fourth part of the whole purchafe I acres reserved for this purpose, after fatisFiorida, and west of a line beginning on money., Ore fourth part of the purchase || fying the claims of seulers and others as the river Catahouchie, where the Spanish money shall be paid within 40 days-one il recognized by the articles of agreement boundary c osses the same, and runs up fourth within two years-one iourth within

with Georgia, shall be granted the claimthat river to the great bend thereof, next three years, and one fourth within 4 years

ants under the act of Georgia of 1795, to above the creek called “ Uchee," then a after the day of lale--with intereit at lix

be located on lands to which the Indian ti. straight line to Nickajack, on Tenneslee

per cent, from the day of sale, on the three tle is rot yet extinguished-or that the faid river, and with that river to the Tennes. last paymenis. A discount of 8 per cent

claimants Mhall receive certificates, bearing see line. a year ihall be allowed on any of the three

interest after ist Jan. 1804, for two million On the part of the United States it was last payments, if anticipated.

and a halt of dollars, or, at their option, ftipulated, that there should be paid to By this bill the titles of persons actually certificates for five millions without interGeorgia from the firit sales of the lands settled within the territory under Spanish est to be paid out of the sales of the land thus ceded, 1,250,000 dolls.—and that a and British grants, and under the Georgia after the payment fipulated to be made to land office for the disposition of the va. Bourbon act are confirmed. A right of Georgia. cant land thus ceded, thould be opened | pre-emption is also given to persons who, Although it cannot be ascertained that within one year after the aflent of Georgia at the time of palling the a, thall be actu the purchasers from the origin: companies to the agreement.

ally settled on lands of the United States had notice of lie fraud in which the irani. That actual settles, under titles from without title.

action was founded, yet there is strong rea. the British government of Weft. Florida, The claims, other than those expressly | fun to presume they were apprized that or the Spanilh government, or an act of provided for in the article of agreement, the title was questionable, because in the Georgia, called the Bourbon act, should and for the satisfaction of which the right conveyance to them a special warrantee be confirmed in their titles--that the lands to dispose of five million acres of land were only is tound against the acts of the gran. ceded should be a common fund for the re!erved, being very considerable in their tors, and a special covenant "that the gran benefit of the United States, with the ref amount and extraordinary in their nature, tors shall not be liable to rerund any money ervation of five millious of acres, which a brief account of them may not be unac in consequence of any detect of title fron the United States might apply to the fatis ceptable.

the state of Georgia.” faction of claims other than those before [iver. Stanley here adverts to the claim A bill is before the House of Represen. recognized.

of the South-Carolina Yazoo Company, tatives predicated on this project of the That the United States fhould extin.

under an act of the fate of Georgia of commislioners. Its fate I coufider doubla guilh the Indian title to the county of Der. 1789. This claim, it will be recol- ll ful--my own impreffions are, that the Tallifee, in the fate of Georgia. lefled, was attempted to be supported be. Il claimants under the act of 1795, have no

Gerniantown,
Clermont,
Gallatin,
Granger,
Livingston,
Canaan,
Chatham,
Hillsdale,
Kinderhook,
Claverack,
Hudson,

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Total

77

54
192
125
178
254
153

16

196
139
232

59
188
118
174

SSG

155

91
205
1.56
237

76

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181
121
168
257
153

88

193
142
235

1738 | 1673 | 1695 | 1653 | 1799 | 1765 1 1779 | 1738

MEMBERS of ASSEMBLY.

177

29
244
163

Great equitable claim on the United Siates.

exertions were made in this city, This being allo the opinion of the commis

on both fides ; and we are sorry to say, jioners, I conceive it improper for the U.

that on the

part

of the democrals, certain nited Siates to fan&tion a fraud lo vile.

kinds of means were used, which are none The claim under tbe a&t 1789 has much e.

the less dimonorable for being common quity, becaule by the same kind of testimo.

with them. We refer to the propagation

Be it our weekly task, ny which proves the fraud in the act of

of base and detestable falfhoods, of the

To note the passing tidings of the times. 1795, there is strong reason to believe the

eve, and at the time of the election. How

>>>>>40<<<<ce intention of the act of 1789 was to receive

much effect these arts may have bad we

Hudson, May 3, i803. the evidences of the debt of the flate in pay:

know not ; But we can never entertain ment of the purchase money : Nor can I

a very high opinion of a paity that can bclieve that the interest of the Uniied

COLUMBIA COUNTY ELECTION. rcfort to them. Perhaps this efl'air may States, the tranquility of the future inhab.

be made the subject tor future remarks. STATEMENT OF VOTES FOR MEMBERS OF itants, or cquitable confiderations," should

We, therefore, dismiss it for the present. induce a diftinction in favor of the claim.

ASSEMBLY.

As a consolation for thie loss of thee. ants under the fraudulent ad of 1795 in

lection in this county, we are happy 10 preference to the honest but perhaps mifta.

present our readers wiih ve most favold. ken purchasers of 1789. I am the more

ble accounts from other places. satisfied in the decision to vote against this

Io the county of Green, the federal graill, because it is quesionable whether

candidates for the affembly will doubtle's Georgia ever had a right to grant ibis land,

be elected by a large majority. In the and if the claimants have a good title they

William W.

1.7 Van Ness:

town of Cuiskill waichi lali year gave the can support it in the courts of the United

democratic ticket a majority of 60, the Sites.

Moncrief

federal ticket has a majority of 10. Early in the present session, a resolution

Livingston. was submitted to abolish the Mint ; this

Garret

MASSACHUSETTS. has not been acted upon, but the difpofition

Cock. of the House I judge to be in favor of pre

In 321 towns, Governor STRONC has serving the eftablilhment, an appropria:ion

Anson

a majority of 14,201. having been made in the general appropri

Pratt. ation-bilas passed by the House, for the

Samuel support of the Mint in the year 1803, and

VIRGINIA.

Ten Broeck. a bill being before the House for continuing the establishment at Philadelphia two

Mr. Lewis, a federalist, is elefied a.

Stephen / year's longer,

Miller.

member of Congress, for the districi com.

poled of the counties of Loudon, Prince. From the report of the Director of the

Benjamin William and Fairfax, in Virginia. Mint it appears that there was coined at the

Birdsall. Mint in the year 1802,

James I.

The truflees of the college of New. Jer, C

Van Alen. In Gold coins 423,550

ley, at their ftared meeting held at Prince.

ton on the 13th inft. conferred the hone. In Silver

58,343

From the above sniement, wlich we 1. Copper

rary degree of Doctor of Lau's on the 31,42 83 believe to be accurate, it appears that the

honorable BUSIROD WASHINGTON, one democrats have succeeded in electing their of the justices of the supreme court of Total amount of Coins issuel in 1802 S 516,115 83

candidates for members of allembly, in this the United States, and the honorable As. That on the coinage of the above quanti

countý, by an average majority of aboui RON BURR, Vice-P.esident of vie United ly of copper, a profi: has arisen of dollars We confess that this result is con: States.

[Chronicle Express.) 5.641 32, the expenditure of the year was

trary to our expectations. We had calcolis. 17,462 65, deducting from which

culared on a small federal majority ; and the gain on copper, the expense is reduced it the federalists in every other town in

RALEIGII, (n. c.) MARCH 14. 1o do'ls. 11,828 When this sum is

the county, had come forward with the On the night of the ed ult. the new and contrasted with the advantages of adding fame spirit that was manitolled in Indfon, scarcely finished goal for the diftrict of dolls. 500,000, to the circulating cash of

it would liave been obtained. Last year Salisbury, was destroyed by fire, all to the the country coined princinally from bul.

the average majority in Hudson, was only lione walls. When the flames were disa lion which would otherwise be exported ; ONE- it is now TWELVE.-We have nog covered at midnight, they had attained so when it appears that the result of the insti

been informed of the number of votes much force as to render every exertion intution is a national profit,--the saving the given for Senators, in the different towns. efectual.---The fire was occafioned, it is reduced fum of expenditure, cannot render In this city, the federal ticket liad a ma supposed, from the unskillul manner in necessary the destruction of this institution. jority of 8.

which the fire-place was fixed. There There are yet fome days of the session to

were five perfons confined in it, only one claple; should any thing important occur * Mr. l'an Ness, loft 17 votes by the Christian Brown) lell a. sacrifice to this in that time, it shall be communicated in a

omission of the FV in his name; and 12 insatiate enemy; the other four being asubsequent leiter.

by the votes having been put, by mistake, in. | wakened 10 a sense of their immediate

to the Senatorial ballot-box. I have the honor to be, with much rel.

As he falls | aarger by the cries of the unfortunate fuf.

but 27 sort of the lowest on the democrat- || ferer, escaped unhurt, or at least not mapeet, your obedient servant,

ic ticket, it is evident that he lost his e terially lo. The unfortunate man who JOHN STANLEY, kition by these mistakes.

was burnt had been for lome weeks in a

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32.

went con

ftate of insanity, and had excited by his bis spirit at all abated, though wounded worth calmly replied, that it it was renew. conduct, a fearful kind of curiolity among and bound hand and foot, he endeavored ed, it would not be the fault of Great Brihis neighbours. It appearts that about to bite those who touched him ; and tho' tain. Bonaparte then went among the laeight years ago, Christian Brown (whose his language was German, the spirit of it dies, and foon after returned to lord Wintfather is a relpeetable man, of German ex was discovered to be threats and impreca.lworth, and vehemently declared, that ille traction, in the neighbourhood of Salisbu. tions, and those who understood him, de armaments now preparing in the ports of ry) had been infane, but without any mil.

clared he expressed himself as coherently France, were destined only for the colo. chievous propensities, his malady yielded as at any period of his life.

nies, in the preservation of which England to medical aid, and from that period he

was as much interested as he could be. To

On his commitment, medical aid was had been afflicted with no further symp. procured, & he was bled in several places procured,, & he was bled in several places quitted the room, calling on God and man

this no answer was made. He soon after toms of that deplorable complaint. A.

about the head and neck, bis hair shaved bout the first of January, the symptoms of off, and other appropriate methods taken ;

to witness, that he lioped vengeance would his former disorder returned with increalbut for the accident which destroyed hiin,

be inflicted on the power which, by a vioed violence, to the great terror of his fam. the physicians were of opinion he would

lation of treaty, should cause the renewal ily (having at that period a wife and three have recovered the ule of his reason ; but

of hoftilities. All accounts agree that liis children, whom he supported by his inmiserable would have been the remnant of

countenance was, throughout, almost disduftry.) his days had this been accomplished, and we

figured by passion ; and his tone was so His disease gaining strength, his wife think' regret will not be :he predominant

loud and vehement, that at lealt ba!f took her children to his father's about half sensation, at the final termination of this

company present must have heard all t..at a mile diftant. Brown now

moit unfortunate creature's sufferings; for passed on this extraordinary occasion.” ftantly armed, threatening with death all

life to bim must have been a burthen, This flatement is confirmed by several who approached him, and began to kill

which no earthly comforts could bave al- letters from Paris. every thing about his yard, such as geele, I leviated. cats, &c. &c. cutting off their heads with

A report had been received at London, an axe, broke up the floor of the house

that all British vellels in the French ports to search for WITCHES, and evinced symp

LEXINGTON, (KEN.) APRIL 5.

were embargoed; but it did not gain much toms of encreasing madness. At this pe.

credit. riod a state warrant was procured to ap

We have seen a letter from New-Or.

The British nation is once more aíTum. prehend him and some feeble attempts

leans, of the 10th March, which states ing a warlike attitude. Naval and milita . were made, and his gun and a sharp axe

that the Port would be again closed on that self , and kept were taken from him ; but he armed him. Se the fucceeding day—that it had only be appreffisere sering mode with activity

been opened to the reception of provisions; il and we are induced to believe, with Pat,

and no other articles were entered without at bay, employing himself with destroy.

that " France and England will never be ing his property, cutung up his furniture, being smuggled—that a trader irom Ken. pulling down his corn.cr b, throwing a. tucky, had been detected Imuggling his

at peace, until they are again engaged in

war.way his meat and pitching his hay off the caigo, and was obliged to fly with precipftack ; another attempt was made to secure

itation to escape the mines or callahousehim, which he eluded by exercising his

that several Americans were confined in pitchfork and stoneing 'he people who at

the prisons. The price of cordage is ftattempted to take him. About his time ed ai five dollars per cwt. No other pri

Obe Knell. his wife sent her eldest child, Catharine, ces mentioned. to briog away some meat, in which the succeeded.--She was unfortunately sent a second time. Humanity Thudders to re

PROSPECT OF WAR. late, that her miserable father ihis time ob. served her, and about two hours after London papers to March 20, have been wards, the dreadful cries of the child gave received at the office of the Morning evidence of it; and though many persons Chronicle, New York, by which it apheard them, a principle of fear or of hor pears that there is an increasing probability ror, prevented any person immediately go of war in Europe. It is staigd, that at a ing to her relief. late interview, Bonaparie conducted him.

In this city, on Friday se'nnight, Mrs. Pru. The door steps being very bloody, told

self in a moft insolent and domineering DENCE JENKINS, in the 76th year of her age, relict a dreadful tale, while unbroken lillness manner to the British Ambassador, Lord of Mr. JOHN JENKINS, formerly of Providence. prevailed in the house ; but such was the Wintworth, observing, IF YOU WILL

HAVE iimidity of the people, that no attempt was

At Egremont, Mas. on the 27th ult. (calmly subWAR, MY LORD, YOU

mitting to his fate) Major Josepu BENJAMIN, in made to investigate this shocking presage SHALL HAVE FIFTEEN YEARS

the 39th year of his age, justly lamented by all who until next day, when, with great difficul- 1 OF IT.”-Another account gives the fol

knew him. He was indlustrious, prudent and perty, and not till he wounded one of the par. lowing particulars :

severing in business ; fair and honorable in all his ty, and was himselt severely stoned, and

" At madame Bonaparte's drawing room dealings; a kind and affectiona:e husband, a fond one of his legs much shattered, could he be on Sunday last the first conful appeared in and tender parent, a loving brother, a 'sincere fecured. The fight that presented itself a fate of evident irratibility. When he friend, a benevolent neighbour, a peace maker in on entering the house, was of the most approached the English ambassador, he ob.

approached the English ambassador, be ob. society, and a well wisher to the whole human race. foul-harrowing kind--the head and body | served with warmth, that a war had now He has left a heart-broken disconsolate wife, and of the poor decapitated little victim, were desolated Europe for fifteen years, and ask

six children to mourn his loss. placed by the bed in which this most ed whether it was now to be renewed ? adwretched fathe slept. Nor did he appear | ding, that it it was, it might again last for

At New Haven, Con. Mrs. S. Monson, consort sensible of this borrid fpeétacie, nor was

of Dr. Eneas Monson, aged 64. as long a period. To which lord Wint

[graphic]

FOR THE BALANCE.
THE SHIP-WRECK'D MARINER. .
STILL did the tempest loudly roar ;

Still did the restless surges roll ;
When rising from the sea beat shore,

Awoke a helpless shipwreck'd soul :
Bereft of sense, he long had lain,

Till ebbing life began to flow;
Around he look'd ;-But look'd in vain-
The scene presented nought but woe.

“ Alas, said he, what fate is mine!
Forever hope I must resign.

No human form I here behold ;

No wretch, like me, escap'd from death, To whom ny grief I might unfold,

And who might catch my parting breath: Plung'd in the deep abyss below,

My brave companions are at rest :
Why, heaven, didst thou on me bestow
A life by every pang distrest?

And why that life again restore,
To perish on this dreary shore ?

meteorological.

can country ; but it is humbly submitted to wise heads, whether it be not expedi.

ent that every man who has talents and DR. FRANKLIN had entertained an courage to expose to the public the inopinion that our North-East ftorms gen- trigues of certain powerful demagogues, erally began at the South-West. He sup- should be forbidden the use of pen, ink posed some great heat or rarita£tion of the and paper ; and besides, have their tongues air in or about the gulph of Mexico ; that bored through with a hot iron. the air thence rising, has its place suppli. ed by the next more northern, cooler, and IN the year 1 573, Henry VIII. King therefore denser and heavier air, and so of England, invaded France with an army forth, in a successive current, to which of fifty thousand men ; which laid siege current our coast and inland ridge of moun. to Ferouane, a town situated on the fron. tains give the direction of North-East, as

tiers of Picardy. The garrison which they lie North-East, and South-Weft. He conlisted of no more than two thoufarid was the more confirmed in this opinion by nen, defended the place with the utmoft the circumstance of an eclipse, which was bravery ; but at last were at the point of rendered invisible at Philadelphia, by rea- being reduced to extremities from the son of a North-East storm ; but was visi. want of provisions and ammunition. H.v. ble at Bofon where the storm begun four ing conveyed intelligence of their fituation hours later than at the former place. The to the French king whole army lie not tar Doctor explains the progress of North

diftant, he gave orders to throw relief into Eift ftorms, and the cause of their begin- | the place. ning latelt at the farthest North-East point Fontrailes, a most gallant and intrepid to which they extend, by the following French officer, appeared at the head of 830 familiar instances.--"Suppose a long ca horsemen, eacif of whom carried a sack of nal of water stopped at the end by a gate. gunpowder behind him, and two quarters The water is quite at rest till the gate is o. of bacon. With this small force, he fudo pen; then it begins to move out through denly broke thro' the Englifh camp, gallopthe gate ; the water next the gate is first ed on together with his followers to the in motion, and moves towards the gate ; || Follee or ditch that furrounded the belieg. the water next to that first water moves ed town ; and throwing down each his burnext, and so on successively, till the wa den, they immediately returned on the full ter at the head of the canal is in motion, l gallop, and again breaking through the which is last of all. In this case, all the camp of the English, made their escape water moves indeed towards the gate, but with little or no loss. the fucceffive times of beginning motion are the contrary way, namely, from the gate backwards to the head of the canal. TERMS OF THE BALANCE. Again, suppose the air in a chamber

To City Subscribers, Two Dollars and fifty cents, at reft, no current through the room till

payable in quarterly advances.
you make a fire in the chimney. Imme.
diately the air in the chimney being rarefi-

To Country Subscribers, who receive their papers ed by the fire, rises ; the air next the

at the office, Two Dollars, payable as above. chimney flows in to supply its place, mov

To those who receive them by the mail, Two ing towards the chimney ; and, in conse

Dollars, exclusive of postage, payable in advance, quence, the rest of the air successively, A handsome title-page, with an Index or Table quite back to the door."

of Contents, will be given with the last number of each volume.

Advertisements inserted in a conspicuous and

handsome manner, in the Advertiser which accom Diversity.

panies the Balance.

Complete files of the first volume, which have

been reserved in good order for binding, are for sale ABOUT two hundred and thirteen

--Price of the volume, bonnd, Two Dollars and fif. years before the christian era, Shi Hoang- ! ty cents—unbound, Two Dollars. The whole map ti, having conquered the princes of the be sent, stitched or in bundles, to any post office in empire, became absolute master of China. the state, for 52 cents postage ; or to any post-of. He caused all the books in the empire to fice in the union for 78 cents. be burnt, except those written by lawyers and physicians; and, left the history of his own usurpation and tyranny should be recorded and transmitied to pofterity, he

SAMPSON, CHITTENDEN & CROSWELL,
commanded a great number of learned
men to be buried alive.

Warren-Street, Hudson.
The method of burying men alive would WHERE PRINTING IN
be 100 violent a remedyi in this republi.

[graphic]

Shall I no more, he frantic cried,

Behold Eliza's lovely face? Must I forever be denied

The beauties of her mind to trace ?
How oft' in transport o'er her charms

Has my fond heart resistless hung,
When for my safety soft alarms
Fell slowly from her faultering tongue.

Unhappy maid ! how just thy fears ;
But unavailing were thy tears.

Perhaps, e'en now, with broken sighs,

She treads the beach and views the main ;
Or on some cliff, with moistened eyes,

Awaits my blest return again :
But, ah ! fond maid, no more this heart,

Which beats with constancy for thee,
Shali aught of tender love impart,
To heal the wound which bleeds for me.

Distracting thought! I die alone-
Unheard--unpitied-and unknown.

JULIENNE.
Kingston, Ulster County.

FROM THE PORT FOLIO.

PUBLISHED BY

EPIGRAM.
I'VE read your first poetic scroll,
And on it have my judgment past ;-
Well, tell me, friend !-Upon my soul,
I think, it should have been your last.

GENERAL IS EXECUTLO

WITH ELEGANCE AND ACOURAey.

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age, the

IN

Driginal Elays.
Brittany and Richmond, &c. &c. the

great

fortunes of the barons The whole realm of England came into were gradually dissipated, and the propHither the products of your closet-labors bring, the pofleffion of a few Norman French. erty of the commons increaled in England." Enrich our columns, and instruct mankind. men, who exercised towards their vassals In these ways, the exorbitant power and

the most horrible rapacity and oppression. wealth of the nobility were considerably FOR THE BALANCE.

The English language was, in a manner, weakened and disipated. The rise of the

fuppreffed ; and was superseded by the || commonalty has, however, been principally A BRIEF SKETCH OF THE FEUDAL SYSTEM, general use of the French : none, but

owing to commerce. Had England been an PARTICULARLY IN ENGLAND.

French schools were encouraged or tole. inland country,the great body of its inhab. rated ; and all public acts, all judicial | itants might, even at this day, been trans

pleas and proceedings, and all deeds and terable as stock, likethe Helians, from one N the 8th century, a warlike peo . other instruments of contract were, dur- landbolder to another, because the lands ple from Jutland, who by reason of their ing leveral following centuries, done in being in lordships, the peasants or tenants northern Gituation, were called Normans, the French language. The descendants of

who weie originally vallals, could have invaded France, and conquered that part William have possessed the British throne || found no way to break the chains of their of it which bears the name of Normandy. even to the present day ; and most of the || vafsalage, and to rise to any degree of conWilliam Duke of Normandy, who was royal families in Europe have a near aífin- || fequence : but from commerce principally, the natural son of Robert the former || ity of blood with that bold and successful there has risen in the nation a third order, duke, by a tanner's daughter, made an in usurper. But the ancient Norman nobil- || which posleffes a power equal to that of vafion of England, in the year 1066, with ity is almost extinct ; their blood, in

the king or the nobles. Indeed it would a large fleet and sixty thousand men. successive generations, has been poured be hazardous for the king and the nobilIn a general battle, which was extremely out on the scaffold. During the long and ity combined together, to attempt an opbloody, he obtained a decisive viétory ; || bloody wars between the houses of York

bloody wars between the houses of York | position to the united power and influflew Harold the English king; conquer and Lancaster, which were rivals for the ence of the commons. ed the kingdom and usurped the throne. British throne, there were very few no.

By means of the immense British navi. William aĉied the part of an imperious blemen of either party, who escaped

gation, which has been employed in and death, either in battle or from the hand of unfeeling conquerer. The nation, that had bended under his yoke, suffered eve. the executioner ; and, at the same time,

fupported by commerce, multitudes of

men of the lowest families have found opthe ellates of those who were attainted ry species of oppression, insult and indignity. All the old inhabitants of Engand executed as traitors, became fequel. portunities of rising to great eminence;

while merchants and manufaciurers at land, who, besides the natives, were prin- terea ; and new families were builded up

home, by their skill and enterprize, have on their ruins. cipally the descendants of Saxons, An.

emerged from their original obscurity ; gles, Jutes and Danes, were disseized both Soon after the termination of those long have made their fortunes, and been able to of their estates and offices, which were and murderous wars, (about three hun.

vie with the nobility in wealth and fplengiven 10 the followers and partisans of dred years ago,) a law, most important in dor. At the same time, men of learning Wiliam.

He gave, for instance, the || its consequences, was enacted, by which and brilliant talents, especially if they whole county of Chester to Hugh de Abri. the nobility and gentry acquired a power bended their minds to the studies of jurisna, his after's fon; nine hundred and ot breaking the ancient entails, and of al prudence, have, from a low and obscure fesenty-three manors and lordships, to ienating their estates. " By means of this original, become conspicuous and princi. Robert, Earl of Montague, and tour hun law, (says an eminent historian,) joined to pal actors in the grand drama of national dred and forty two, to Allan, Earl of the beginning luxury and refinements of politics.

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