increased in the exact proportion of the imports are such as we have last demeans of subsisting them in activity. scribed, but whose exports exceed her It will be of course exclaimed, that no imports—such a country is Ireland. such state of things could exist. We Great Britain exports manufactures do not mean to say that it could ; but in the highest state to which they can we do mean to say that the more nearly be brought; and imports raw material, the trade of any country approaches to and the necessaries of life. Ireland, this state, it is the more advantageous; Pomerania, and Tartary, exactly the and the more it recedes from it, it is reverse. the less so. The next state that we We shall first see what are the imshall suppose is that of a nation import- ports and exports of Ireland ; and then ing as before, but exporting only coin which of them is the greatest in amount, drawn from mines within its own terri- The imports of Ireland are principally tory, and in itself of no value, except manufactures of every procuring an import. The next in Her exports are chiefly corn and meal, degree will be that which, importing as cattle, and live stock, bacon, beef, pork, before, exports produce or manufac. butter, lard, and undressed flax, comtures intrinsically useless at home.- prised under the general class of neces

There is not, however, perhaps any na- saries of life and raw material ; and soap tion which can attain to so high a rank and candles, whiskey, cotton manufacof beneficial commerce, as any of those tures, andlinen,&c.&c.,comprised under that we have supposed, because the the general bead of manufactures. The conflicting interests of nations oblige statements given in the work before each to sacrifice a great portion of her us, respecting the trade of Ireland are interest to secure the remainder exactly; nearly confined to the twenty-five years as in the social state men are obliged preceding 1826. The assimilation of to surrender a considerable portion of the trade with Great Britain to a their natural liberty to obtain the pro- coasting traffic in 1826, rendered a tection of the rest. That nation, then, statement of the subsequent trade unwhose trade will be the most beneficial attainable. In the interval from 1801 to her which is consistent with the in. to 1826, we find that the imports had interests of others, or rather with so much creased in the proportion of about 85 to of that interest as others are wise 46 ; while the exports had increased in enough to see, or able to enforce, will the proportion of 91 to 37. It is unimport the necessaries and luxuries of questioned that during the war Ireland life, and export manufactures wrought was in greater prosperity than she has to the highest degree-she will import since been ; and accordingly during the things intrinsically useful, or the war we find the imports exceeding the

material upon which she may exports by nearly one million sterling expend labour and employ her popula- in value, and immediately after the war, tion ; and she will export things in- and thenceforward, we find the tables trinsically useless, or manufactures turned, and the exports exceeding the which have employed the greatest nume imports in about the same ratio. And ber of hands. A remarkable instance why ?—because the continent of this is given in the English cotton opened to absentees. It is true, that manufacture, where the raw material is since 1825, several important articles imported in enormous quantities, and of export and some of import, have been is exported again after having supported introduced ; but what may have been a great portion of her population by its the effect of this upon the general trade, manufacture. From this statement of we have no statistical means of ascerthe trade of a nation gaining in the taining. We are happy to say that in highest degree by commerce, it is easy the interval before alluded to, the cotto see that the opposite, or the nation ton manufactures of Ireland had inwhich loses most, must be that which creased from about twelve hundred exports the necessaries of life, and the yards to upwards of ten millions and a raw material, and imports highly- half, and the linen manufactures in wrought manufactures, affording no the proportion of 37 millions and a further employment. We had almost half to 55 millions, but we know that forgot that there is one stage yet lower the latter manufacture has since fallen than this-a nation whose exports and away to a great degree, and we know.



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nothing of the progress of the former ; The immense exports of Ireland are while it is but too certain that the the consequence of the productive export of the necessaries of life has in- powers and capacities of the country, creased enormously. For instance, the acted upon by the necessity under export of sheep, thirty-six fold ; swine which the peasantry labour of depriving sixty-five fold ; oxen three-fold ; bacon, themselves of the necessaries of life, to

l; &c. sixteen fold; wheat forty fold; support the extravagance of the fashionoats six fold ; while the average quan- ables of Alınacks, and the profligates of tities retained for consumption in Ire- Naples. The exports of a country are, land decreased thus :---Wine as 2 to 1; in such a case, to be taken only as a cotton wool 16 to 1 ; silk 92 to 1; un proof of what she might be. For inwrought iron 31 to 1; foreign spirits 56 stance, let us suppose one or two alto 1. These are about the proportions terations in the state of Ireland to have in round numbers of the increase and been effected. We do not mean to decrease of the different articles of trade. undertake to shew how to effect them ;

The import, consisting altogether but we suppose them effected merely of articles of food, (excepting horses to demonstrate what would be really a and mules, which we are not yet ob- beneficial state of trade to Ireland.liged to eat in Ireland,) into the port We will suppose, first, that the present of Liverpool in 1832, was estimated exports and imports remained, but the at about four millions and a half. absentees became resident. Here at This fully agrees with the fact so once we have, as the returns shew, a often stated in the Poor Inquiry we sum of one million sterling, which is before noticed, that if the family have annually exported in the form of rents only straw for one bed, it is given to the never to return, saved to the counpig. “How fond they must be of try, to be expended in additional imbacon !" say our English readers. But ports. It is not necessary to prove what says the next sentence in the re- that the estimated value of exported port? They never cat the pig ; they goods is always received as imports, export him, to get money to pay the either as money or goods ; and thererent. So much for the superfluous fore that when the import of goods luxury proved by the export trade of into a country falls short of the exports

the difference must be imported as We think we have said enough to money. In a country then, whose shew that trade in the abstract is not trade is in a natural state, if we find necessarily a benefit to the country : this disproportion of import to export, that exports are not necessarily a proof or this iinport of money, continuing for of comfort : and that Ireland affords years together, we conclude that an acample illustration of both these posi- cumulation of coin has taken place in tions. One word more as to what is the country ; but when we find the conthe state of Irelaud. It is the state of trary is the fact, we say the trade of a country exporting nine millions worth that nation is in an unnatural and of the necessaries of life, which have ruinous state. We will sub given employment to the smallest pos- re-export of money, as we will call it, sible portion of her population, and checked and converted into its legiimporting eight millions worth of ma- timate course, to increase the import nufactures, which have given employ- of goods. This would be one step in ment to the greatest possible number of the improvement of Ireland, and would the population of other countries, and add one million's worth of comfort to can give none to ber's; and one million her peasantry. It is probable, howworth of money, which, asitis proved not ever, considering the absolute starvato remain in the country, as money is tion prevailing among the very persons visibly not encreasing, must be exported who are obliged to export the food of again in the form of the rent-rolls of themselves and their children, that the absentees. It is worse than the state first mode in which the improvement of a man who has given £90 worth of would appear, would be the reduction goods, and received for them £80 of the export trade, and the consumpworth of other goods, and £10 in tion of the provisions at home. This, moncy, and is afterwards deprived of however, would be one great step that money by a pick-pocket. gained in removing the distress and

poor Ireland.

se this


pauperism of the island. The next individual of the population. This would be to encourage manufactures ; article of import is on the increase. and one means of doing this would bé The British trade is much larger than to raise each article of raw material at any other which China possesses, and present exported, one stage in manu- the value of the whole export trade of facture at a time. It is surprising China to England averages about four what a difference this would make ;- millions, and the whole import into an article which has employed 10 China from England, about one-eighth hands in one stage, will frequently of that sum. So much for the selfemploy, and therefore support, 50 in importance of the Celestial Empire. the next. But it will be said, “as this Oor regard for this same Celestial is against the interest of England, she Empire makes us observe with sorrow will not suffer it." We reply, a great that her suns have inbibed a passion deal might be done without interfering for that airocious drug, opium, which with England ; and with respect to is increasing to such an extent, that the rest, we say, what do we hear of the consumption of opium in China in an united kingdom, and an imperial 18:3, was nearly four-fold what it bad parliament, if one portion of this king- been seventeen years before, and dom, and one constituent of this parlia- amounted actually to about thirteen ment, is to treat the rest like distant million dollars in value. Hence it is, colonies, whose interests were merely no doubt, that the Chinese are always subservient to her’s, and whose trade represented with their eyes almost shut. is only to be suffered so far as it was The next division of the work combeneficial to her, and injurious to prises “ prices, rates of wages, and local them?

statistics.” It will not be in our power To conclude this subject, we would to give any thing like an idea of the wish to see Ireland in such a state, vast body of useful information conthat the ruinous necessity for obtaining tained under this head. We can only money by the sale of necessaries would give a few of the titles to shew the nacease ; the landlords fulfil their duty to ture of the tables, and briefly note some society; the export trade be changed remarkable particolars. Among the from food and raw material to highly most valuable of these statemeuts, are wrought articles of luxury ; and the those which display the management former export applied, first, to the re- of particular public institutions, as relief of her population, and the surplus, gards expenses, &c. Among these we if any, which we doubt, applied to the find the following: “A statement of support of an increased population, prices paid for various articles of food, while the new export would produce an clothing, and houschold stores, bought import of such comforts as could not be for the use of the Royal Hospital at obtained at home. In a word, we would Greenwich, and for Bethlem Hospital ; wish to see the trade of Ireland similar together with the prices of bread and to that of England—not the reverse of meat, bought by the Commissariat deit. True it is, that England would partment; and the rates of wages paid suffer by this, as she would want those to artizans at Greenwich Hospital-in necessaries which we should then enjoy, each year, from 1815 to 1833 inand be obliged to pay a higher price clusive”—" An account shewing the for them, or get them elsewhere ; but prices of various kinds of provisions, she would only lose what she should and other articles, in the markets of never have had ; and this would not London, in the months of January and only be fair and just, but we say that July of each year, from 1813 to 1833 anything else is unfair and unjust. inclusive—“ An account shewing the

Our limits will not permit us to prices at which the principal articles of enter upon the next branch of the provisions and victualling stores have work—the “statements connected with been purchased for the use of the the trade, &c. of the British possessions navy, in the year 1832, stating whether in India, and with China. We find by contract or otherwise. from them that above thirty-one mil- In the statement of the prices of lion pounds of tea were imported into British grain in Kent, from the year the United Kingdom in 1833, making 1687 to 1781, we were surprised to about 1 lb. 2 oz. per annum, to each find that there has been little per

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ceptible alteration in those prices. relates to various periods from 1786 to From the statement of the prices of 1833.

“ Statement of the daily wages butter at Belfast, Dublin, and Water- of various mechanics, and of the retail ford, in each year from 1813 to 1832, prices of various articles of provisions inclusive, it appears that in 1825, but. and household stores, in the city of ter was 10 per cent. dearer in Dublin Glasgow, in each year from 1810 to and Belfast, than for many years be- 1819, and in 1831. The statements fore, or any year since. But this was connected with the Leicestershire not the case in Waterford. The hosiery trade are of great importance, price of butter has been steadily de- as illustrating the view we have taken creasing in the two former towns, and of the raw material trade of Ireland. rather increasing in the last. These `Here we see one small county, by one facts are not so much worthy of atten- branch of manufacture, producing, when tion in themselves, as in displaying in full work, above a million's worth how much valuable instruction may be annually, and (the price of the raw maafforded to the practical legislator, and terial being only six tenths) obtaining by information to the speculative mer- this manufacture upwards of £400,000 chant, from the study of a work like a year, as wages for its labouring poputhat before 11s.

lation. It is to be observed also, that We shall give a few more titles of the price of this article of trade has tables, to shew the character of this since that period risen above 20 per branch of the work : “ A statement shewing the wholesale and retail prices We regret that our limits will not of various articles of provisions, and the enable us to notice any other of the rates of wages paid to labourers and numerous and valuable tables in this handicrafts-men, in the city of London- portion of the work, except two; one derry, in each year from 1821 to 1832 of which shews that the turnpike roads inclusive"_"

—“A statement of the wages in England would, if so laid out, exof labour in the town of Manchester, actly go round the world ; and the and the other principal seats of the other, that upwards of eleven thousand cotton manufacture; with an account acts of parliament have been enacted of the prices of sundry articles of pro- in the present century!!

Most justly, visions, in the years from 1810 to 1825” indeed, is this last entitled “a gross

“Schedule of the number of persons total.” of various ages, distinguishing males The next. portion of the work comfrom females, employed in 43 cotton prises the returns of population. We mills in Manchester ; the average clear shall not trouble our readers at any weekly earnings of each age and sex ; great length with this subject. It apthe per centage which each age and pears that the proportion of families sex bears to the whole number em- employed in agriculture, in England, ployed; and the per centage of the Scotland, and Wales, has been contotal of each age, relatively to the siderably diminished since the year gross total employed.” We find that 1811. The proportion in trade have the population of Sheffield has been also diminished, but not so much, while doubled since 1800 ; and it is remark- those contained in the comprehensive able, that though the numbers of pail- cla-s of “ others,” have increased enorpers have rather increased during that mously. In 1811 the centesimal

properiod, this increase bears no propor- portions were nearly these-agricultion to that of the population, and the ture, 34 ; trade, &c. nearly 46 ; others, actual expense of supporting them has 19. In 1831-agriculture, 27 ; trade, greatly diminished. Among these &c. 43 ; others, 29. This statement apreturns we fiud the following : “ State. plies only to England. The proportions ment of the prices of saws, and of the of“ others" in Wales is the same, but of materials used in the manufacture those in trade and agriculture, exactly thereof, with the rate of wages paid to reversed. The proportion of others” workmen, and the number of workmen in Scotland, is greater than in England and manufacturers employed in that or Wales ; those in trade and agriculbranch of manufacture, in the town ture are much the same as in England. of Sheffield, together with the price of We find the population of England, provisions in that town.” This return in 1831, was a little above 13 millions ;



consisting of above two million seven into such snug nooks “ upon this same hundred thousand families, in upwards foot-ball the earth,” as to induce them of one million nine hundred thousand to wish to stay here as long as possihouses, upon thirty-one million seven ble, to be informed that the counties hundred thousand acres. Of these, the of Aberdeen in Scotland, Pembroke males were to the females as 63 to 67 in Wales, and the north riding of nearly: The population of Wales was York in England, are the most famous eight' hundred and six thousand ; con- for the longevity of their inhabitants, sisting of one hundred and sixty-six and among these Aberdeen holds the families, in a hundred and fifty-five highest place. thousand houses, upon four million It is a remarkable fact, that the seven hundred thousand acres. The number of male infants baptized, unipopulation of Scotland above two mil. formly appears considerably greater sions; comprising five hundred thou- than that of females, although the total sund families, in three hundred and number of the female population is, in seventy thousand houses, on about every instance, greater than that of twenty million and a half acres. the male. This anomaly is explained

The population of Ireland is about by the great mortality among the males seven millions and a half ; comprising under the age of thirteen. nearly one million four hundred thou- There were more marriages in the sand families, in rather more than the year 1825 than in any preceding, or same number of houses ; number of the two or three following years; and, acres not stated. Several very curious as might be expected, more births in results might be deduced from the the year 1826; but it is remarkable, tables, stating the ages of persons of that in this year there were each sex, and in each kingdom. For deaths than in any year preceding or instance, we find that in Ulster the subsequent. These last facts only reproportion of old persons is greater fer to England and Wales. than in any other province in Ireland ; It is a remarkable, and almost unand from the tables of mortality for accountable fact that, throughout the eighteen years, we find the proportion three decennial periods, from 1800 to of persons who die under one year old, 1830, the population in England and is to those between one and two years Wales has increased at a much greater old among males, about four to one ; rate than could be inferred from, or females about three to one. And these explained by, a comparison of the again to those between two and three births with the burials.

This will apyears old, as thirteen to seven in the pear yet more remarkable when we one case, and twelve to seven in the consider that to the burials we are to other.

add the immense number both of voThe mortality diminishes rapidly, luntary and involuntary emigrants. till the twelfth year, during the whole The only mode by which it can be of which time it is greater among accounted for is, by supposing a still males ; but about that period it turns, greater immigration of foreigners; but and increases gradually to about five- this fact we should not, otherwise, and-twenty, when it continues nearly have supposed to exist. The proporstationary, till about sixty; and during tion of deaths to the whole population this period, to the age of forty-five, it appears to have been decreasing up to is greater among females ; after which the year 1811, after which it has conit turns and becomes greater among tinued nearly stationary, and averages males, until sixty-five, when it again about one in fifty-one. Taking the turns, and becomes greater among fe- decennial periods before mentioned, males, which continues to the last, and the proportion of burials was least in is particularly manifest after ninety; that from 1810 to 1820. thus proving that the female sex is the In the returns of the numbers, absomost disposed to longevity; as we are lute and relative, of illegitimate chiltold by one of the wise men of Go- dren, in 1830, in England and Wales, tham that all who die at a given age, it is a curious fact, that the smallest must have lived to that

proportion of such, to other children It will, no doubt, be interesting to appeared in Surrey, and the next so in those few who happen to have got Middlesex, London included. (This,


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